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Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. i HANDBOOK For the Design and Specification of Hose Assemblies Version 1.2 August 2015 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.ii This page intentionally left blank Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. iii Table of Contents Section 1 Scope Use of This Document....................... 1 1.1 Scope ..........................................................................................................1 1.2 Important Notice About This Document.......................................................2 1.3 How to Use This Document..........................................................................3 1.4 Thanks and Recognition..............................................................................3 1.5 History of Changes......................................................................................4 Section 2 Application Requirements STAMPED......... 1 2.1 Purpose........................................................................................................1 2.2 General ........................................................................................................1 2.3 Directions.....................................................................................................1 2.4 Critical and Custom Applications.................................................................6 Section 3 - Hose Assembly General Information .............. 1 3.1 Scope...........................................................................................................1 3.2 Hose Constructions .....................................................................................1 3.3 Hose Characteristics ...................................................................................3 3.4 Hose Routing ...............................................................................................4 Section 4 Corrugated Metal Hose..................................... 1 4.1 General .......................................................................................................1 4.2 STAMPED...................................................................................................4 4.3 Hose Construction.......................................................................................7 4.4 Pressure Rating .........................................................................................10 4.5 Corrugated Metal Hose Assembly Dimensions...........................................12 4.6 Corrugated Metal Hose Fittings..................................................................17 4.7 Corrugated Metal Hose Attachments Common Accessories ...................20 4.8 Attachment Methods ..................................................................................22 4.9 Testing Procedures for Corrugated Metal Hose ........................................24 Section 5 - Industrial Hose ................................................... 1 5.1 General ........................................................................................................1 5.2 STAMPED ...................................................................................................3 5.3 Industrial Hose Assembly Component Selection Chart .............................5 5.4 Hose Data Sheets .......................................................................................7 5.5 Industrial Hose Fittings...............................................................................23 5.6 Industrial Hose Attachments......................................................................35 5.7 Testing Procedures for Industrial Hose .....................................................42 5.8 Custom-Made Hose ...................................................................................49 5.9 Ducting ......................................................................................................61 Section 6 - Composite Hose................................................. 1 6.1 General........................................................................................................2 6.2 STAMPED...................................................................................................2 6.3 Hose Materials and Construction ................................................................5 6.4 Composite Adapter Fittings ..........................................................................6 6.5 Testing Procedures for Composite Hose.....................................................7 6.6 Installation and Usage for Composite Hose ..............................................11 Section 7 - Hydraulic Hose................................................... 1 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.iv 7.1 Introduction to Hydraulics............................................................................1 7.2 STAMPED...................................................................................................5 7.3 Hose and Hose Selection............................................................................8 7.4 Coupling Selection ....................................................................................14 7.5 Hose Assemblies Length Orientation Measurement Testing ..............34 7.6 Accessories and Equipment......................................................................44 7.7 Hydraulic Hose Cleanliness Considerations..............................................45 Section 8 Fluoropolymer Hose ............................................ 1 8.1 General .......................................................................................................1 8.2 STAMPED...................................................................................................4 8.3 Measurements for Fluoropolymer Hose Assemblies.....................................6 8.4 Coupling Terminal End Thread Identification ............................................8 8.5 Performance Characteristics .....................................................................23 8.6 Hose Assembly Length Determination For Various Movements.................24 8.7 Hose Routing Fluoropolymer Hose..........................................................30 8.8 Assembly Methods.....................................................................................33 8.9 Testing Procedures for Fluoropolymer Hose.............................................34 Section 9 Testing Procedures........................................... 1 9.1 Purpose........................................................................................................1 9.2 Testing Procedures for Corrugated Metal Hose ..........................................1 9.3 Testing Procedures for Industrial Hose .......................................................5 9.4 Testing Procedures for Composite Hose...................................................12 9.5 Testing Procedures for Hydraulic Hose.....................................................16 9.6 Testing Procedures for Fluoropolymer Hose.............................................19 9.7 Calibrations ..................................................................................................2 9.8 Test Documentation .....................................................................................2 9.9 Other Documentation ...................................................................................2 Section 10 Quality Plan ..................................................... 1 10.1 Purpose......................................................................................................1 10.2 Sampling Plan ............................................................................................1 10.3 Material Receiving Inspection.....................................................................2 10.4 Hose Assembly Dimensional Inspection if applicable .............................3 10.5 Storage Labeling Environment Time......................................................3 Section 11 Assembly Identification Cleaning and Packaging .............................................................................. 1 11.1 Purpose......................................................................................................1 11.2 Hose Assembly Markings...........................................................................1 11.3 Cleaning.....................................................................................................2 11.4 Packaging ..................................................................................................6 Section 12 Installation and Handling............................... 1 12.1 General ......................................................................................................1 12.2 Safety Environmental Considerations......................................................1 12.3 Hose Routing .............................................................................................3 12.4 Hose Installation and Replacement............................................................6 12.5 Maintenance Inspection ...........................................................................10 Section 13 Definitions........................................................ 1 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. v Section 14 Appendices...................................................... 1 Appendix A Pressure Conversion Chart.........................................................1 Appendix B Additional Conversion Charts....................................................11 Appendix C Hose Materials ..........................................................................12 Appendix D Nomographic Flow Chart...........................................................18 Appendix E Coupling Thread Configurations................................................19 Appendix F Hydraulic Audit List....................................................................23 Appendix G Relevant ARPM was RMA Publications ..................................24 Appendix H References................................................................................25 Appendix I Industrial Hose Coupling and Attachment Chart.........................27 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.vi This page intentionally left blank Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 1 Section 1 Scope Use of This Document 1.1 Scope The NAHAD Hose Safety Institute Handbook for the Design and Specification of Hose Assemblies is intended to complement existing industry specifications standards and government regulations. This document is for the voluntary use of industry and end users as an aid in the selection and recognition of suitable hose assemblies including those using industrial hydraulic composite corrugated metal and fluoropolymer hose. This document provides general guidelines and is not intended to provide all information or requirements for the design engineering assembly and testing of hose assemblies or for compliance with applicable laws standards and regulations. Always refer to and follow the suppliers instructions and warnings. This document is not intended to prohibit either supplier or customer from specifying additional or different requirements for hose couplings or hose assemblies if necessary to satisfy the specific application. It is the responsibility of the fabricator and user to separately qualify these applications and their unique requirements necessary to ensure performance capability. This document assumes that all equipment used in the fabrication of the hose assembly has been properly maintained and calibrated on a regular basis. There are specific applications that require additional design engineering fabrication testing installation and maintenance considerations over and above the requirements set forth in these Hose Assembly Guidelines. This includes applications where custom design engineering fabrication testing installation and maintenance are specified or required. Please see Section 2.4 and Appendix G of this document for further information. This document is subject to revision. Users should obtain the latest version. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.2 1.2 Important Notice About This Document NAHAD including its members officers directors volunteers staff and those participating in its activities disclaims liability for any personal injury property or other damage of any nature whatsoever directly or indirectly resulting from the publication use of or reliance on this document or for compliance with the provisions herein. NAHAD makes no guaranty or warranty as to the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein. Hose hose fittings and hose couplings come in various sizes and designs. Although there are standards published by manufacturers and independent standards and testing organizations such as ANSI ASTM UL SAE ARPM which relate to hoses and hose fittings there are no generally recognized standards or guidelines for hose assemblies. NAHAD The Association for Hose and Accessories Distribution has published these Guidelines in order to create a reference work that compiles information of value to NAHAD members manufacturers and customers in developing hose assemblies that meet specific individual needs. To the extent that a hose assembly has unique characteristics or specific requirements it must be custom designed engineered and tested. The Guidelines incorporate pressure recommendations corrosion recommendations and temperature recommendations published by hose and coupling manufacturers and others. NAHAD has not independently tested or verified these recommendations and specifically disclaims all liability direct or indirect for these recommendations. In making this document available NAHAD is not undertaking to render professional or other services for or on behalf of any person or entity. Anyone using this document should rely on their own judgment or as appropriate seek the advice of a competent professional in determining the exercise of reasonable care in any given circumstances. Any certification or other statement of compliance with the requirements of this document shall not be attributable to NAHAD and is solely the responsibility of the certifier or the person making the statement. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 3 1.3 How to Use This Document The following are the recommended procedures on how to use the NAHAD Hose Assembly Specification Guidelines Description Section Number 1 This document recognizes that all hose assemblies are made up of at least two to three components the hose end connections and method of attachment. The method of attachment and end connection varies depending on the hose selected. The end usercustomercustomer servicesales person should use STAMPED to gather all the required application information to proceed with an assembly selection. Section 2 STAMPED 2 For Industrial Hose assemblies proceed to the Component Selection Chart. Use the chart to select the appropriate hose end connections and method of attachment recommended. Note Hose assembly pressure ratings vary by hose fitting and attachment combinations and are always rated at the lesser of the hose fittings and attachment method used. Section 5 Hose Assembly Component Selection Chart 3 More detailed information on hose couplings attachments etc. for all hose groups can be found in Sections 4-8 Hose Assembly Components and Data Sheets. Sections 4-8 Hose Assembly Components and Data Sheets 4 Once the assembly is selected additional information on fabrication processes can be found in the NAHAD Hose Assembly Fabrication Guides which include recommended assembly procedures limitations and warnings. The rest of this document includes related information on assembly testing quality plan shipping handling safety issues etc. Sections 9 - 12 Assembly testing quality plan shipping handling labeling etc. The ARPM requires that hose working pressures include a design factor commensurate with their intended application. Most hoses are required to meet a 41 design ratio except the following Water hose rated under 150 PSI requires a 31 design ratio Steam hose requires a 101 design ratio and hose conveying gas in a liquid state requires a 51 design ratio or otherwise controlled by other industrial standards. For example a 150 PSI-rated air hose has a 41 design ratio and must be successfully burst tested to a minimum of 600 PSI. Never exceed the working pressure of the lowest rated component in the hose system. Maximum working pressure includes the highest pressure the system will experience such as spikes surges and water hammer effects. For example If a system consists of a hose rated to 150 PSI and the couplings are rated to 500 PSI the system should never be used in excess of 150 PSI. 1.4 Thanks and Recognition NAHAD wishes to acknowledge the contributions of many organizations which have made this document possible. In particular the International Fluid Power Society IFPS has made significant contributions to Section 7 Hydraulic Hose many portions of their Connector and Conductor Study Manual rev. 4111 were used by permission in whole or in part. We also wish to acknowledge and thank the Association for Rubber Products Manufacturers ARPM for content used or referenced in this document. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.4 1.5 History of Changes 1995 NAHAD commits to take on the multi-year challenge of creating a comprehensive set of performance recommendations for the Specification Design and Fabrication of Industrial Hydraulic Fluoropolymer Corrugated Metal and Composite hose assemblies. Scores of volunteer member engineers are recruited to serve on five different technical teams to draft what will become NAHADs Hose Assembly Guidelines. The comprehensive 420-page document is produced and presented to the membership at the 2000 Convention in Monterey CA. 2003 The NAHAD Board appoints a new Standards Committee to re-craft the Guidelines to be more useful for members and end-users. 2005 Version 1 Hose Assembly Specification Guides are created for Corrugated Metal Industrial Composite Hydraulic and Fluoropolymer Hose assemblies. These are made available for purchase and use with customers for supporting internal training and for providing guidance for related hose assembly technical and business processes. 2008-9 Custom Hose Guide added 2008 Ducting Guide added 2009 2010-12 NAHAD creates the Hose Safety Institute to formalize the work of driving safety quality and reliability of hose assemblies. The Hose Assembly Guidelines are updated and republished as this document the Hose Safety Institute Handbook. Changes Materials updated and all 7 Specification manuals plus Design Guides for industrial hydraulic composite fluoropolymer and corrugated metal hoses integrated in one master document. 2015 Updates and reconciliation between the Handbook and the five Fabrication Guides completed version1.2 of the Handbook created. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 1 Section 2 Application Requirements STAMPED 2.1 Purpose The purpose of this section is to provide a simple to use guide to assist in determining the correct hose coupling and attachment method that will satisfy the customers needs. Please note that Section 2.4 addresses Critical Applications which may require special attention. 2.2 General If the governing standard for a hose assembly is unknown further application detail must be identified. An effective way to identify application factors that need reviewing prior to defining the proper specifications of a hose assembly is to remember the simple acronym STAMPED. 2.3 Directions Using the form 1. Inform the customer you will be using an application format called STAMPED. 2. Ask your customer the pertinent questions outlined on the form in sequence. 3. After completing the form ask your customer to confirm their answers as you repeat them in sequence. 4. Provide the completed format to your assembly area or order entry as required. The following list of special considerations may help to clarify application parameters 1. Abrasion 2. Additional protections need for guards or covers 3. Electrical conductivity 4. Environment 5. Fitting orientation flange alignment 6. Flammability 7. Flow rate 8. Fluid velocity for metal hose very high velocities may require the use of a liner 9. Movement type distance frequency 10. Ozone 11. Permeation vapor conveying hose 12. Routing tight bend radius physical space limitations 13. Salt water 14. Static electricity 15. Ultraviolet light 16. Vibration frequency rate Hz amplitude G load 17. Special marking or branding requirements Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.2 Control Parameters Information should include Drawing or print if applicable and proper revision of drawing or print. Agency standards applicable. Test requirements customer. Documentation requirements customer. Special branding requirement and cover color. Information of past performance of present hose in place. Special cleaning procedure in use. Contract Parameters Information should include Quantity Delivery schedule Cleaning requirements Packaging requirements Other items per manufacturer guidelines Length Tolerances see individual hose group chapters See STAMPED Form on next page Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 3 Customer Information Company _________________________ Fax ______________________ Contact __________________________ E-mail_____________________ Address __________________________ P.O._____________________ Phone ___________________________ Terms ____________________ Size I.D. O.D. Overall Length Tolerance Temperature Materials Conveyed Environmental Temperature Min. Max Min Max oFoC oFoC oFoC oFoC Application Type Material Media Material Conveyed Internal Media External Environment Pressure Max Working Pressure Spikes Vacuum PSIkPa PSIkPa Inches of HgkPa Ends End Style Material Size ThreadsBolts Hole Alignment Orientation Attachment Methods Capped 1 Y N 2 Y N Delivery Quantity Required Date Required Package Type Pick Up Date Ship Via Testing Required Y N Type Certification Required Y N Type see glossary for specific definitions Special Requirements Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.4 The STAMPED acronym stands for the 7 major information areas required to provide a quality hose assembly for the customer as follows S stands for SIZE I.D. and length any O.D. constraints overall length should be specified to include fittings tolerances need to be specified if special requirements exist I.D. O.D. and overall length of the assembly To determine the replacement hose I.D. read the layline printing on the side of the original hose. If the original hose layline is painted over or worn off the original hose must be cut and inside diameter measured for size. The inside diameter of the hose must be adequate to keep pressure loss to a minimum maintain adequate flow and avoid damage to the hose due to heat generation or excessive turbulence. The hose should be sized according to the nomographic chart in appendix D. Length tolerances should be considered for all types of hose assemblies. See individual hose sections for specifics. Flow Rate Fluid Velocity - The flow rate of the system in conjunction with the inside diameter of the hose will dictate the fluid velocity through the hose. Typical fluid velocities can be seen in the nomographic chart in Appendix D. Please consult your hose supplier for specific recommended velocity ranges. Please note that suction line recommendations are different than pressure lines. T stands for TEMPERATURE of the material conveyed and environmental conditions Are there factors such as heat sources in the environment in which the hose will be used Continuous average and minimum and maximum temperatures have to be specified for both the environment and material conveyed Note if flame resistance or flammability will be an issue Sub-zero exposure Care must be taken when routing near hot manifolds and in extreme cases a heat shield may be advisable. Other things to consider maximum intermittent ambient temperature fluid temperature ambient temperature and maximum temperature. Maximum assembly working pressures will decrease as temperatures increase. A stands for the APPLICATION the conditions of use Configurationrouting add a sketch or drawing if applicable o is the hose hanging laying horizontally supported unsupported orientation and aspect of the hose o what else is attached to the hose any external load on the hose o bend radius requirements flexibility o elongation considerations with working pressure Quantify anticipated movement and geometry of use requirements Intermittent or continuous service Indoor and outdoor use Unusual mechanical loads Excessive abrasion Electrical conductivity requirements Equipment type External conditions abrasion oil specify type solvents specify type acid specify type and concentration ozone salt water Hose now in use o Type of hose o Service life being obtained and description of failure or source of customer dissatisfaction Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 5 strength and frequency of impulsing or pressure spikes non-flexing applications static flexing applications dynamic vacuum requirements Can also refer to Alloy when working with Metal Hose M stands for the MATERIAL or MEDIA being conveyed type and concentration Are there special requirements for this hose tube o Any special specifications or agency requirements that need to be considered e.g. FDA API o Will the material be continuously flowing or sit in the hose for long periods of time specify Media velocity flow rate Chemical nameconcentration MSDS Solids description and size Fluid Compatibility - Some applications require specialized oils or chemicals to be conveyed through the system. Hose selection must assure compatibility of the hose tube. In addition to the hose materials all other components which make up the hose assembly hose ends o-rings etc must also be compatible with fluid being used. Depending on the fluid your hose supplier may lower the maximum temperature or pressure rating of the assembly. When selecting any hose assembly always consult your hose suppliers recommendations. Can also refer to Motion when working with Metal Hose P stands for the PRESSURE to which the assembly will be exposed System pressure including pressure spikes. Hose assembly working pressures must be equal to or greater than the system pressure. Pressure spikes greater than the maximum working pressure will shorten hose life and must be taken into consideration. Temperature implications Vacuum considerations Maximum Operating Pressure - This is the maximum pressure that the system should be exposed to in normal operating conditions. For hydraulic hose assemblies this pressure should be dictated by the relief setting of the system. Both the hose and hose end should not be rated to a pressure less than the maximum operating pressure of the system. Pressure Spikes - When a hydraulic system is subjected to a large load in a short period of time the system pressure can overshoot the relief setting and exceed the maximum operating pressure. Frequent pressure spikes can reduce the life of hydraulic hose assemblies. In general spiral hose constructions are better suited to high impulse applications which involve flexing and large pressure spikes. However there are specialized braided hoses available from various manufacturers. Please consult your hose supplier if there are multiple constructions which meet your application needs. Impulsing exposure of the assembly to changing pressures over time Maximum assembly working pressures will decrease as temperatures increase. E stands for ENDS style type orientation attachment methods etc. Uncoupled or coupled hose hose with built-in fittings Specify end style see charts and pictures in Section 5 Materials and dimensions steel stainless etc. Note potable water applications would require lead-free fittings Conductivity requirements D stands for DELIVERY Specific to customer requirements Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.6 Testing requirements o certification requirements e.g. Coast Guard any special packaging requirements any special shipping requirements tagging requirements can also refer to Determined Overall Length when working with Metal Hose 2.4 Critical and Custom Applications There are specific applications that require additional design fabrication installation and maintenance considerations over and above the requirements set forth in these Hose Assembly Guidelines. This includes applications where custom design engineering fabrication testing installation and maintenance are specified or required. Please see Appendix G of this document for additional information. The following is a non-inclusive list. 2.4.1 Chlorine For hose assemblies used to transport chlorine there are specific requirements set forth in the Chlorine Institute Pamphlet 6 edition 15 Piping Systems for Dry Chlorine Appendix A Section 9. Please note that Chlorine transfer hose CTH must be clearly and permanently marked as per Chlorine Institute Pamphlet 6 edition 15 Appendix A Section 9. These permanent markings e.g. stamping stenciling or coding should be utilized throughout the supply chain for purposes of continuous positive identification. 2.4.2 Anhydrous Ammonia reference ARPM publication no. IP 11-2 IP-14 2.4.3 Aircraft Fueling see Energy Institute EI 1529 and EI 1540 part 7 2.4.4 Welding Hose - reference ARPM publication no. IP 11-7 IP 11-5 2.4.5 LP Gas - reference UL 21 and UL 569. 2.4.6 Water Blast Hose and Hydroblast Hose Water blast hoses are typically designed for very high pressure water applications. Typically used for paint removal unplugging and cleaning exchanger tubes off-shore deep water applications and water blasting. Burst pressures may vary by manufacturer. Applications entail very high internal pressures. Consult manufacturer for safety factors. 2.4.7 Airless Paint Spraying. Available in 1000-10000 psi. Contact hose manufacturer for more information. 2.4.8 Natural Gas - Natural Gas molecules will permeate through Rubber or PVC hose constructions and create potentially dangerous consequences. Contact hose manufacturer for information. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 1 Section 3 - Hose Assembly General Information 3.1 Scope The sections pertaining to hose assemblies have been compiled to provide authoritative information on hose end connections attachment methods and accessories selection. This information is intended to help those that are responsible for selecting the components. The user of this document is cautioned that the information contained herein is for general guidance only. The document reflects the most commonly used equipment and procedures to make assemblies. It does not reflect new developments or products developed for specific applications. The user is encouraged to contact a NAHAD Hose Safety Institute Distributor in order to obtain the latest information. Because there are many combinations of hose end connections and attachment methods the user should not assume that all combinations listed in the guide have been tested for acceptability. The information that is provided is based on an environment of 72F 22.2C. The reader is cautioned to contact a NAHAD Hose Safety Institute Distributor when dealing with temperature extremes. 3.2 Hose Constructions A hose is a reinforced flexible conduit used to move materials from one point to another or to transmit energy. It is flexible to accommodate motion alignment vibration thermal expansion and contraction portability ease of routing and ease of installation. Most hoses are made up of three elements 1 a tube 2 reinforcement and 3 an outer cover. Each of these components is usually adhered to the adjacent components by bonding agents or thin layers of specially compounded rubber. The basic materials in the manufacture of hose are rubber metal plastic fluoropolymer textile yarn textile fabric and metal or plastic wire helix and cable. These materials are used in their broadest sense and can consist of all compounds and combinations of the above. See Appendix C for a full listing of hose materials. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.2 Tube The tube is the innermost element of the hose. For suitable service the tube must be resistant to the materials it is intended to convey. The characteristics of the material from which the tube is made and the thickness of the tube are based on the service for which the hose is designed. The basic tube materials are rubber metal plastic and fluoropolymer these materials are used in their broadest sense and can consist of all compounds and combinations of the above. See Appendix C for a full listing of hose materials. Reinforcement Reinforcement can be textile plastic or metal alone or in combination which can be built into the body of the hose to withstand internal pressures external forces or a combination of both. The type and amount of reinforcing material used depends on the method of manufacture and on the service requirements. For example a residential garden hose does not need the same level of reinforcement as required for high pressure hydraulic hose used in construction and off-shore applications. The basic reinforcement materials are braided or spiraled textiles metal or plastic helix braided or spiraled wire and cable. These materials are used in their broadest sense and can consist of all compounds and combinations of the above. See Appendix C for a full listing of hose materials. Cover The cover is the outer element and can be made of various materials its prime function is to protect the reinforcement from damage and the environment in which the hose will be used. Covers are designed for specific applications and can be made to be resistant to oils acids abrasion flexing sunlight ozone etc. The basic cover materials are rubber metal and plastic. The cover of a corrugated metal or fluoropolymer-lined hose by nature is a wire-braided reinforcement. Additional accessories can be applied to protect the reinforcing exterior. See Appendix C for a full listing of hose materials. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 3 3.3 Hose Characteristics 3.3.1 Flexibility and Bend Radius Flexibility and minimum bend radius are important factors in hose design and selection if it is known that the hose will be subjected to sharp curvatures in normal use. When bent at too sharp an angle hose may kink or flatten in the cross-section. The reinforcement may also be unduly stressed or distorted and the hose life compromised. The hose should be able to conform to the smallest anticipated bend radius without overstress. The minimum bend radius is generally specified by the manufacturer and is the radius to which the hose can be bent in service without damage or appreciably shortening its life. The radius is measured to the inside of the curvature. If the application entails dynamic bending the minimum bend radius may need to be larger consult with the manufacturer. Textile reinforced hoses have a tendency to kink as the bend radius is reduced. Generally for hose assemblies a helix wire is used when a hose must withstand severe bends without flattening or kinking. Some indication of relative hose flexibility can be determined from the manufacturers minimum bend radius recommendations. The bend radius does not necessarily reflect the force required to bend the hose to this radius which is a major factor in flexibility. Different hose constructions may require significantly different forces to attain the same minimum bend radius. Generally the preferred hose is the more flexible hose provided all other properties are essentially equivalent. There are exceptions to this as in sand blast hose where minimizing the bending in service increases hose life. 3.3.2 Suction and Vacuum Some applications require the hose to resist collapse in suction and vacuum service. Such hose is subjected to crushing forces because the atmospheric pressure outside the hose is greater than the internal pressure. The hose can collapse and restrict the flow unless the hose is constructed to resist these pressure differentials. The most common method of preventing hose collapse is to build a steel or plastic helical wire reinforcement into the hose body. The size and spacing of the wire reinforcement depends on the size of the hose and the expected pressure differential for the application. In suction applications approaching a full vacuum most of the carcass plies are applied over the wire reinforcement. The hose is constructed with high adhesion between the tube and the carcass to prevent tube separation. Suction hose must be specifically designed for the service for which it is used. Each element tube reinforcement size spacing and location of the helix must be carefully planned. While suction hose is generally used to convey liquids vacuum hose carries air under a partial vacuum. Vacuum hose is reinforced to resist collapse and maintain its shape under rough handling andor mechanical abuse. It does not require the heavy construction of suction hose because the dry materials generally conveyed are much lighter in weight than liquids and the vacuum is usually less than for normal suction service. See ducting section for additional detail. 3.3.3 Electrical Characteristics of Hose Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.4 Conductive Hose Static wires and conductive rubber components are used in hose to help prevent static electricity build-up and subsequent discharge as a spark. Electrical engineers differ in opinion on the effects of static electricity and the means of dissipating it. In handling gasoline and other petroleum-based liquids recognized national associations and companies have conflicting opinions on the need for conductive hoses. Until a consensus is reached among all associations laboratories and users and a standard practice is established it is essential that the user determine the need for static bonded hose based on a the intended use of the hose b instructions from the companys Safety Division c the insurer and d the laws of the States in which the hose will be used. Some types of hose include a body reinforcing wire. This wire can be used for electrical continuity provided that proper contact is made between it and the hose coupling. This can be done by extending the body wire to the ends of the hose or by attaching a light static wire to the outermost coils of the body wire. This lighter wire is led through the ends of the hose and attached to the couplings. In non-wire reinforced hose a static wire can be included in the hose body. The tendency has been toward a grounding connection completely separate from the hose or to have the tube or cover of the hose conducting. Examples would be sand blast hose with conducting tube or aircraft fueling hose with a conducting cover. An internal static wire could break or lose contact with the couplings and not be detected visually. This could occur from an unusual stress imposed on the hose. Non-Conductive Hose In some specific applications especially around high voltage electrical lines it is imperative for safety that the hose be non-conductive. Unless the hose is designed particularly to be non- conductive and is so branded one cannot conclude that it is non-conductive. Non-conductive hose is usually made to a qualifying standard that requires it to be tested to verify the desired electrical properties. The hose is usually non-black in color and clearly branded to indicate it is designed for non-conductive applications. WARNING unless a hose is described specifically and clearly branded to be conducting or non- conducting it must be assumed that the electrical properties are uncontrolled. 3.4 Hose Routing When planning the hose routing use the following practices for optimum performance and more consistent and predictable service life. Routing at less than minimum bend radius will reduce the service life of the hose andor cause premature hose failure. Use the static or dynamic minimum bend radius according to service conditions. Sharp bends at the hose to fitting juncture should be avoided Hose assemblies subject to movement while operating should be installed in such a way that flexing occurs in the same plane. Hose assemblies shall not be installed or operated in a twisted or torqued condition. Swivel fittings or a lay line may be used to aid in torque-free installation. Also flanged hose assemblies should ideally have one end secured with a floating flange. Flange to flange bolt hole alignment is critical for proper installation. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 5 INCORRECT CORRECT Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.6 This page intentionally left blank Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 1 Section 4 Corrugated Metal Hose Section Contents 4.1 General Information 4.2 STAMPED 4.3 Hose Construction 4.4 Pressure Rating 4.5 Corrugated Metal Hose Assembly Dimensions 4.6 Corrugated Metal Hose Fittings 4.7 Corrugated Metal Hose Attachments Common Accessories 4.8 Attachment Methods 4.9 Testing 4.1 General Old Rule of thumb Use a metal hose when no other hose type will do. This was the rule in the past. Today we consider additional information before making the final decision on the proper hose to use If there is interest in improving safety increasing performance andor reducing potential for catastrophic failure consider metal hose. Metal hose is used for extreme temperature service from Hot Tar Asphalt to cryogenic service in the transfer of liquid nitrogen or oxygen when cleaned properly. If permeation is a concern i.e. Chlorine transfer metal hose does not allow gas to penetrate the hose wall thereby eliminating any problems. If compatibility is a concern i.e. hydrochloric acid or other aggressive chemicals having a large selection of metals available is the right solution so that appropriate materials can be selected for each application. Safety is always a major concern metal hose usually shows a sign of failure through small holes or cracks giving warning to remove the hose before a catastrophic event happens. Metal hose should also be considered if adaptability is a concern. Since ends are welded no special hose nipple has to be created to fit in a hose. Properly designed a metal hose can reduce vibration andor noise in a piping system making it more efficient with a longer working life. Additionally this makes for a quieter work environment for personnel reducing the chance of hearing loss. Metal hose can be adapted to just about any application today with a variety of styles covering flexibility pressure media and temperature and end fittings. Metal hose just may be your best solution. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.2 The standard flexible tube starts its life as a coil of stainless steel strip which is mechanically formed into a tube and then longitudinally butt welded. Considerable care is taken to ensure that the strength of the butt weld is greater than that of the parent material. This rigid tube is then transferred to the corrugating machine where the corrugations are formed. Although the tube is generally produced with a standard corrugation pitch it can be varied to suit the flexibility required. The tube can be left with an open pitch which is ideal for stay put applications especially if the tube is annealed. Compressing the tube to give it a close pitch will increase the flexibility. After the tube has been corrugated it is pressure tested to ensure that there are no leaks. A plain corrugated hose will try to elongate when pressurized above a certain level. This is due to the internal pressure thrust which is equal to the cross sectional area multiplied by the pressure. To restrain this the hose is fitted with an external wire braiding which can be either a single or double layer according to the working conditions. The braid design is carefully calculated to ensure that the number of wires the wire gauge and the angle of lay give optimum performance. Fitting the braid to the corrugated tube also increases the hoop strength stabilizes movement and offers a form of protection. Each hose is designed to have a maximum working pressure which is generally less than a quarter of the burst pressure. After the attachment of the end fittings the hose is pressure tested to 1 times the working or design pressure and test certificates can be supplied if required. It is not advisable to pressurize any hose above 1 times the maximum working pressure otherwise the corrugations can become deformed and reduce the hose life. Advantages of flexible metal hose 1. High physical strength 2. Suitable for elevated temperatures up to 1400 F 3. Fire resistant 4. Good corrosion characteristics 5. Long life when installed correctly 6. Resistance to penetration and damage Flexible metal hoses are used for the following modes of movement Static installations when the flexible hose is used to connect pipe-work out of alignment and remain in a static position Occasional flexing when the hose is only required to flex occasionally such as manual handling Constant flexing when the hose is required to flex continuously usually on moving machinery Vibration high frequency low amplitude movement i.e. on a compressor. Markets using metal hose Flexible metal hoses are used on a wide range of applications such as nuclear steam lubrication fuel oil exhaust and cryogenics. However the list is endless what is critical is that all the details of the application and installation must be seriously considered before the type of hose is selected. The main areas of concern are pressure temperature media flexing requirements and the environment. Typical Markets Power Generation Refining and Petrochemical Marine OEM Oil Gas Rental and Construction Primary Metal to name a few. The rest of this section pertains to nominal diameters from 14 inch DN6 to 12 inches DN300 except where limited by section. Metal hose is made from several different materials depending on application. When selecting the Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 3 material proper consideration must be given to corrosion resistance service temperature and material strength. Components typically found in a metal hose assembly include the following Table 4.1 lists some common materials used for each of these components. A. Corrugated Flexible Hose B. One or more layers of Wire Braid C. Braid Sleeves D. Fittings E. Optional Flexible Guard andor Liner Table 4.1 Component Specifications Component see above Material Type Description UNS1 Specifications A 1008 AKDQ Low Carbon Steel G10080 ASTM A6202 BD SAE10103 Carbon Steel G10100 Commercial Grade ABCD T304L Corrosion Resist. Steel S30403 ASTM A240A478 ABCDE T304 Corrosion Resist. Steel S30400 ASTM A240A269 ABCD T316L Corrosion Resist. Steel S31603 ASTM A240A478 ABCDE T316 Corrosion Resist. Steel S31600 ASTM A240A478 ABCD T316Ti Corrosion Resist. Steel S31635 DIN1.45714 ABCD T321 Corrosion Resist. Steel S32100 ASTM A240A580 ABCD Monel 400 Nickel Copper Alloy NO4400 ASTM B127B164 ABCD Inconel 600 Nickel Alloy NO6600 ASTM B168B167 ABCD Inconel 625 Nickel Alloy NO6625 ASTM B443B443 ABCD C276 Nickel Alloy N10276 ASTM B575B619B622 ABCD C22 Nickel Alloy NO4400 ASTM B575B619B622 AB CA510 Bronze Phosphor C51000 ASTM B100B103B139 1 Unified Numbering System 2 American Society for Testing Materials 3 Society of Automotive Engineers 4 Deutsches Institut fur Normung Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.4 4.2 STAMPED As previously noted the STAMPED acronym stands for the 7 major information areas required to provide a quality hose assembly for the customer as follows S stands for SIZE I.D. and length any O.D. constraints overall length should be specified to include fittings tolerances need to be specified if special requirements exist I.D. O.D. and overall length of the assembly To determine the replacement hose I.D. read the layline printing on the side of the original hose. If the original hose layline is painted over or worn off the original hose must be cut and inside diameter measured for size. The inside diameter of the hose must be adequate to keep pressure loss to a minimum maintain adequate flow and avoid damage to the hose due to heat generation or excessive turbulence. The hose should be sized according to the nomographic chart in appendix D. Length Tolerances - the OAL of an assembly shall be as requested by the customer with acceptable tolerances as agreed between the customer and provider. Unless otherwise specified the tolerances shall be as defined in the following Table. Table Assembly Overall Length Tolerances Overall Length of Assembly 0 thru Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 5 Quantify anticipated movement and geometry of use requirements Intermittent or continuous service Indoor and outdoor use Unusual mechanical loads Excessive abrasion Electrical conductivity requirements Equipment type External conditions abrasion oil specify type solvents specify type acid specify type and concentration ozone salt water Hose now in use o Type of hose o Service life being obtained and description of failure or source of customer dissatisfaction strength and frequency of impulsing or pressure spikes non-flexing applications static flexing applications dynamic vacuum requirements Also refers to Alloy when working with Metal Hose M stands for the MATERIAL or MEDIA being conveyed type and concentration and MOTION Are there special requirements for this hose tube o Any special specifications or agency requirements that need to be considered e.g. FDA API o Will the material be continuously flowing or sit in the hose for long periods of time specify Media velocity flow rate Chemical nameconcentration MSDS Solids description and size Fluid Compatibility - Some applications require specialized oils or chemicals to be conveyed through the system. Hose selection must assure compatibility of the hose tube. In addition to the hose materials all other components which make up the hose assembly hose ends o- rings etc must also be compatible with fluid being used. Depending on the fluid your hose supplier may lower the maximum temperature or pressure rating of the assembly. When selecting any hose assembly always consult your hose suppliers recommendations. Motion types of motion likely to be associated with the hose assembly P stands for the PRESSURE to which the assembly will be exposed System pressure including pressure spikes. Hose assembly working pressures must be equal to or greater than the system pressure. Pressure spikes greater than the maximum working pressure will shorten hose life and must be taken into consideration. Temperature implications Vacuum considerations Maximum Operating Pressure - This is the maximum pressure that the system should be exposed to in normal operating conditions. For hydraulic hose assemblies this pressure should be dictated by the relief setting of the system. Both the hose and hose end should not be rated to a pressure less than the maximum operating pressure of the system. Pressure Spikes - When a hydraulic system is subjected to a large load in a short period of time the system pressure can overshoot the relief setting and exceed the maximum operating pressure. Frequent pressure spikes can reduce the life of hydraulic hose assemblies. In general spiral hose constructions are better suited to high impulse applications which involve flexing and large pressure spikes. However there are specialized braided hoses available from various manufacturers. Please consult your hose supplier if there are multiple constructions which meet your application needs. E stands for ENDS style type orientation attachment methods etc. Uncoupled or coupled hose Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.6 Specify end style see charts and pictures in Section 5 Materials and dimensions steel stainless etc. Conductivity requirements D stands for DELIVERY Specific to customer requirements Testing requirements o certification requirements e.g. Coast Guard any special packaging requirements any special shipping requirements tagging requirements Also refers to Determined Overall Length when working with Metal Hose Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 7 4.3 Hose Construction Types of Hose Construction Corrugated hose shall be manufactured from seamless or welded tube or from preformed and welded steel strip. Seams may be butt welded or lap welded in either a straight or spiral seam configuration. Corrugations may be annular or helical and shall be of uniform pitch and profile throughout the hose length. Heat Treatment The customer shall specify if heat treatment of the metal hose is required. All production testing shall be performed after heat treatment. Joining or Splicing Unbraided Hose Corrugated hose may be spliced using either of the two methods illustrated in Figures 6A Butt Weld Splice or 6B Edge Weld Splice. Traverse joining of strip or circumferential joining of tube prior to forming the corrugations is not permitted. Braid Braid is a sleeve of woven wires that covers the exterior of the corrugated hose. Braid not only enhances the ability of the corrugated hose to withstand pressure it also provides protection against abrasion and contamination. Multiple Braided Hose Multiple layers of braid are frequently used to enhance the strength and coverage of a hose assembly beyond the strength and coverage of a single layer of braid. The hose manufacturer must be consulted when rating the performance of a corrugated hose with multiple layers of braid. Corrosion Resistance When designing a metal hose assembly for service in a potentially corrosive application both the media conveyed and the external environment must be considered. The assembly wetted surfaces those internal surfaces which come into contact with the media include the hose and fittings. A corrosive external environment would typically require adequate resistance from all of the assembly components including the braid. For each specific application the designer must determine All of the potential corrosives which may contact the assembly The concentration of each corrosive The temperature of the media and environment Figure 6A Butt Weld Splice Figure 6B Edge Weld Splice Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.8 The concentration of a corrosive can have a dramatic effect on the expected corrosion rate of a metal hose assembly component. A substance which exhibits a very high corrosion rate at 50 might have a negligible rate at 20. Conversely some common substances may be very aggressive at 90 but have the corrosion rate drop off significantly at 98. Temperature also plays a major factor in accelerating or inhibiting corrosion rates. Generally the higher the temperature the more aggressive is any corrosive action. See Table 4.1 at the beginning of this section for a listing of common materials. The relative corrosion resistance of most alloys to specific potential corrosives can be determined by referencing one of the many available corrosion resistance reference publications including Corrosion Data Survey National Association of Corrosion Engineers www.nace.org Compass Corrosion Guide Compass Publications wwww.compasspublications.com Handbook of Corrosion Data ASM International www.asm-intl.org In addition many alloy manufacturers and educational institutes have corrosion resistance tables and guides on the web. Corrosion rates are typically referenced as milsyear thousandths of an inch of the alloy thickness that would be expected to corrode in one year. The thickness of the hose fittings and other potentially affected assembly components must be compared with the expected corrosion rates listed in the guides. As a rule of thumb refer to the Chart A for a guide of acceptable corrosion rates. For critical applications the corrosion rates for the assembly components must be accurately determined and an acceptable service life and safety factor calculated. Chart A Corrosion Rates Assembly Component Corrosion Rate millsyr. Hose Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 9 Special Constructions There are a number of common special derivatives of a metal hose assembly. A Jacketed Assembly is a hose inside of another hose the jacket. This type of assembly can be used to control the temperature of the media in the inner hose by circulating a thermal conductor like steam or water through the jacket. insulate the inner hose by use of a vacuum in the jacket. monitor leakage of the inner hose with sensors on the jacket that can temporarily provide secondary containment. 10 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. A Traced Assembly is a hose with a very small trace hose running through it. A thermal conductor like steam or water runs through the trace hose to control the temperature of the medium in the main assembly. 4.4 Pressure Rating A corrugated metal hose is only as strong as its weakest component. The maximum allowable working pressure strength for each component must be known and derated respecting the parameters of the installation. The maximum allowable working pressure MAWP of each fitting must be derated for elevated operating temperatures. Temperature derating factors are a function of temperature and the material of the component. See below. The MAWP of the hose must also be derated for temperature as well as for pressure fluctuations and welding techniques. Rapid pressure changes reduce the strength of the hose. Use the table below for the appropriate derating factor. Welding of the hose assembly may also lead to a reduction in strength. This information should be provided by the assembly fabricator. Unless otherwise established an attachment method derating factor of 0.85 is common for a T.I.G. welded standard fitting attachment. Pressure Fluctuation Derating Factor normal 1.00 pulsating 0.50 spike 0.17 Example What is the MAWP for the following assembly to be used in an installation with pulsating pressure at a temperature of 700 F Hose and braid T316L stainless steel o MAWP 70F 600 psi Fitting 1 T304 stainless steel raised face slip on flange o MAWP 70F 230 psi Fitting 2 Carbon steel pipe nipple o MAWP 70F 550 psi With standard T.I.G. welded fitting attachment techniques. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 11 Pressure Fluctuation Derating Factor 0.50 Attachment Method Derating Factor 0.85 Temperature Derating Factor T316L stainless steel at 700 F 0.77 Temperature Derating Factor T304 stainless steel at 700 F 0.80 Temperature Derating Factor carbon steel at 700 F 0.83 Derated MAWP hose 600 psi 0.50 0.85 0.77 196 psi Derated MAWP fitting 1 230 psi 0.80 184 psi Derated MAWP fitting 2 550 psi 0.83 456 psi The derated MAWP for the assembly in this specific installation 184 psi Temperature Derating Factors The strength of a component is reduced at elevated temperatures. For metal hose unless already defined by the component supplier or relevant standard use the derating factors listed below. Multiply the maximum allowable working pressure at 700 F by the appropriate derating factor for the application temperature and component material. Table 4.1 Temperature Derating Factors for Metal Hose Components MATERIAL Temp F T304 T304L T316 T316L T321 C276 C22 Monel 400 Inconel 600 Inconel 625 Carbon Steel 100 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.00 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.00 200 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.00 .88 1.0 1.0 1.00 300 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.00 .82 1.0 1.0 1.00 400 .94 .93 .97 .93 1.0 1.00 .79 1.0 1.0 1.00 500 .88 .86 .90 .86 .96 .99 .79 1.0 .97 .95 600 .82 .81 .85 .81 .91 .93 .79 1.0 .95 .87 650 .81 .79 .84 .79 .89 .90 .79 1.0 .94 .85 700 .80 .77 .82 .77 .87 .88 .79 1.0 .93 .83 750 .78 .75 .81 .75 .86 .86 .79 1.0 .93 .65 800 .76 .74 .80 .74 .84 .84 .79 1.0 .93 .54 850 .75 .72 .79 .72 .84 .83 .79 .99 .93 .44 900 .73 .71 .78 .71 .83 .82 .76 .95 .93 .33 950 .72 .69 .77 .69 .81 .81 .71 .95 .93 .23 1000 .69 .67 .77 .67 .81 .80 .48 .42 .93 1050 .61 .65 .73 .65 .70 .68 .27 .93 1100 .49 .61 .62 .61 .55 .55 .20 .69 1150 .39 .53 .49 .52 .41 .47 .57 1200 .30 .38 .37 .38 .32 .36 .36 1250 .24 .28 .28 .28 .25 .29 1300 .21 .21 .21 Do not use for temperatures lower than -20 F The following derating factors apply Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.12 4.5 Corrugated Metal Hose Assembly Dimensions Inside Diameter of the Hose The minimum inside diameter of the hose shall be at least ninety-eight percent 98 of its nominal diameter. Overall Length OAL The OAL of an assembly shall be as requested by the customer with acceptable tolerances as agreed between the customer and provider. Unless otherwise specified the tolerances shall be as defined in the following Table. Assembly Overall Length Tolerances Overall Length of Assembly 0 thru Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 13 Measuring OAL of Hose Assemblies OAL measurements are normally taken with the assembly in a straight position. For most assemblies the OAL is measured from the end of one fitting to the end of the other fitting see Figure A. Assemblies with certain types of fittings however require different measuring procedures. Fittings with both a sealing seat and a moveable or retractable nut are measured from the sealing seat see Figure B. Elbow fittings are measured as illustrated in Figure C. Female JIC fitting Figure A OAL End to End Figure B OAL Seat to Seat Figure C OAL Elbowed Assembly Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.14 Length Calculations Below are illustrations of some of the most common hose installations. Use the formula to determine the appropriate live length L for that assembly. Then confirm that the installed radius R of that configuration is greater than the published minimum dynamicstatic bend radius of the hose selected. Also confirm that the center line of the hose always remains in one the same plane. Otherwise detrimental torsional stresses may be induced on the hose during cycling. Avoid axial hose compression. This may bulge the braid off the hose and ultimately induce squirm and failure. If any of these issues arise consider adjusting the piping system to facilitate a more appropriate hose installation. A-Loop L4RT2 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 15 B-Loop L4R1.57T Combination Loop L4R1.57T1T22 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.16 Lateral Offset L 20R T Where R published minimum bend radius inches T offset inches Angular Deflection L2S 57.3R Where R published minimum bend radius inches S hose O.D. inches deflection angle degrees Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 17 4.6 Corrugated Metal Hose Fittings General When selecting fittings for a metal hose assembly care must be taken to ensure that the material and construction of the fittings permit them to be welded to the hose and are compatible with the application and the existing piping system. As with the corrugated hose the maximum allowable working pressure of the fittings must be derated for elevated temperatures see Temperature Derating Table in Section 4.4. Whenever possible it is advisable to use a swivel floating or axially disconnectable fitting on a least one end of the hose assembly to avoid torsion during installation. Fitting Orientation Some fittings e.g. fixed flanges elbows etc. require specific orientation on the hose assembly in order to be properly installed into the piping system. These fittings should be oriented according to the following illustrations unless otherwise specified Bolt Hole Alignment Angular Fitting Orientation Standard Fitting Orientations Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.18 Illustrations of Common Fittings Weld Nipple Common Sizes 14 through 12 Common Materials Carbon Steel T304SS T316SS Common Schedules 40 80 Pipe Nipple Common Sizes 14 through 6 Common Materials Carbon Steel T304SS T316SS Common Schedules 40 80 Female Pipe Coupling Common Sizes 14 through 4 Common Materials Carbon Steel T304SS T316SS Common Classes 150 3000 Hex Male Nipple Common Sizes 14 through 2 Common Materials Carbon Steel T304SS T316SS Female Union Common Sizes 14 through 4 Common Materials Malleable Iron Carbon Steel T304SS T316SS Common Classes 150 3000 Female JIC Common Sizes 14 through 2 Common Materials Carbon Steel T316SS Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 19 Raised Face Slip On Flange Common Sizes 12 through 12 Common Materials Carbon Steel T304SS T316SS Common Classes 150 300 Raised Face Slip On Flange with Pipe Spacer Common Sizes 12 through 12 Common Materials Carbon Steel T304SS T316SS Common Classes 150 300 Type A-Stub End with Lap Joint Flange Common Sizes 12 through 12 Common Materials - Stub T304SS T316SS Common Materials Flange Carbon Steel T304SS T316SS Common Schedule Stub 10 40 Common Classes - Flange 150 300 Type C-Stub End with Slip On or Plate Flange Common Sizes 12 through 12 Common Materials - Stub T304SS T316SS Common Materials Flange Carbon Steel T304SS T316SS Common Schedule Stub 10 Common Classes - Flange 150 300 Elbow Common Types 90 Deg 45 Deg Short and Long radius Common Sizes 14 through 12 Common Materials Carbon Steel T304SS T316SS Common Schedules 40 80 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.20 4.7 Corrugated Metal Hose Attachments Common Accessories Guards Corrugated metal hose assemblies frequently need to be insulated or otherwise protected from external damage. Guards can be used over the entire length of the assembly or in shorter lengths to protect the ends only. Guards may not be used for steam tracing. Insulating Jackets typically made of braided fiberglass covered with silicon rubber can be used as a thermal barrier for the assembly. Metal Guard is a stripwound metal hose welded over the corrugated assembly. This is a very rugged covering but it is also fairly heavy. Spring Guard is a lighter protector that also allows for continued visual examination of the corrugated hose. However this is not a complete covering for the assembly. Scuff Guard is a light weight inexpensive baggy sleeve on the hose. It is a non- metallic abrasive barrier. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 21 Liner to Handle High Media Velocity The height and shape of corrugated metal hose may induce turbulence or resonant vibration at high media velocity. This can be negated with the use of a flexible liner. This liner is typically made of stripwound metal hose. See the illustration below. The maximum media velocity for an unlined corrugated metal hose assembly is a function of the state of the media and the degree of bending of the hose. Use a liner when the media is a solid or when the media velocity exceeds the maximum velocities defined in the table below. Lined Metal Hose Assembly Velocity Table Unbraided Braided Configuration Dry Gas Liquid Dry Gas Liquid straight 100 fts 50 fts 150 fts 75 fts 45 bend 75 fts 40 fts 115 fts 60 fts 90 bend 50 fts 25 fts 75 fts 40 fts 180 bend 25 fts 12fts 38 fts 19 fts Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.22 4.8 Attachment Methods Fittings are typically welded or brazed onto the ends of the metal hose. The most common welding methods are explained and illustrated below. With all assembly types care should be taken to select the most appropriate method for the applications requirements and to maximize the live length of the hose assembly. Direct Attachment Method The Direct Attachment Method has two steps. First the hose braid and braid sleeve are welded together. This step is referred to as the Cap Weld see below. The fitting is then welded onto the Cap Weld. This step is referred to as the Attachment Weld see below. Braid-Over Neck Down Attachment Method This is also a two step process with the first step being to weld the fitting to the unbraided hose. The braid is then pulled over that attachment joint and the braid and braid sleeve are welded directly onto the fitting. Cap Weld Attachment Weld Hose to Fitting Weld Braid Attachment Weld Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 23 Smooth-Transition ST Attachment Method Special fabrication techniques may be used to make a smooth transition between the hose ID and the fitting ID free of crevices that could entrap contaminants. A smooth transition may be accomplished by either a direct attachment See Figures A B and C or with a braid-over attachment See Figures D and E. With either method care should be taken when attaching the fitting to the hose to avoid creating cavities see Figure F. Attachment Components Braid Sleeves Braid sleeves must be used at each end of a braided hose assembly. Braid sleeves can serve two functions 1 to hold the braid tightly in place during fabrication and 2 to protect the underlying corrugations from excess flexing. Ideally braid sleeves should cover approximately three corrugations. They shall not be less than 38 long and are not required to be longer than 1. Pipe Spacers Pipe spacers may be used for flanged or similar assemblies when braid-over construction is used or when flange bolts may interfere with the hoses outside diameter. D ST - Hose to Fitting Weld E ST - Braid Attachment Weld F Incorrect Fit-Up A ST - Cap Weld B ST - Fitting Spacing C ST - Attachment Weld Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.24 4.9 Testing Procedures for Corrugated Metal Hose Pneumatic Test Unless otherwise specified the hose assembly shall be subjected to a pneumatic test at a value defined in Table 4.9.1. Using a gaseous media the assembly is immersed in a bath of water for a sufficient length of time to permit visual examination of all fabricated joints. Typical gas testing media are air nitrogen and helium. To guard against corrosion the chloride content of the water used for testing austenitic stainless steel should be controlled to less than 50 ppm parts per million. Minimum testing time should be twenty 20 seconds. Any evidence of leakage or permanent deformation is cause for rejection. Table 4.9.1 Minimum Pneumatic Test Pressures Unbraided Assemblies Nominal I.D. Pressure 14 through 6 15 psig Hydrostatic Test The hydrostatic test not only tests for leakage it confirms the assemblys structural integrity. The assembly shall be pressurized with water to the maximum test pressure of the assembly and maintained for a sufficient length of time to permit a visual examination. Contact the manufacturer for maximum test pressure for each hose. To guard against corrosion the chloride content of the water used for testing austenitic stainless steel should be controlled to less than 50 ppm parts per million. The minimum testing time should be one 1 minute. Any evidence of leakage or permanent deformation is cause for rejection. Helium Mass Spectrometer Test Helium mass spectrometer testing is the most accurate way of evaluating leakage but not strength. Assemblies designed for critical applications should be leak tested with this method. All tested assemblies shall have a leak rate less than 1 x 10-3 stdccsec. Helium mass spectrometer testing to smaller leak rates may be available consult the assembly fabricator. Cleaning for Oxygen Oxygen can spontaneously ignite and explode in the presence of hydrocarbons or if solid particles are caught in its flow. Methods and parameters for both oxygen cleaning and cleanliness testing can be referenced in the Compressed Gas Association publication Cleaning Equipment for Oxygen Service CGA G-4.1. Breathable oxygen applications require special consideration. Consult the customer for appropriate requirements. Additional Leakage Tests Consult the fabricator for other testing methods. These may include but are not limited to the following Pressure Decay Vacuum Decay Mass Flow and Dye Penetrant Leak Test. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 1 Section 5 - Industrial Hose Section Contents 5.1 General Information 5.2 STAMPED 5.3 Assembly Component Selection Chart Chart is in Appendix I 5.4 Industrial Hose Data Sheets 5.5 Industrial Hose Fittings 5.6 Industrial Hose Attachments 5.7 Testing 5.8 Custom Made Hose 5.9 Ducting 5.1 General Industrial hose is normally constructed of rubber or plastic while being reinforced with textile fabric tire cord fabric andor braided or spiraled wire. Industrial hoses are designed for transfer of a wide range of materials in various specialty applications. In general some advantages of industrial hoses are increased hose flexibility the ability to produce long lengths large bore capabilities and the ability of industrial hose to coexist with a wide range of end fittings and attachment methods. Some typical applications for industrial hose are listed below air multipurpose hose water hose fire suppression hose cleaning service hose Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.2 water suction and discharge hose material handling hose specialty service hose food industry and transfer hose acid and chemical service hose petroleum service hose steam service hose aircraft refueling hose Industrial hoses are manufactured with a wide variety of rubber plastic or thermoplastic compounds due to the wide variety of conveyed materials solutions and applications. The particular compounds andor materials used for each industrial hose product depend on the specific application for each hose. See appendix C for a detailed description of hose materials. There are a number of factors that determine the appropriate materials used such as amount of oil resistance needed ARPM Class A B or C. amount of abrasion resistance needed amount of ozone andor weathering resistance needed amount of heat resistance needed amount of chemical or acid resistance needed type of service air liquid dry materials or steam service The two typical reinforcement methods of constructing industrial hose consist of braided or spiraled hose constructions. There are many factors that determine the reinforcement method. An example of a few factors that assist in determining the selected construction method are the elongation requirements amount of flexibility required vacuum resistance crush resistance or pressure requirements. Below is a brief description of each construction method braided hose construction hose reinforcement is attained by vertical or horizontal braiding of textile wire or other materials. Hoses may consist of a single braided layer to multiple braiding layers. Spiral or spiral-plied hose construction hose reinforcement is attained by spiral wrapping of textile wire or tire cord materials at specified angles. Multi-layer constructions are applied with each spiral layer in opposing directions. See Appendix C for a detailed description of reinforcement materials. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 3 5.2 STAMPED The STAMPED acronym stands for the 7 major information areas required to provide a quality hose assembly for the customer as follows S stands for SIZE I.D. and length any O.D. constraints overall length should be specified to include fittings tolerances need to be specified if special requirements exist I.D. O.D. and overall length of the assembly To determine the replacement hose I.D. read the layline printing on the side of the original hose. If the original hose layline is painted over or worn off the original hose must be cut and inside diameter measured for size. The inside diameter of the hose must be adequate to keep pressure loss to a minimum maintain adequate flow and avoid damage to the hose due to heat generation or excessive turbulence. The hose should be sized according to the nomographic chart in appendix D. Flow Rate Fluid Velocity - The flow rate of the system in conjunction with the inside diameter of the hose will dictate the fluid velocity through the hose. Typical fluid velocities can be seen in the nomographic chart in Appendix D. Please consult your hose supplier for specific recommended velocity ranges. Please note that suction line recommendations are different than pressure lines. T stands for TEMPERATURE of the material conveyed and environmental conditions Are there factors such as heat sources in the environment in which the hose will be used Continuous average and minimum and maximum temperatures have to be specified for both the environment and material conveyed Note if flame resistance or flammability will be an issue Sub-zero exposure Care must be taken when routing near hot manifolds and in extreme cases a heat shield may be advisable. Other things to consider maximum intermittent ambient temperature fluid temperature ambient temperature and maximum temperature. Maximum assembly working pressures will decrease as temperatures increase. A stands for the APPLICATION the conditions of use Configurationrouting add a sketch or drawing if applicable o is the hose hanging laying horizontally supported unsupported orientation and aspect of the hose o what else is attached to the hose any external load on the hose o bend radius requirements flexibility o elongation considerations with working pressure Quantify anticipated movement and geometry of use requirements Intermittent or continuous service Indoor and outdoor use Unusual mechanical loads Excessive abrasion Electrical conductivity requirements Equipment type External conditions abrasion oil specify type solvents specify type acid specify type and concentration ozone salt water Hose now in use o Type of hose o Service life being obtained and description of failure or source of customer Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.4 dissatisfaction Strength and frequency of impulsing or pressure spikes Non-flexing applications static flexing applications dynamic Vacuum requirements M stands for the MATERIAL or MEDIA being conveyed type and concentration Are there special requirements for this hose tube o Any special specifications or agency requirements that need to be considered e.g. FDA EI o Will the material be continuously flowing or sit in the hose for long periods of time specify Media velocity flow rate Chemical nameconcentration MSDS Solids description and size Fluid Compatibility - Some applications require specialized oils or chemicals to be conveyed through the system. Hose selection must assure compatibility of the hose tube. In addition to the hose materials all other components which make up the hose assembly hose ends o- rings etc must also be compatible with fluid being used. Depending on the fluid your hose supplier may lower the maximum temperature or pressure rating of the assembly. When selecting any hose assembly always consult your hose suppliers recommendations. P stands for the PRESSURE to which the assembly will be exposed System pressure including pressure spikes. Hose assembly working pressures must be equal to or greater than the system pressure. Pressure spikes greater than the maximum working pressure will shorten hose life and must be taken into consideration. Temperature implications Vacuum considerations Maximum Operating Pressure - This is the maximum pressure that the system should be exposed to in normal operating conditions. For hydraulic hose assemblies this pressure should be dictated by the relief setting of the system. Both the hose and hose end should not be rated to a pressure less than the maximum operating pressure of the system. Pressure Spikes - When a hydraulic system is subjected to a large load in a short period of time the system pressure can overshoot the relief setting and exceed the maximum operating pressure. Frequent pressure spikes can reduce the life of hydraulic hose assemblies. In general spiral hose constructions are better suited to high impulse applications which involve flexing and large pressure spikes. However there are specialized braided hoses available from various manufacturers. Please consult your hose supplier if there are multiple constructions which meet your application needs. Impulsing exposure of the assembly to changing pressures over time Maximum assembly working pressures will decrease as temperatures increase. E stands for ENDS style type orientation attachment methods etc. Uncoupled or coupled hose hose with built-in fittings Specify end style see charts and pictures in Section 5 Materials and dimensions steel stainless etc. Conductivity requirements D stands for DELIVERY Specific to customer requirements Testing requirements o certification requirements e.g. Coast Guard Any special packaging requirements Any special shipping requirements Tagging requirements Also refers to Determined Overall Length when working with Metal Hose Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 5 5.3 Industrial Hose Assembly Component Selection Chart Purpose The purpose of this section is to provide a simple chart of the most common industry recognized hose end connections and attachment method combinations that will satisfy the customers needs from the application information gathered from the STAMPED process. Procedures on how to use This document recognizes that all hose assemblies are made up of at least two to three components. The hose end connections and attachment method are the three recognized components. The following are the procedures on how to use the component selection chart STEP 1. Review STAMPED Section 2 and gather all the required application information to proceed with an assembly selection. STEP 2. Proceed to the Component Selection Chart which has the hose type fittings and attachments categories down the left columns of the chart. Select the appropriate hose fitting and attachment combination. Note These are typical industry combinations of hose end connections and attachment methods this chart is used as a guideline for best industry practices for hose assembly fabrication. For assemblies or components that are not listed it is strongly suggested to contact your local NAHAD Hose Safety Institute distributor for further information and recommendations. Pressure Ratings Hose assembly pressure ratings vary by hose fitting and attachment combinations and are always rated at the lesser of the hose fittings and attachment method used. Note pressure ratings for individual components e.g. hose couplings should be verified either by the distributor or the relevant manufacturer. Establishing assembly pressure ratings Establishing pressure ratings is different than proof testing and is not to be confused with proof testing. Proof testing is a nondestructive test to confirm the assembly is safe at the working pressure the assembly is rated to. Proof testing confirms the assembly method as valid and may point out any deficiencies in the components or methods used to create the assembly. Proof testing is generally done at the distributor level but may be carried out by the end user or others as may be required. Burst testing is the only method for establishing an assembly working pressure at 70F. Any rating alteration due to operation at other temperatures is not considered in this procedure but must be addressed if the assembly is to be subjected to nonstandard temperature. Burst is a destructive test and in most cases the parts used for the test are not suitable for further testing or use. Burst testing is generally carried out at the manufacturer level but may be accomplished by distributors as well or others with the qualified personnel and equipment. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.6 The assembly to be burst tested shall be assembled by published procedures. These may be manufacturers procedures NAHAD procedures or procedures created by the individual conducting the test. These procedures as well as the components used in the assembly creation shall be documented. The actual test shall be conducted to ASTM D380 procedures for a straight burst test except in this case the whole assembly is under scrutiny instead of only the hose. The test conditions shall include the assembly room and media at 70F - 2. Failure in this case is defined as a burst of the hose a leak from any of the components or relative hose movement. The hose burst is the most obvious a leak can be more difficult to detect and the tester must be vigilant in the observation. Relative hose movement is the most difficult to determine. When using a sleeve or bands the end of the hose is not obstructed and can be easily determined. Some hose movement relative to the fitting is expected when using bands as the hose settles into the correct location this is especially true with shanks that have larger bumps and the band may not be fully effective if the band is not positioned perfectly. Even determining this perfect position can be difficult as hose behavior affects this. Similarly movement at a ferrule can be difficult and cannot be determined at the open end of the ferrule and must be determined by the end of the hose. As the hose elongates some of this elongation occurs under the ferrule as well so viewing the open end may show some of this elongation while the hose has not moved at the hose end. If slots do not exist in the ferrule other means of determining the end of the hose must be utilized. This can include making slots in the ferrules for viewing or perhaps using any holes that may exist in the ferrule for viewing. Another factor that may affect the observation is hose shear where some of the layers move relative to each other but those layers with the most retention remain stationary. Documentation of the effects during testing shall be maintained and photos of any portion including the results are recommended. The assembly maximum working pressure shall not exceed the working pressure of the lowest rated component of the assembly. Temperature Derating Factors for Hose Assemblies Temperature directly affects maximum allowable working pressure. Most manufacturers rate maximum operating pressures at an ambient temperature of 70 degrees F. If a hose is to be considered for use in an application that exceeds this ambient temperature consult manufacturer for any pressure derating of the hose assembly. The Industrial Hose Component Selection Chart can be found at the end of this document in Appendix I. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 7 5.4 Hose Data Sheets 5.4.1 AirMulti Purpose Hose General Uses There are typically three categories of air hose oil resistant see chart below non-oil resistant and non-conductive. The lower pressure hoses are generally used for applications such as air guns service stations industrial air lines in plants and many other air services. High pressure air hoses which are considered to be hoses with working pressures above 300 psi 2069 kPa are generally used in construction and mining where large volumes of air service are required. The non- conductive air hose is specifically made to meet one megohm resistance per inch when 1000 volts DC is applied. Typical hose types include Non-Oil Resistant Rubber Air Hose Medium Oil-Resistant Rubber Air Hose High Oil-Resistant Rubber Air Hose Non-Conductive Air Hose PVC Air Hose Polyurethane Air Hose Textile Braid Air Drill Hose Wire Braid Air Hose. Limitations Hoses that are non-oil resistant rubber should not be used in an oil environment. Consult hose manufacturer for material and compatibility recommendations. Physical Properties After Exposure to Oil Volume Change Max. Tensile Strength Retained Class A High Oil Resistance 25 80 Class B Medium Oil Resistance 65 50 Class C Limited Oil Resistance 100 40 Disclaimer It is recommended that the user test the hosefluid compatibility to their own standards. Since no industry standards exist for chemical resistance the Compass Chemical Resistance Guide for Elastomers is used whenever possible. www.compasspublications.com see Appendix H of this document for additional information. Note Chart used with permission from ARPM Hose NAHAD and ARPM recommend the following minimum design ratios for newly manufactured hose Water hose up to 150 psi WP 31 Hoses for all other liquids solid materials suspended in liquids or air and water hose over 150 psi WP 41 Hoses for compressed air and other gasses 41 Hoses for liquid media that immediately changes into gas under standard atmospheric conditions 51 Steam hose 101 Other industry design ratios exist contact your Hose Safety Institute Distributor Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.8 Handbook. Warnings Do not use non-oil resistant hoses in an oil environment. Non-conductive hoses should be used in high voltage areas. Use extreme caution with high pressure air applications andor high temperature applications. When utilizing the crimp method to fabricate high pressure air hose assemblies using a heavy ferrule manufacturer crimp specifications MUST be used further it is critical that assembly components hose ferrule and hose insert systems be explicitly intended for air applications be explicitly intended for use together and be provided by recognized HSI distributor andor manufacturer members. Safety cables also known as whip-checks should be used with high pressure air hose applications to minimize the risk of operator injury. Refer to Appendix I Hose Assembly Component Selection Chart for fitting and attachment recommendations. 5.4.2 Asphalt and Hot Tar Hose General Uses This hose is designed for the bulk transfer and delivery of hot petroleum products such as tar asphalt and oil. This hose is generally designed for suction and discharge. Consult hose manufacturer for vacuum rating. Typical hose types include Hot Tar Asphalt Hose Asphalt Applicator or Wand Hose Limitations Generally the hoses are recommended for a maximum of 350 176.66C service. Consult hose manufacturer for specific temperature ratings. Warnings Consult the hose coupling andor attachment manufacturer if the application temperature is above 350F 176.66C. Fitting and attachment recommendations Hose Fitting Attachment Asphalt Hot Tar Ground Joint Interlocking Clamp Asphalt Hot Tar High Pressure Crimp High Pressure Crimp Ferrule Asphalt Hot Tar Internal Expansion - Steel Internal Expand Steel Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 9 5.4.3 Chemical Hose Plastic Lined General Uses This section covers Chemical rubber hoses manufactured from plastic liners such as Cross-Linked Polyethylene XLPE or Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene UHMWPE or Fluoropolymer. Chemical hose should be inspected tested and maintained per the guidelines of ARPMIP-11-7. Typical hose types include XLPE Chemical Hose UHMW Chemical Hose Nylon Chemical Hose conductive and non-conductive Rubber Covered Fluoropolymer Teflon Hose Limitations The hose and couplings and gaskets or seals selected for use must be compatible with the chemicals to be conveyed under the stated service conditions. Refer to ARPM Hose Handbook Chapter 8 Chemical Recommendations for general information andor consult with your hose and coupling suppliers for specific product recommendations. For more detailed information please consult Compass Publications latest edition for Elastomer Chemical Resistance. Refer to ARPM IP-11-7 Manual for Maintenance Testing and Inspection of Chemical Hose. Warning Hose assembly needs to be static grounded. Refer to Appendix I Hose Assembly Component Selection Chart for fitting and attachment recommendations. 5.4.4 Chemical Hose Rubber Lined General Uses This section covers Chemical hoses manufactured from various types of thermoset rubber polymers such as Natural Rubber NR Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Rubber CSM and Fluorocarbon Rubber FKM. Typical hose types include Natural Rubber Chemical Hose Viton Chemical hose Butyl Chemical Hose EPDM Chemical Hose. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.10 Limitations The hose and couplings and gaskets or seals selected for use must be compatible with the chemicals to be conveyed under the stated service conditions. Refer to ARPM Hose Handbook - Chapter 8 - Chemical Recommendations for general information andor consult with your hose and coupling suppliers for specific product recommendations. For more detailed information please consult Compass Publications latest edition for Elastomer Chemical Resistance. Refer to ARPM IP-11-7 Manual for Maintenance Testing and Inspection of Chemical Hose. Warning Hose assembly needs to be static grounded. Refer to Appendix I Hose Assembly Component Selection Chart for fitting and attachment recommendations. 5.4.5 Fire and Booster Hose General Uses For firefighting and protection usually high volume open end water discharge applications. See manufacturers and regulatory agencies for recommendations on pressures end connections and attachment methods. See Appendix H for agencies such as NFPA. Fitting and attachment recommendations Hose Fitting Attachment Fire Booster Reusable Fire Reusable Ferrule Fire Booster Fire Hose Fitting Internal Expansion 5.4.6 Food Handling Hose General Uses These requirements cover hose assemblies designed to convey food products dry foods liquid foods and fatty foods. The governing specifications are controlled by the FDA 3A NSF and USDA. There are four classes of hose in the 3A standard. This application covers sizes up to and including nominal inside diameter of 6 inches 152.4 mm. This standard would also encompass hose assemblies addressed by other agencies such as NSF Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 11 which cover hot food oil hose that is used at 300F 148.88C and intermittent to 350F 176.66C. Typical hose types include Rubber covered chlorobutyl EPDM Nitrile and fluoropolymer tube materials must be manufactured with FDA 3A and NSF approved materials refer to manufacturers specific recommendations and approvals. There are also various thermoplastic hose constructions used in food handling and dry bulk applications. Warning Dry bulk transfer applications must be static grounded. Refer to Appendix I Hose Assembly Component Selection Chart for fitting and attachment recommendations. 5.4.7 Lay Flat Hose General Uses This section covers General Purpose Lay Flat hose i.e. hose that when empty may be rolled onto itself providing a neat compact package. Hoses of this type may be manufactured using various types of thermoplastics and or thermoset rubber polymers that provide some minor degree of oil resistance. Polymers that may be used are but not limited to Polyvinyl Chloride Natural Rubber NR Styrene Butadiene Rubber SBR Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber NBR or Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer EPDM alone or in combination. Hoses of this type are normally used as discharge hoses in construction agriculture mining and marine industries. It is used to transport water or water based material from point of supply to point of discharge. This includes but not limited to sump or bilge drainage stock pond water flood drainage process water etc. Typical hose types include Water Discharge Hose Temporary Water Pipeline Hose and Irrigation Hose. Limitations Lay Flat hoses must not be connected to the suction side of a pump system. General Purpose Lay Flat hoses are NOT intended to be used to transport water intended for human consumption unless specifically designed for potable water nor should they be used to transport steam or super hot water such as a condensate collection line above 140F 60C. General Purpose Lay Flat hoses should not be used to transport oil or solvent-based liquids and should not be used to transport materials at temperatures below 20F -28.88C. Contact hose manufacturer for specific applications outside of the listed parameters. Refer to Appendix I Hose Assembly Component Selection Chart for fitting and attachment recommendations. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.12 5.4.8 Material Handling Hose Bulk Transfer General Uses These hoses are typically used to convey products such as dust limestone wood chips ores coal sand gravel grains ground slate asphalt roofing chips metal shavings flour fish or shells andor slurries by means of suction gravity feed or pneumatic conveyance. Most products contain a means for static charge dissipation by incorporating a ground wires in the hose wall andor the use of a static-conducting black rubber in the tube. Typical hose types include Natural Rubber Material Handling Black Rubber SBR or CR Material Handling Hose Cement Discharge PVC Material Handling Urethane Material Handling Limitations The hose and couplings selected for use must be compatible with the products to be conveyed under the stated service conditions. For example use a black static conductive SBR tube for extremely abrasive materials. Use a black static conductive CR tube for oil and abrasion resistance. The thickness of the tubes may vary from 116 inch 3.17 mm to 12 inch 12.7 mm depending on the severity of wear and service life expected. Warning Hose assembly may need to be static grounded depending on application. Refer to Appendix I Hose Assembly Component Selection Chart for fitting and attachment recommendations. 5.4.9 Material Handling Hose High Pressure Cement Handling General Uses These hoses are typically used in plaster grout shotcrete and cement applications handling a multitude of materials being pumped to concrete structures tunnel faces swimming pools etc. at pressures from 700 to 1000 psi 4826 kPa to 6890 kPa. For use as a flexible connection between pumping equipment and hard piping or as discharge hose on the delivery end of high pressure concrete pumps. Typical hose types include Cement Placement Hose Plaster Grout Hose. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 13 Limitations Typical operating temperature is 25F -32C to 150F 65C. Note Concrete Pumping Manufacturers Association 27-2000 specifies a 21 design ratio. Fitting and attachment recommendations Hose Fitting Attachment High Pressure Cement Crimp Swage Heavy Ferrule High Pressure Cement Ground Joint Interlocking Clamp High Pressure Cement Internal Expansion Internal Expand Ferrule 5.4.10 Petroleum Fuel Oil Hose General Uses These hoses are typically used for transfer of fuel oil and other petroleum based products in home delivery commercial and industrial service. Typical hose types include Fuel Oil Delivery Hose Limitations This hose is designed for fuel oil service. Hose usually ranges in inside diameters of 1 to 1 inches 25.4 mm to 38.1 mm. The normal application temperature range is -40F -40C to 140F 60C. Hose is NOT to be used in a vacuum application. Fitting and attachment recommendations Hose Fitting Attachment Petroleum - Fuel Oil Internal Expansion Brass Internal Expand Ferrule Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.14 5.4.11 Petroleum Drop Hose General Uses These hoses are typically used for transfer of gasoline and other petroleum based products under low pressure gravity flow or suction. Limitations This hose is designed for petroleum based products. Consult manufacturer for compatibility of blended fuels such as biodiesel and E85 fuels. Hose can be used in a vacuum if the hose is constructed with a helical wire or reinforcement that will support a vacuum. The normal application temperature range is -20F to 180F -29C to 82C. Warning Hose assembly needs to be static grounded. Fitting and attachment recommendations Hose Fitting Attachment Petroleum Drop Cam Groove Crimp Sleeve Petroleum Drop Cam Groove Crimp Swage Ferrule Petroleum Drop Cam Groove Preformed Clamp 5.4.12 Petroleum Vapor Recovery Hose General Uses These hoses are typically used for recovering gasoline vapors in tank truck loading at bulk terminals and in tank truck unloading at service stations. Typical hose types include Stage I Vapor Recovery Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 15 Limitations This hose is designed for petroleum based products. Consult manufacturer for compatibility of blended fuels such as biodiesel and E85 fuels. The normal application temperature range is -20F -29C to 180F 82C for rubber products or -20F -29C to 140F 60C for Urethane and PVC products. Warnings Hose is designed for VAPOR RECOVERY ONLY. Hose needs to be static grounded. Fitting and attachment recommendations Hose Fitting Attachment Vapor Recovery Cam Groove Crimp Sleeve Vapor Recovery Cam Groove Crimp Swage Ferrule Vapor Recovery Cam Groove Preformed Clamp 5.4.13 Petroleum Discharge Hose General Uses These hoses are typically used for transfer of gasoline and other petroleum based products under pressure or gravity flow. Typical hose types include Petroleum Discharge Hose Limitations This hose is designed for petroleum based products. Consult manufacturer for compatibility of blended fuels such as biodiesel and E85 fuels. Hose is usually designed for a maximum of 150 psi 1034.24 kPa working pressure. Hose should NOT be used in a vacuum application. The normal application temperature range is -20F -29C to 180F 82C. Refer to ARPM IP-11-4 Manual for Maintenance Testing and Inspection of Oil Suction and Discharge Hose and ARPM IP-8 Specifications for Oil Suction and Discharge Hose. Warning Hose assembly needs to be static grounded. Refer to Appendix I Hose Assembly Component Selection Chart for fitting and attachment recommendations. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.16 5.4.14 Petroleum Suction and Discharge Hose General Uses These hoses are typically used for transfer of gasoline and other petroleum based products under pressure gravity flow or suction. Typical hose types include Oil Gasoline Petroleum and Biodiesel Suction and Discharge Oilfield Suction and Discharge Limitations This hose is designed for petroleum based products. Consult manufacturer for compatibility of blended fuels such as biodiesel and E85 fuels. Hose is typically designed for a maximum of 150 psi 1034.24 kPa working pressure consult manufacturer for higher pressure and temperature applications. Hose can be used in a vacuum application if the hose is constructed with a helical wire or reinforcement that will support a vacuum. The normal application temperature range is -20F -29C to 180F 82 C. Refer to ARPM IP-11-4 Manual for Maintenance Testing and Inspection of Oil Suction Discharge Hose and ARPM IP-8 Specifications for Oil Suction Discharge Hose. Warning Hose assembly needs to be static grounded. Refer to Appendix I Hose Assembly Component Selection Chart for fitting and attachment recommendations. 5.4.15 Petroleum Curb Pump Dispensing Hose General Uses These hoses are used for the dispensing of petroleum-based products at automotive marine and agricultural fueling facilities. Limitations Some applications may be regulated by agencies such as U.S. Coast Guard California Air Resource Board CARB UL or State and local governments and NFPA. Reference ARPM IP-11-8 Manual for Maintenance Testing and Inspection of Petroleum Service Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 17 Suction Gasoline Dispensing Hose and Hose Accessories. Warning there are many types of fuels including bio-fuels and ethanol-based fuels that can cause degradation of the hose tube causing premature failure of the assembly. Consult the manufacturer for recommendations of proper hose end connections and attachment methods to be used. Hose assembly needs to be static grounded. Only the highest quality UL tested hose should be selected for this service. 5.4.16 Push On Hose General Uses These hoses are typically used for air tools to convey water mild chemicals and various petroleum products. These hoses are generally used for air applications up to a maximum of 350 psi 2413.25 kPa. The size range is typically inch 6.35 mm to 1 inch 25.4 mm. Typical hose types include Push-On Hose Limitations These hoses are used with push on couplings although some manufacturers offer a crimp fitting for specific applications. Service temperature range is normally -40F 4C to 190F please check with the hose manufacturer for temperatures above 120F 49C and compatibility with various chemicals. Warnings Due to the risk of tube damage external clamp should never be used in combination with push on style fittings. Fitting and attachment recommendations Hose Fitting Attachment Push On Push On Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.18 5.4.17 Sandblast Hose General Uses These hoses are typically used for sandblasting of metal castings steel stone and cement - wherever abrasive materials are carried at a high velocity. Limitations Hose is designed with materials that do not have a high temperature rating. The typical temperature range is -40F 4.0C to 160F 71.1C. Warnings This hose requires special couplings for the application. Sandblasting hoses do not have a long service life due to extreme application. Hoses should be inspected periodically to insure integrity of the assembly. Fitting and attachment recommendations. Hose Fitting Attachment Sand Blast Sand Blast 5.4.18 Steam Hose General Uses These hoses are typically used for the transport of pressurized saturated steam pressurized super- heated steam or pressurized hot water from point of supply to point of use. Typical hose types include Steam Hose Refinery Steam Hose Limitations Steam hoses must not be used for service above their rated working pressures or temperatures. Steam hoses should not be used to transport any material other than those listed in the General Use section above. Steam or hot water contaminated with hydrocarbons or chemicals may shorten service life. Hoses should always be drained after use and prior to storage. Refer to ARPM IP11-1 Guide for Use Maintenance Testing and Inspection of Steam Hose. These hoses are NOT intended to connect a steam supply point and a pressurized steam vessel or autoclave. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 19 Use only hose specifically recommended for steam service. ARPM specifies a 101 design ratio for steam hoses. Warning When utilizing the crimp method to fabricate steam hose assemblies manufacturer crimp specifications MUST be used further it is critical that assembly components hose ferrule and hose insert systems be explicitly intended for steam applications be explicitly intended for use together and be provided by recognized HSI distributor andor manufacturer members. Hose assembly needs to be static grounded. Fitting and attachment recommendations Hose Fitting Attachment Steam Ground Joint Interlocking Clamp 5.4.19 Water General Purpose General Uses These lower pressure hoses are typically used to transport water or water based materials from point of supply to point of use. High pressure water hoses which are considered to be hoses with working pressures above 300 psi 2069 kPa are generally used in construction and mining where large volume or high pressure water service is required. Typical hose types include Water Hose Garden Hose Jetting Hose Limitations Hoses used to transport hot water MUST NOT be used to transport pressurized steam. General purpose water hoses are NOT intended to transport water for human consumption. Warnings Do not use non-oil resistant hoses in an oil environment. Use extreme caution with high pressure water applications. Refer to Appendix I Hose Assembly Component Selection Chart for fitting and attachment recommendations. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.20 5.4.20 Water - Suction and Discharge Hose Rubber General Uses These hoses are typically used for suction and discharge of water at low to medium pressures. Suction hoses will normally have a helical reinforcement to handle vacuum applications. Typical hose types include Water Suction and Discharge Hose. Limitations Hoses used to transport hot water MUST NOT be used to transport pressurized steam. Suction and discharge hoses are NOT intended to transport water for human consumption. Warnings Do not use non-oil resistant hoses in an oil environment. Use extreme caution with high pressure water applications. Refer to Appendix I Hose Assembly Component Selection Chart for fitting and attachment recommendations. 5.4.21 Water Suction Hose Plastic General Uses These hoses are typically used for suction of water or open ended low pressure discharge. Suction hoses will normally have a helical reinforcement to handle vacuum applications. Limitations Generally not suited for high temperature applications. Warnings Do not use non-oil resistant hoses in an oil environment. Use extreme caution with high pressure water applications. Refer to Appendix I Hose Assembly Component Selection Chart for fitting and attachment recommendations. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 21 5.4.22 Water Pressure Washer General Uses These hoses are typically used for the transfer of water at high pressure. Limitations Not all pressure washer hoses are designed to handle steam applications. Warnings Do not exceed manufacturers recommended pressure and temperature specifications. Fitting and attachment recommendations. Hose Fitting Attachment Water-Pressure Washer High Pressure Crimp High Pressure Crimp Ferrule 5.4.23 Water Sewer Cleaning Hose General Uses These hoses are typically used for high pressure open end sewer and water jetting applications. Typically used in long one piece lengths. Limitations Burst pressures may vary by manufacturer consult manufacturer for design ratios. Fitting and attachment recommendations Hose Fitting Attachment Water - Sewer Cleaning High Pressure Crimp Swage High Pressure Ferrule Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.22 5.4.24 Water - Washdown General Uses These hoses are typically used for medium to high pressure water applications typically for cleanup of food processing plants oil rigs paper mills breweries and other industrial facilities. Limitations Not all washdown hoses are designed to handle steam applications. These hoses are available with a variety of pressure ratings. Fitting and attachment recommendations Hose Fitting Attachment Water - Washdown Machined Long Preformed Clamp Water - Washdown Machined Medium Crimp Sleeve Water - Washdown Machined Medium Preformed Clamp Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 23 5.5 Industrial Hose Fittings 5.5.1 Cam and Groove Metallic Only Female Cam Groove Female Cam Groove Male Cam Groove with Locking Arms without Locking Arms General Uses Cam and Groove female couplers and male adapters are used as a means of quickly coupling small to large hose assemblies. They connect hose to hose or hose to a pipe system for the purpose of transferring liquids or dry bulk products. Connections are made by inserting the male into the female coupler and rotating ALL the cam arms into their locked positions. Cam and Groove couplings are available in both locking and non-locking cam arm designs. Sizes range from 12 inch to 12 inch nominal size. Limitations Care must be used to select a body material arm material and gasket material that is compatible with the material being transferred through the coupling. Various hose shank styles are available to accommodate different hose attachment methods and hose configurations. Care should be taken in hose shank selection to prevent damage to the hose tube while maintaining retention integrity. For maximum coupling retention an interlocking collar should be used. Cam and Groove fittings are interchangeable among manufacturers with the exception of inch 5 inch 8 inch10 inch or 12 inch which may not be interchangeable. Pressure ratings of cam and groove fittings vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. Be sure to select a Cam and Groove fitting that will meet the application requirements. Contact your NAHAD Hose Safety Institute Distributor or Manufacturer for more information on material and hose shank selection interchangeability and pressure rating capabilities. Warnings Cam and Groove couplings must never be used for compressed gas or steam service. When replacement of cam arms is necessary use only original manufacturers replacement arms. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.24 When using band style clamps cam and groove couplings are designed for evenly spaced clamps with buckles rotated 180 degrees from each other. 5.5.2 Universal Coupling Chicago Claw Crowsfoot General Uses This fitting is designed for air and water service and provides a quick connection between two lengths of hose or length of hose and a male or female NPT outlet. In sizes inch 6.35 mm to 1 inch 25.4 mm all heads are the same and are interchangeable regardless of the hose shank or NPT thread size. Sizes 1-14 inch 31.75 mm to 2 inch 50.8 mm use a 4-lug connection. Connections made by pressing the two heads together and applying a quarter-turn. The locking pin is placed in the holes to provide a safe connection Limitations The universal fittings through 1 size have a working pressure rating of 150 psi. Consult fitting manufacturer for working pressures for sizes 1-14 through 2. Warnings Safety pins clips or wires should always be installed in couplings. The universal fitting should never be used for steam service. 5.5.3 Short Shank Machined Fittings Minimum Shank Lengths Nominal Size Shank Length 14 6.35 mm 1516 23.8 mm 38 9.53 mm 1516 23.8 mm 12 12.7 mm 1516 23.8 mm 58 15.9 mm 1516 23.8 mm 34 19 mm 1516 23.8 mm 1 25.4 mm 1-14 31.8 mm Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 25 General Uses Low-pressure air water and fluid transfer. Fitting styles include inserts barbed quick disconnects single bump nipples and small bore barbed inserts of other metallic and non-metallic materials. Examples include brass stainless steel carbon steel polypropylene nylon and PVDF. Lead-free brass fittings are now available and should be used for potable water applications. Limitations Careful consideration must be given to dangerous or volatile fluids. Types of end connections may affect pressure ratings consult a NAHAD Hose Safety Institute distributor for pressure ratings. 5.5.4 Medium Shank Machined Fittings Minimum shank lengths and serration depths Nominal Size Shank Length Depth 14 6.35 mm 1-38 34.9 mm .025 .64 mm 38 9.35 mm 1-38 34.9 mm .025 .64 mm 12 12.7 mm 1-38 34.9 mm .030 .64 mm 58 15.9 mm 1-38 34.9 mm .030 .64 mm 34 19 mm 1-38 34.9 mm .030 .64 mm 1 25.4 mm 1-38 34.9 mm .030 .64 mm 1-14 31.8 mm 1-1116 42.9 mm .035 .89 mm 1-12 38.1 mm 1-1116 42.9 mm .035 .89 mm 2 50.8 mm 2-14 57.2 mm .045 1.1 mm General Uses Low pressure air water and fluid transfer by suction or discharge. Fitting styles include double bump grooved nipples and Bowes Thor style. Limitations Careful consideration must be given to dangerous or volatile fluids. Types of end connections may affect pressure ratings consult a NAHAD Hose Safety Institute distributor for pressure ratings. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.26 5.5.5 Long Shank Machined Fittings Minimum shank lengths and serration depths Nominal Size Shank Length Depth 12 12.7mm 2 50.8mm .030 .76mm 58 15.9mm 2 50.8mm .030 .76mm 34 19mm 2-716 61.9mm .030 .76mm 1 25.4mm 2-1316 71.4mm .030 .76mm 1-14 31.8mm 3-58 92mm .035 .89mm 1-12 38.1mm 3-34 95mm .035 .89mm 2 50.8mm 4-14 108mm .045 1.14mm 2-12 63.5mm 4-58 117mm .045 1.14mm 3 76.2mm 5-14 133mm .045 1.14mm 4 102mm 5-14 133mm .045 1.14mm General Uses Low pressure fluid transfer by suction or discharge. Fitting styles include long shank combination nipples and long shank menders. Limitations Careful consideration must be given to dangerous or volatile fluids. Types of end connections may affect pressure ratings consult a NAHAD Hose Safety Institute distributor for pressure ratings. 5.5.6 Combination Nipples Nipple Ball and Socket Female Ball and Socket Male Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 27 General Uses Low pressure discharge and suction for compatible liquids. Made from stainless steel carbon steel and brass. Fitting styles include male NPT beveled end grooved end ball and socket flanged and flange retainers as well as menders. Limitations Not for use with compressible products such as air or nitrogen on sizes 1 or above. Not for use with steam. Ball Socket Couplings are designed for low pressure water applications only. This section covers Ball Socket Couplings with a serrated shank design only. Refer to manufacturer for pressure ratings for irrigation style shank designs. 5.5.7 Cast Shank Fittings General Uses Low pressure liquid transfer by suction and discharge. Fitting styles include shank couplings suction couplings pin lug couplings and other shank fittings not meeting the specific requirements of the other categories. Limitations Careful consideration must be given to dangerous or volatile fluids. Types of end connections may affect pressure ratings consult a NAHAD Hose Safety Institute distributor for pressure ratings. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.28 5.5.8 Ground Joint Fittings General Uses High pressure air water steam other high pressure elevated temperature applications. Fitting styles include tapered seat and washer seal ground joints interlocking male stems and interlocking hose menders. Ground joints will always connect to spud adaptors female spud male spud or double spud. Limitations For ASME B31.1 applications A. Ground joints malleable or ductile interlocking male stems not to be used for toxic fluids or flammable gases. B. Steel interlocking male stems limited to 775F 412.8C. Malleable or ductile ground joints or interlocking male stems limited to 350 psi 2413 kPa and 450F 232.2C. C. Steel or ductile ground joints or interlocking male stems limited to 400F 204.4C for flammable or combustible liquids. Malleable ground joints or interlocking male stems may not be suitable for flammable or combustible fluids. D. Further code consultation is recommended. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 29 For ASME B31.3 applications A. Steel ground joints or interlocking male stems are not suitable. B. Malleable or ductile ground joints or interlocking male stems limited to -20F -8.9C to 650F 343C temperature range. C. Malleable ground joints or interlocking male stems not suitable for severe cyclic conditions. D. Malleable ground joints or interlocking male stems not suitable for flammable fluid service above 300F 148.9C or 400 psi. 2758 kPa. E. Ground joints or interlocking male stems not suitable for category K fluid service. Category K fluid service is defined by the owner of the piping system as high pressure typically above 2500 psi 17237 kPa. F. Further code consultation is recommended. Warnings When using ground joint type fittings and heavy ferrules for high pressure applications use only components approved for use together by the hose and coupling manufacturers. When utilizing the crimp method to fabricate steam hose assemblies manufacturer crimp specifications MUST be used further it is critical that assembly components hose ferrule and hose insert systems be explicitly intended for steam applications be explicitly intended for use together and be provided by recognized HSI distributor andor manufacturer members. 5.5.9 Internally Expanded Permanent Fitting General Uses An internally expanded coupling provides a permanent interlocked connection between coupling and hose where full flow is desired. These do not include internally expanded brass short shank fittings. Limitation Special expanding equipment is necessary to attach fittings to hose. Be sure to measure both ends of the hose in order to select the proper size ferrule to match the outside diameter of each end of the hose. It is recommended to utilize ferrules and inserts from the same manufacturer for assembly. Warnings Not intended for hoses lined with Cross-Linked Polyethylene Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Nylon or any type of Fluoropolymer. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.30 5.5 10 Internally Expanded Brass Short Shank General Uses The internally expanded short shank brass couplings are typically recommended for low-pressure discharge and suction service. Commonly used in the transfer of fuel to homes airplanes ships etc. The working pressure of these fittings varies with the size of the fitting the size and construction of the hose and the media being conveyed. Consult your Hose Safety Institute Distributor for recommendations. Limitations Body and gasket material must be compatible with the material being transferred through the coupling. Special internal expanding coupling machinery is required to properly install these fittings. Be sure to measure the hose OD of both ends of the hose in order to select the proper size ferrule to match the OD of each end of the hose. It is recommended to use inserts and ferrules from the same manufacturer for assembly. Where the final hose assembly must comply with API 1529 specifications the couplings must be manufactured to comply with API 1529. Warnings Internally expanded brass short couplings are not intended for air service. 5.5.11 Sanitary Internal Expansion Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 31 General Uses Internally expanded sanitary stainless steel food grade fittings are designed for various food hose applications including the processing of wine beer juice vegetables and dairy products also included are cosmetics lotions etc. Limitations If utilizing internal expanded fittings special internal expanding equipment is required to attach fittings to hose. Be sure to measure the hose OD of both ends of the hose in order to select the proper size ferrule to match the outside diameter of each end of the hose. It is recommended to utilize ferrules and inserts from the same manufacturer for assembly. The following governing bodies may have applicable standards 3-A FDA USP USDA NSF CFIA be sure you have an understanding of your customers specific requirements. 5.5.12 Sanitary External Crimp General Uses Externally crimped sanitary stainless steel food grade fittings are designed for various food hose applications including the processing of wine beer juice vegetables and dairy products also included are cosmetics lotions etc. Limitations The following governing bodies may have applicable standards 3-A FDA USP USDA NSF be sure you have an understanding of your customers specific requirements. Also check with the coupling manufacturer to ensure the couplings are recommended for food applications. 5.5.13 Interlocking Crimp Stem with Ferrule Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.32 General Uses A crimp stem with ferrule provides a connection between coupling and hose allowing for higher- pressure assemblies. These fittings include an interlocking groove or shoulder that is specifically designed to be used with an interlocking ferrule. Limitations Crimping equipment is necessary to attach fittings to the hose. It is recommended to utilize ferrules and inserts from the same manufacturer for assembly. 5.5.14 Sand Blast General Uses Designed for use on Sand Blast hose. Materials may include Aluminum Brass and Plastic. Limitations Since these fittings attach to the outside of the hose with screws they are to be used only with Sand Blast hose. Special care must be taken not to let the screws penetrate the hose tube. Warnings These fittings are designed to be used with Sand Blast hose only. 5.5.15 Push-On General Uses Push-On fittings are specifically designed for Push-On style hose. These fittings are commonly used for air water petroleum based fluids etc. Limitations Fittings are designed to be used without hose ferrules or clamps. Warnings These fittings are designed for Push-On hose only. The barbs of the fitting are larger in diameter and may cut the tube if used on other hoses. Not to be used with any type of hose clamp. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 33 5.5.16 High Pressure Crimp General Uses High pressure crimped fittings are typically utilized to obtain higher working pressure hose assemblies. Permanent crimped hydraulic fittings require crimping or swaging equipment to assemble to a hose. They are available in either pre-assembled into a one piece coupling or offered in a two-piece configuration. Two-piece configurations consist of a stem with a groove or shoulder that is specifically designed to be used with an interlocking ferrule. When using two-piece fittings it is important to match the ferrule with its appropriate stem and hose. Limitation Special crimping equipment is necessary to attach fittings to the hose. If using a two-piece hydraulic coupling it is recommended to utilize ferrules and inserts from the same manufacturer for assembly. Generally available in sizes up to 2 inch. See Hydraulic Fittings section of this manual for available thread types and end configurations. Warnings Care should be taken to crimp to the recommended crimp specification provided by the coupling or hose manufacturer. Aggressive ferrule constructions may cause damage to the hose wall and reinforcement. Consult fitting manufacturer for proper fitting types. 5.5.17 Field AttachableReusable General Uses For applications requiring reattachment of hose in the field or requirement to reuse the fittings. Can usually be attached with only a vise and a wrench. Limitations Generally available in sizes up to 12 inch. Be sure to measure the OD of each end of the hose to select the proper size ferrule to match the outside diameter of each end of the hose. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.34 Warnings Make sure to review manufacturers assembly procedures and do not miss-match manufacturers components. 5.5.18 Fire Hose Fitting General Uses Brass or Aluminum internally expanded coupling used on open end water discharge hose or internally expanded hard wall fire engine suction hose. The working pressure of these fittings varies with the size of the fitting the size and construction of the hose. Generally used for water service. Most common thread types are NPSH and NST. Various municipalities have their own thread types. Consult your NAHAD Hose Safety Institute Distributor for recommendations. Limitations Special internal expanding equipment is required to assemble these couplings with internal expansion rings. Be sure to measure the OD of both ends of the hose to select the proper size bowl to match the OD of each end of the hose. Warnings The selection of the bowl size is critical to proper hose performance. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 35 5.6 Industrial Hose Attachments 5.6.1 Crimp Ferrule General Uses Properly interlocked crimped stems and ferrules can provide greater fitting retention and improved resistance to higher pressures fitting blow-offs and leaks. Limitations Crimp stems and the ferrules have to properly interlock. Ferrule material thickness has a direct impact on assembly working pressure. The material of the ferrule must be compatible with all materials to which it may be exposed. This includes both the material being transferred as well as external materials. Proper equipment is required to crimp the ferrule onto the assembly. For maximum coupling retention the ferrule must lock into the hose shank locking collar. Warnings For proper component selection and crimping instructions refer to your NAHAD Hose Safety Institute Distributor. 5.6.2 Crimp Sleeve General Uses Crimped Sleeves may be used on virtually any stem that is designed for crimping. These sleeves do not interlock with the stem however they provide 360 degree compression of the hose wall creating a leak-free assembly if properly assembled. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.36 Limitations The material of the sleeve must be compatible with all materials to which it may be exposed. This includes both the material being transferred as well as external materials. Proper equipment is required to crimp the sleeve onto the assembly. 5.6.3 Heavy Ferrule - Swaged General Uses Swaged ferrules are designed to be used with fittings with a collar to provide a high pressure hose assembly where an interlocked connection is required between fitting and ferrule. Limitations For purposes of this document the assembly pressure charts in Section 5 are based on Swaged Ferrules with a minimum wall of .085 2.16 mm. Contact coupling manufacturer for pressure recommendations of the use of thinner wall ferrules. It is recommended that the fittings and the ferrules be from the same manufacturer. Special equipment is required to assemble these ferrules. The proper swage diameter die and ferrule selection are critical for the fabrication of a safe hose assembly. 5.6.4 Light Duty Crimp Ferrules for Small Diameter Hose General Uses Small light-weight crimped ferrules provide fitting retention for general multi-purpose hose with fabric braid or spiral reinforcement. Usually supplied in brass aluminum steel and stainless steel. Limitations Proper equipment is required to crimp the ferrule onto the assembly. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 37 Warnings For proper component selection and crimping instructions refer to your NAHAD Hose Safety Institute Distributor. 5.6.5 Clamp Interlocking General Uses High pressure andor high temperature clamping on ground joint coupling interlocking male stems and other fittings with an interlocking collar. Limitations Not designed for use with fittings without an interlocking collar. Warnings Re-tightening of clamps is necessary before each use. Regular inspection of the assembly is recommended. Refer to manufacturers recommendations for torque and tightening sequence. 5.6.6 Clamp Pinch Two-Ear One-Ear Pinch Clamp Pinch Tool General Uses Metal pinch clamps are manufactured in a variety of styles. These styles include 1-ear 2-ear and stepless. The two-ear clamps discussed in this document are manufactured out of 1008 carbon steel which is zinc plated or stainless steel. Depending upon the size of the clamps the physical dimensions of these clamps may vary. These clamps are designed to attach machined or cast barbed fittings to general multi-purpose hose with fabric braid or spiral reinforcement. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.38 Limitations Pinch clamps should not be used for service on high pressure applications. Proper tools are required for installation and removal of pinch clamps. Warnings Sizing of the materials to be clamped is of utmost importance. Proper sizing is achieved by measuring the outside diameter OD of the hose after the appropriate fitting coupling is inserted firmly and squarely into the hose. 5.6.7 Band Buckles General Uses To secure medium and heavy wall hose to grooved or serrated fitting shanks. Band and buckle is applied with manual tools only and therefore may be too time consuming for high volume production. On the other hand the band buckle method gives complete diameter versatility. This versatility makes this attachment method especially suitable for field installation and repairs. Suggested band clamp selection chart Hose ID Clamp Band Width 38 1 38 - 1 - 2 58 2 12 Limitations Not suited for very small diameter hose. Warnings Improperly tightened bands or an insufficient number of bands used per fitting may result in a potentially dangerous hose assembly. A tighter band keeps the fitting more secure but excess tension could damage the hose andor fitting. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 39 5.6.8 Internal Expansion Ferrule General Uses Internal expanded ferrules are designed to be used with interlocking internally expanded stems to provide high fitting retention and a full flow hose assembly. Limitations Special internal expanding equipment is required to assemble these ferrules with internal expanding inserts or pull mandrels. It is recommended that the fittings and the ferrules be from the same manufacturer. Be sure to measure the OD of each end of the hose to select the proper size ferrule to match the OD of each end of the hose. 5.6.9 Internal Expansion Short Brass or Stainless Ferrule General Uses Brass or Stainless Steel Ferrules are used exclusively on internally expanded permanent couplings. Recommended for low pressure discharge and suction service. Commonly used in the transfer of fuel in industry such as homes airplanes ships etc. The working pressure of these fittings may vary with the size of the fitting the size and construction of the hose and the media being conveyed. Consult your NAHAD Hose Safety Institute Distributor for recommendations. Limitations Special internal expanding equipment is required to assemble these ferrules with internal expanding inserts. It is recommended that the fittings and the ferrules be from the same manufacturer. Be sure to measure the OD of each end of the hose to select the proper size ferrule to match the OD of each end of the hose. Warnings These internally expanded short brass or stainless ferrules are not intended for air service. 40 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 5.6.10 Clamp Bolt Double Bolt Single Bolt Spiral Clamp General Uses These clamps provide a means to secure fittings in heavy or light wall hose. For use with low pressure couplings for suction and discharge service and for light duty material handling applications. Limitations Hose outside diameter determines the proper size clamp to use. Single bolt clamps have hose range of 78 inch 22.22 mm to 5-14 inches 133.35 mm. Double bolt clamps have hose range of 3-12 inches 88.9 mm to 17-12 inches 444.5 mm. Malleable iron construction restricts use under certain conditions. Check compatibility with media used as well as the environment. Warning When using bolt style clamps on helical wire hose consult your NAHAD Hose Safety Institute Distributor. 5.6.11 Clamp Preformed General Uses Versatile and commonly used to secure hose to many types of fittings including short medium and long shank fittings as well as cam and groove fittings. Can be used with a hand tool in the field or on site with a hand or automatic production hose clamping machine. Suggested Band Clamp Selection Chart Punch Style Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 41 Suggested Band Clamp Selection Chart Punch Style Hose ID Clamp Band Width 38- 58 38 - 6 58 Suggested Band Clamp Selection Chart Rollover Style Hose ID Clamp Band Width 38- 38 - - 2 58 2 6 Limitations Do not use for steam or other applications where clamp re-tightening is required. Warnings It is recommended that more than one clamp be used if the hose shank length or fitting design will allow. It is necessary to properly offset buckles 180 degrees to avoid potential leak paths. Improperly tightened clamps or an insufficient number of clamps used per fitting may result in a potentially dangerous hose assembly. A tighter clamp keeps the fitting more secure but excess tension could damage the hose andor fitting. Preformed clamp design metal thickness band width material and tension will all have an effect on assembly pressure ratings. Please contact your NAHAD Hose Safety Institute Distributor for guidance. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.42 5.7 Testing Procedures for Industrial Hose 5.7.1 Hydrostatic Proof Pressure Tests Non-destructive A proof test is typically conducted for 5 minutes under pressure at one and a half times 1.5x the working pressure for new or used assemblies. Proof or hydrostatic testing refers to testing that proves the finished hose assembly meets the pressure rating required by the application for which it will be used and that the end fittings have been correctly fitted and the assembly is leak free. For assembly testing the rating of the component with the lowest rated working pressure determines the working pressure of the assembly. Pressurize hose to 10 psi for 60 seconds prior to conducting the hydrostatic test. Hose assembly should be secured in an encapsulated tank that will withstand the pressure at a minimum make sure that the hose is sufficiently shielded during pressure testing to stop a coupling in case of a coupling blow-off If applicable secure hose with steel rods or straps close to each end and at ten-foot intervals along the length of the hose. This will prevent it from whipping if a failure occurs. The securing rods or straps must be anchored firmly to the test structure but should not contact the hose. The hose must be free to move slightly when pressure is applied. Hoses must be properly cleaned prior to inspection and testing this will prevent unexpected reactions between conveyants and the test media. Always wear safety glasses gloves and protective clothing to protect from leaks or high pressure spray. Also use shields to protect people in the work area in the event of a hose burst spray or coupling blow-off. It is recommended to never stand in front of over or behind the ends of a hose assembly during pressure testing. All hydrostatic testing should be conducted with liquid media. Pneumatic testing with gasses such as air or nitrogen is prohibited. The energy stored when pressure testing with gasses creates a very dangerous system where product failure may cause injury or death. Equipment hand pump a power driven hydraulic pump or an accumulator system outlet valve test tank if applicable Unless otherwise stated by the purchaser the test medium should be water. The following testing procedure is recommended 1. Lay the hose out straight whenever practical slightly elevating one end to ensure trapped air is expelled allowing space for elongation under pressure preferably on supports to allow free movement under pressure take particular care to ensure that all trapped air is released from the hose. This is a critical safety measure because expansion of air compressed in the hose when suddenly released by bursting or other failure might result in a serious accident. 2. For reference mark a line behind the coupling which is at the end of the ferrule clamp band etc. 3. Then gradually raise the pressure to the desired pressure rating. Hold the pressure for the time dictated by hose type and conduct a visual inspection. As the pressure is raised watch for visual Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 43 indications of permanent deformation leakage and coupling slippage. If any of these are noted it is cause for rejection. After the test is complete relieve the test pressure before disconnecting the hose assembly from the test equipment and drain the water from the hose. The hose may be flushed with alcohol if all of the water must be removed. 4. When tested in accordance with the above the assembly under test should be totally leak free for the duration of the test leakage is defined as a continuous stream of water droplets emitted from a single or multiple locations. For industrial hose and depending on coupling design a minimal amount of hose coupling slippage may be acceptable if the hose does not show any leakage at any time during the test a second test is recommended in that case to confirm assembly integrity. Contact the manufacturer with any concerns. 5.7.2 Other Leakage Tests When leak rates are critical consult the manufacturer for more sensitive testing methods. These may include but are not limited to the following Mass Spectrometer Leak Testing Pressure Decay Vacuum Decay Mass Flow and Helium Leak Test. 5.7.3 Electrical Continuity Test Electrical continuity testing determines if an electrical path can be established between two points for hose assemblies refers to testing the assembly to determine if there is a grounding path between end fittings which would allow for an electric charge to discharge through the hose to a ground source if necessary. Electrical continuity is accomplished by terminating all metallic components in the hose to the metallic couplings at both ends. Hoses should be tested with a calibrated multi-meter from end fitting to end fitting to determine if the assembly is electrically continuous. If continuity is required and not present then the hose should be reassembled or rebuilt. Grounding Refers to the ability of the static charge to trace a path to a grounding point to mother earth for dissipation and should be monitored to a level of Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.44 5.7.5 Elongation Tests Elongation testing is a non-destructive method for determining a hose condition at different pressure ratings. Except for Oil Suction Discharge Hose Dock Hose covered by ARPM RMA IP-8 elongation tests are not typical. The end user would specify the need and frequency of testing. Per ARPM IP-8 With some type of hose it is useful to know how a hose will act under pressure. All change in length tests except when performed on wire braid or wire spiraled hose are made with original length measurements taken under a pressure of 10 psi 0.07 MPa. The specified pressure is applied and immediate measurement of the characteristics desired are taken and recorded. Percent length change elongation or contraction is the difference between the length at 10 psi 0.07 MPa and that at the specified pressure times 100 divided by the length at 10 psi 0.07 MPa. Elongation occurs if the length of the hose under the specified pressure is greater than at a pressure of 10 psi 0.07 MPa. Contraction occurs if the length at the specified pressure is less than at 10 psi 0.07 MPa. Reference marks are applied on the hose 20 inches 500 mm apart original length. The hose is then repressurized to the maximum working pressure for 30 seconds and the reference marks are measured final length. The percentage change in length is the difference between the final and original lengths divided by the original length times 100. Length Change Formula Lo - Lp Length Change _____ Lo X 100 Where Lo Original measured length at 10 psi 0.07 MPa Lp Pressurized measured length at the specified pressure. In the event that elongation length measurement is required the following is an accepted process and may be incorporated into your test procedure. A. Pressurize the hose to one time working pressure hold for 30 seconds release pressure to 10 psi and take the initial length measurement at 10 psi. Initial length Lo _____. B. Measure the hose length under pressure Test Pressure Length Lt_____. Calculate the temporary elongation as follows Lt Lo x 100 _____ Lo. C. Release the pressure wait 30 seconds measure and record the Overall Final Length and drain hose. Requirements for elongation of new dock hose per ARPM IP-8 Testing of used hose needs to meet the following per ARPM IP-11-4 Calculations a. Test pressure elongation percent Lt - Lo Lo X 100 A Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 45 b. Immediate release elongation percent Li - Lo Lo X 100 B c. Permanent release elongation percent Lp - Lo Lo X 100 C Examination of Elongations After each periodic pressure test the elongation results will be compared to those obtained in the testing of the hose when new. An increase over the original value at the end of any periodic testing greater than shown below requires that hose to be removed from service. a. When tested at 1 times rated working pressure test pressure elongations at any periodic test shall not be greater than the new hose test pressure elongation A plus 4 or twice A whichever is greater. b. Immediate release elongation at any periodic test shall not be greater than the new hose immediate release elongation B plus 4 or twice B whichever is greater. c. Permanent release elongation at any periodic test shall not be greater than the new hose permanent elongation C plus 4 or twice C whichever is greater. 5.7.6 Special requirements Coast Guard testing requirements From Coast Guard document 33 CFR Ch. 1 7-1-07 Edition Subpart C Equipment Requirements 154.500 Hose Assemblies Each hose assembly used for transferring oil or hazardous material must meet the following requirements a The minimum design burst pressure for each hose assembly must be at least four times the sum of the pressure of the relief valve setting or four times the maximum pump pressure when no relief valve is installed plus the static head pressure of the transfer system at the point where the hose is installed. b The maximum allowable working pressure MAWP for each hose assembly must be more than the sum of the pressure of the relief valve setting or the maximum pump pressure when no relief valve is installed plus the static head pressure of the transfer system at the point where the hose is installed. c Each nonmetallic hose must be usable for oil or hazardous material service. d Each hose assembly must either have 1 full threaded connections 2 Flanges that meet standard B16.5 Steel Pipe Flanges and Flange Fittings or standard B16.24 Brass or Bronze Pipe Flanges of the American National Standards Institute ANSI or 3 Quick-disconnect couplings that meet ASTM F1122 e Each hose must be marked with one of the following 1 The name of each product for which the hose may be used or 2 For oil products the words OIL SERVICE or 3 For hazardous materials the words HAZMAT SERVICE SEE LIST followed immediately by a letter number or other symbol that corresponds to a list or chart contained in the facilitys operation manual or the vessels transfer procedure documents which identifies the products that may be transferred through a hose bearing that symbol. f Each hose also must be marked with the following except that the information required by paragraphs f 2 and 3 of this section need not be marked on the hose if it is recorded in the hose records of the vessel or facility and the hose is marked to identify it with that information 1 Maximum allowable working pressure Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.46 2 Date of manufacture and 3 Date of the latest test required by section 156.170. g The hose burst pressure and the pressure used for the test required by 156.170 of this chapter must not be marked on the hose and must be recorded elsewhere at the facility as described in paragraph f of this section. h Each hose used to transfer fuel to a vessel that has a fill pipe for which containment cannot practically be provided must be equipped with an automatic back pressure shutoff nozzle. Additional Information available httpwww.lawserver.comlawcountryuscfr33_cfr_156- 170 33 CFR 156.170 - Equipment tests and inspections Current as of July 2010 Check for updates a Except as provided in paragraph d of this section no person may use any equipment listed in paragraph c of this section for transfer operations unless the vessel or facility operator as appropriate tests and inspects the equipment in accordance with paragraphs b c and f of this section and the equipment is in the condition specified in paragraph c of this section. b During any test or inspection required by this section the entire external surface of the hose must be accessible. c For the purpose of paragraph a of this section 1 Each nonmetallic transfer hose must i Have no unrepaired loose covers kinks bulges soft spots or any other defect which would permit the discharge of oil or hazardous material through the hose material and no gouges cuts or slashes that penetrate the first layer of hose reinforcement as defined in Sec. 156.120i. ii Have no external deterioration and to the extent internal inspection is possible with both ends of the hose open no internal deterioration iii Not burst bulge leak or abnormally distort under static liquid pressure at least 112 times the maximum allowable working pressure and iv Hoses not meeting the requirements of paragraph c1i of this section may be acceptable after a static liquid pressure test is successfully completed in the presence of the COTP. The test medium is not required to be water. 2 Each transfer system relief valve must open at or below the pressure at which it is set to open 3 Each pressure gauge must show pressure within 10 percent of the actual pressure 4 Each loading arm and each transfer pipe system including each metallic hose must not leak under static liquid pressure at least 112 times the maximum allowable working pressure and 5 Each item of remote operating or indicating equipment such as a remotely operated valve tank level alarm or emergency shutdown device must perform its intended function. d No person may use any hose in underwater service for transfer operations unless the operator of the vessel or facility has tested and inspected it in accordance with paragraph c1 or c4 of this section as applicable. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 47 e The test fluid used for the testing required by this section is limited to liquids that are compatible with the hose tube as recommended by the hose manufacturer. f The frequency of the tests and inspections required by this section must be 1 For facilities annually or not less than 30 days prior to the first transfer conducted past one year from the date of the last tests and inspections 2 For a facility in caretaker status not less than 30 days prior to the first transfer after the facility is removed from caretaker status and 3 For vessels annually or as part of the biennial and mid-period inspections. 5.7.7 Aircraft Fueling Hose Ground Support Please refer to API 1529 for detailed requirements. Section 7.2.2 of the API 1529 standard states 1.2.2 Hose assembly The following tests shall be conducted on each hose assembly a Complete visual inspection b Proof pressure in accordance with section 6.5.3 c Electrical continuity in accordance with section 6.5.3.2 These tests are conducted by the one who assembles the product. Section 7.3 follows with the identification requirements for each assembly including a test certificate that shows testing was performed and marking the couplings via serial numbers that link to the test certificate. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.48 5.7.8 Visual Inspection All sample assemblies should be visually inspected for substandard quality conditions in the hose or couplings. Each assembly should be visually inspected for kinks loose covers bulges or ballooning soft spots cuts broken wires or any obvious defect in the hose. The fittings and attachments should be inspected for any type of visible defects that may affect the performance of the assembly. Visual inspection checkpoints should include but are not limited to the following Hose Identification - Size and type must correspond to the fabrication order work order. Coupling Identification - Coupling size type and product number must correspond to information on the fabrication order work order and specifications. Identified with date code part number etc. when required. Inspection Items - o Bulge behind the coupling. o Cocked couplings. o Cracked couplings. o Exposed reinforcement. o Freedom of swivels. o General appearance of the assembly. o Hose cover pricked if required. o Internal contaminants. o Protective caps or plugs. o Restrictions in the tube. o Rusted Couplings o Ferrule interlocks properly with hose stem Visual inspections are also an important component of a hose maintenance program. In-service hose assemblies should be periodically checked for o Leaks at the hose fittings or in the hose. o Damaged separated or pulled back covers o Cracked damaged deformed or badly corroded fittings. o Other signs of significant deterioration such as blisters. o Compromised reinforcement where the wires are exposed and show signs such as unwrapped broken or corroded. o Dents twists or kinks o Discoloration of color coded hose cover o Verify test date and pressure are in conformity with requirements for the application. o Fitting Thread and seat condition See Section 12.5 for additional detail. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 49 5.8 Custom-Made Hose Custom Made hose is generally hose that is manufactured to meet the requirements of a specific application. Application of hose components tube reinforcementcover etc. is typically by hand. Applications requiring hose attributes that are not typically available with standard hose assembly components are usually considered custom. Application considerations requiring non-standard solutions include required bend radius chemical heat or abrasion resistance both interior and external end fittings working pressurevacuum bore size made to order length and built on ends. Many people refer to these applications as hand built hose. For the purposes of this document the terms hand built hose and custom made hose can be used interchangeably. 5.8.1 Background Taken from the Hose Handbook published by the Association of Rubber Products Manufacturers. The term hand built hose applies to two general types of hose I.e. non-wire reinforced and wire reinforced which are made by hand on a steel mandrel. The mandrel is mounted on a series of double roller stands and one end of the mandrel is held in the jaws of a power driven chuck in order to rotate the mandrel during the making operations. Built-In Nipples provide a secure connection and full flow unrestricted transition area. Available in threaded fixed or floating flanges grooved or plain end styles Hose I.D. Length Offering Hose I.D. Mfd. Length 2 to 16 Any length up to 100 ft. 17 to 48 Any length up to 60 ft. 49 to 60 Any length up to 50 ft. Retaining bands on the nipple are bonded to the hose for permanent attachment and maximum holding power 14 38 are the most common tube thickness for most applications thicker tubes available on request. Required tube thickness will depend on the severity of the application. Choose from a variety of tube and cover compounds to protect against oils chemicals abrasion and corrosive materials. Corrugated instructions available for enhanced flexibility and lighter weights. Multiple plies of tire cord with single or dual helix wires provide high working pressures and full vacuum capabilities Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.50 Non-Wire Reinforced Hose is made of the same components as machine wrapped ply hose namely a rubber tube plies of fabric reinforcement wrapped around the tube and a rubber cover. The hose is made by hand when it is too large in diameter too long to fit in the three roll Making Machine or when the hose is made with special ends. The hand method is also used frequently when the fabric reinforcement must be applied one ply at a time. The tube for hose up to 8 internal diameter is either extruded or spiraled and mounted on a mandrel. The tube for hose larger than 8 diameter is formed by wrapping calendered tube stock around the mandrel with an overlapping seam running the length of the tube. The frictioned and cut fabric is applied to the tube by hand and rolled down progressively as the mandrel is turned. Tire cord fabric when cut and spliced in bias lengths only has strength in the cord direction of the bias. In order to compensate for the unidirectional strength and to have a balanced hose construction the tire cord fabric is applied one ply at a time and the direction of the cord lay is reversed with each succeeding ply. Cord hose is always made with two or more plies. Tire cord fabric can also be cut into strips and applied as a spiral from end to end. A calendered sheet of cover stock is applied to the carcass to complete the construction of the hose. The hose is cross wrapped with one or more layers of nylon or cotton tape in a power chuck before vulcanization. The wrapping tape is removed after vulcanization and the mandrel withdrawn from the hose. Wire Reinforced Hand-Built Hose as the name indicates has wire added to the reinforcement component of the construction. The wire may be present to prevent the hose from collapsing in suction service to prevent kinking of pressure hose which must be curved in a small radius loop or to obtain the strength necessary for high pressure service. The wire in suction hose is located underneath the main plies of fabric reinforcement to provide rib support against the external pressure. In fact rough bore suction hose is made with one helix of flat wire forming the bore of the hose and thus is located underneath the tube member of the construction. Combination pressure and suction is made with the wire placed approximately midway in the plies of the fabric. In pressure hose the wire is positioned over the main plies of fabric to provide hoop strength against high internal pressure. Flat wire is used for the inner wire of rough bore hose and round or flat wire may be used in the body of pressure or suction hose. The wire is present in most wire reinforced hose in the form of a close spaced helix or spring which opposes inward or outward radial stresses but does not add any significant strength to the hose in the axial direction. When high strength is needed in both axial and radial directions the hose is built with two or more even numbers of layers of wire. Each layer is composed of many strands of solid round wire or wire cable applied Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 51 over the fabric reinforcement. The wire lays on the hose in a spiral forming an angle greater than 45 degrees with the axis of the hose. The direction of the wire spiral is reversed with each layer of wire for balanced strength. Hand-built hose is produced with various types of ends depending upon use as follows Straight ends hose has same inside diameter at ends as body Enlarged ends to provide full-flow characteristics an end can be manufactured with a larger I.D. than the bore of the hose. This special end is generally restricted to hand-made hose where the special mandrels can be handled in a practical manner. Soft ends generally restricted to suction-type hoses that contain a close-spaced helical wire throughout the hose. To facilitate coupling the helix is terminated before the end of the hose and the end is completed with suitable fabric reinforcement to provide adequate strength and wall thickness. Available on either straight or enlarged end hose. Flanged ends many installations are best suited for hose with flanged connections. Certain styles of hose can be made with rubber flanges molded as an integral part of the hose. These flanges can be drilled to match standard ratings. Metal inserts are sometimes used to provide the necessary rigidity and bolting strength. Another style of flanged end utilizes a partial flange molded as an integral part of the hose which is used in conjunction with metal back-up rings for bolting purposes. This permits alignment of bolt holes without rotating the hose. Built-in nipples these nipples are used for high pressure service or for hose handling hazardous liquids. 5.8.2 Applications and Markets General Applications and markets for Custom Made hose are extensive. These include but are certainly not limited to Chemical Acid discharge hose Acid suction hose Chemical transfer hose Marine Hardwall marine industrial hose Softwall marine industrial hose Water Fire engine suction hose Furnace door hose Water discharge hose Water suction hose Water jetting hose Dock O.S. D. Flex barge dock hose Hot tar and asphalt hose Molten sulphur dock hose Oil suction and discharge hose Rough bore dock hose Vapor recovery hose Viton dock hose Petroleum Mud pump suction hose Petroleum transfer hose Sewage digester hose Tank truck hose Dredge Dredge sleeve Sand suction hose Material Handling Clam jetting hose Concrete hose Debris handling hose Dry material discharge hose Elephant trunk hose Fish suction hose Furnace intake and discharge Hot air blower hose Industrial vacuum hose Slurry handling hose Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.52 Dredging Application Application Considerations Material handling hose Typical abrasive materials include dry cement crushed rock screenings limestone grain etc. in dry slurry wet or air suspension. Typical large bore material handling hoses are Sand Suction Suction Discharge SD Dredge Discharge Material Handling etc. Such applications are found in Mine Mills Quarries Sea Ports etc. There are many parameters which will affect the hose life the material type and size flow rated velocity solid turbulence temperature of the product and ambient environment bend radius angle of impact of material transferred chemical attack static electricity and others. Reasons to use rubber hoses over rigid piping are flexibility ability to reduce vibration and mostly that rubber often outperforms steel in abrasion resistance. Abrasion is mainly the result of the change in momentum of the product Mass x Velocity in bends thus inducing high localized wear. So to maximize hose longevity we recommend the end user install the hose with the largest possible bend radius this will spread the wear over a large section of the hose. Non-Conductive static dissipating electrically continuous and electrically discontinuous assemblies There has always been much confusion involved with the terms applied to industrial hoses regarding the capabilities of being non-conductive static dissipating and electrically continuous or discontinuous. This confusion primarily originates because we do not properly relate these terms to the HOSE APPLICATIONS and WHAT THE HOSE IS EXPECTED TO DO IN APPLICATION. To determine the proper hose to use when the possibility of any electrical build- up is involved it is most important to know and understand the application and what is expected of the hose performance in the application. Non-conductive hose Non-conductive hoses normally are recommended in applications where the electrical charge is transferred from the OUTSIDE ENVIRONMENT to the hose. Air hoses used around electrical furnaces and multipurpose hoses used in proximity to high voltage power lines should have non- conductive ratings as prescribed by the respective industry. In essence the hose acts as an insulator protecting the user from EXTERNAL electrical sources. Non-conductive hoses generally are manufactured WITHOUT a metal helix or bonding wire. An industry standard for Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 53 non-conductive hose follows the Alcoa specification for potroom air hose which requires a resistance of ONE MEGAOHM PER INCH PER LENGTH OF HOSE. Static dissipating hose also referred to as semi-conductive hose Static dissipating hose refers to the electrical properties of the rubber materials making up the hose usually the tube andor cover material it is measured in M-Ohms million Ohms. It is used in applications where the conveyed material can generate static electricity build-up. Such hoses will dissipate static electricity through the rubber material to the hose ends provided the correct coupling type is used. Note Non-black and many black rubber compounds will not dissipate static electricity. Only black compounds formulated with high carbon black content will dissipate static electricity. Electrically continuous assembly Electrically continuous refers to the electrical conductivity between coupling ends. To get an electrically continuous assembly you need to have the helix or static wires terminated to the couplings it is measured in Ohms typically less than 100 ohms. Note an electrically continuous hose is not necessary a static dissipating hose Electrically discontinuous assembly Electrically discontinuous refers to the electrical conductivity between coupling ends. To get an electrically discontinuous assembly the wire helix or static wire MUST NOT be terminated to the couplings and the rubber component should have a high electrical resistance it is measured in thousands of Ohms electrical resistance typically 25000 Ohms Hose Hose Assembly Working PressureTemperature - Guidelines It is important to understand that maximum assembly working pressures will decrease as temperatures increase. Hose working pressure ratings are recommended in accordance with ARPM design factors at ambient temperatures. Do not operate outside of hose temperature limits specified by the hose manufacturer. Even within hose temperature limits end fittings and hose size can impact performance at higher temperatures. Contact each components manufacturer for recommendations. Note Hose and hose assemblies should also not be subjected to storage conditions or used in service applications at temperatures below the minimum specified temperature rating Example - 40F -40C of the hose manufacturer. Hose may be stored at lower temperatures but must be warmed before working with it. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.54 5.8.3 Application Requirements STAMPED Custom Made Hose Purpose The purpose of this section is to provide a concise guide to assist in determining the correct hose coupling and attachment method that will satisfy the customers needs. This should be used as the basis for collecting ALL information critical to the proper design of the hose for the desired application. General The guide uses the STAMPED process. STAMPED is an acronym and stands for the 7 major information areas required to provide a quality hose assembly for the customer as follows S stands for SIZE I.D. and length any O.D. constraints overall length should be specified to include fittings tolerances need to be specified if special requirements exist T stands for TEMPERATURE of the material conveyed and environmental Are there factors such as heat sources in the environment in which the hose will be used Continuous average and minimum and maximum temperatures have to be specified for both the environment and material conveyed Note if flame resistance or flammability will be an issue Sub-zero exposure A stands for the APPLICATION the conditions of use Configurationrouting add a sketch or drawing if applicable o is the hose hanging laying horizontally supported unsupported orientation and aspect of the hose o what else is attached to the hose any external load on the hose o bend radius requirements flexibility o elongation considerations with working pressure Quantify anticipated movement and geometry of use requirements Intermittent or continuous service Indoor and outdoor use External conditions abrasion oil specify type solvents specify type acid specify type and concentration ozone salt water Hose now in use o Type of hose o Service life being obtained and description of failure or source of customer dissatisfaction M stands for the MATERIAL being conveyed type and concentration Are there special requirements for this hose tube o Any special specifications or agency requirements that need to be considered e.g. FDA API o Will the material be continuously flowing or sit in the hose for long periods of time specify Media velocity flow rate Chemical nameconcentration MSDS Salt water Solids description and size P stands for the PRESSURE to which the assembly will be exposed Temperature implications Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 55 Vacuum considerations E stands for ENDS style type orientation attachment methods etc. Uncoupled or coupled hose hose with built-in fittings Specify end style see chart Materials and dimensions steel stainless etc. Conductivity requirements D stands for DELIVERY testing packaging and delivery requirements Testing requirements o certification requirements e.g. Coast Guard Any special packaging requirements Any special shipping requirements Directions Using the form 1. Inform the customer you will be using an application form titled STAMPED Information Required for Custom Made Hose. 2. Ask your customer the pertinent questions outlined on the form in sequence. 3. After completing the form ask your customer to confirm their answers as you repeat them in sequence. 4. The following list of special considerations may help to clarify application parameters 1. Abrasion tube cover thickness internalexternal 2. Electrical conductivity requirements 3. Environment 4. Flammability 5. Flow rate 6. Fluid velocity 7. Movement type distance frequency 8. Ozone 9. Permeation vapor conveying hose 10. Routingconfiguration 11. Salt water 12. Static electricity 13. Ultraviolet light 14. Vibration considerations 15. Special marking or branding requirements 5. Provide the completed form to a qualified NAHAD manufacturer. See STAMPED Form on next page Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.56 STAMPED Information Required for Custom Made Hose Customer Information Quote needed by Company _________________________ Fax ______________________ Contact __________________________ E-mail_____________________ Address __________________________ P.O._____________________ Phone ___________________________ Terms ____________________ Quantity Required Date Required Size I.D. O.D. Overall Length Tolerance if applicable Temperature Materials Conveyed Environmental Temperature Min. Max Min Max oFoC oFoC oFoC oFoC Application Materialmedia Internal media Special requirements for tube Pressure Max Working Pressure PSIkPa Spikes PSIkPa Vacuum Inches of Hg Ends End 1 End 2 Delivery Packagingpacking requirements Any special shipping requirements Ship Via Testing Required Y N Type Certification Required Y N Type Application considerations Abrasion tube cover thickness internalexternal Electrical conductivity requirements Environment Flammability Flow rate Fluid velocity Movement type distance frequency Ozone Permeation vapor conveying hose Routingconfiguration Salt water Static electricity Ultraviolet light Vibration considerations Special marking or branding requirements Special Requirements tube cover etc. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 57 5.8.4 Custom Hose General In the custom made hose business the distributor works directly with the end-user to understand the application and environment and will typically specify all aspects of the STAMPED process Size Temperature Application Material Pressure Ends and Delivery. The distributor works with the customer to define and qualify the opportunity oversee delivery help with problem resolution and is instrumental in assisting with final installation. The distributor is the primary point of contact for the customer the first line of resources for the customer and is backed by the manufacturer. The distributor also can provide packaging and handling support in their work with end-users. They should recognize any risk in leaving the customer to install the hose and educate the customer on proper care and handling of the hose. Finally the distributor should assess any post-installation issues or problems and answer any questions. The manufacturer typically specifies andor recommends the materials used for actual hose construction based on information provided from the STAMPED process and fabricates an appropriate hose. Hose material information is included elsewhere in this document for informational purposes. Hose Construction overview A hose is a reinforced flexible conduit used to move materials from one point to another or to transmit energy. It is flexible to accommodate motion alignment vibration thermal expansion and contraction portability ease of routing and ease of installation. Most hoses are made up of three elements 1 a tube 2 reinforcement and 3 an outer cover. Each of these components is usually adhered to the adjacent components by bonding agents or thin layers of specially compounded rubber. Tube The tube is the innermost rubber or plastic element of the hose. The tube may be placed over reinforcing elements. For suitable service the tube must be resistant to the materials it is intended to convey. The characteristics of the rubber or plastic compound from which the tube is made and the thickness of the tube are based on the service for which the hose is designed. Reinforcement Reinforcement can be textile plastic or metal alone or in combination built into the body of the hose to withstand internal pressures external forces or a combination of both. The type and amount of reinforcing material used depends on the method of manufacture and on the service requirements. For example a residential garden hose does not need the same level of reinforcement as required for high pressure air hose used in construction and mining applications. Cover The cover is the outer element and can be made of various materials its prime function is to protect the reinforcement from damage and the environment in which the hose will be used. Covers are designed for specific applications and can be made to be resistant to oils acids abrasion flexing sunlight ozone etc. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.58 The basic materials in the manufacture of hose are rubber plastics textile yarns textile fabrics and metal in the form of wires and cables. The term rubber will be used in its broadest sense and will include all elastomeric materials that are compounds of natural or synthetic elastomers or combinations of these materials. Note For specific rubbers plastics wires and yarns used In hose see Appendix C Rubber To provide a wide range of physical properties for specific service needs elastomers are mixed with various chemicals. There are many compounding ingredients and compounding methods available to the hose manufacturer and many types can be blended in almost unlimited combinations to obtain the most desirable properties for the application. The reader is cautioned that the General Properties described are just that properties which have been found to be generally applicable in the experience of persons familiar with rubber chemistry. However the reader should always follow the manufacturers recommendation as to the use of any particular rubber composition especially with respect to the resistance of the rubber composition to the materials it is intended to carry or protect against. Failure to do so may result in possible damage to property andor serious bodily injury. Fabrics Overview Textile fabrics used as reinforcement in hose construction provide the strength to achieve the desired resistance to internal pressure or to provide resistance to collapse or both. The properties of a fabric depend on the construction and the material from which the yarn is made and on the type of weave used. One common hose fabric is woven from warp yarns which run lengthwise and fill yarns which run cross-wise. Usually they are woven at right angles to each other. The most common weave is known as plain weave where the warp and fill yarns cross each other alternatively. Other weaves used though to a lesser degree are twill basket weave and leno. Leno weave is used mainly where the fabric must be distorted in the hose as in certain types of curved hose. Leno also provides a means for better adhesion than other patterns. Woven Cord is a special type of hose reinforcement. The warp cords are strong while the fill yarn is very fine and merely holds the cords in position. This is often called tire cord because this type of construction is commonly used in reinforcing tires. Woven cord provides strength in one direction only. When woven cord is used a minimum of two layers are applied in alternate directions. To adhere to the tube and cover of the hose the fabric must be rubberized. The fabric is either frictioned or coated with a thin layer of rubber. Before rubberizing some fabrics are treated with liquid adhesive. Hose Materials Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 59 5.8.5 Custom Hose Ends The ends of hose can be provided in a variety of ways. The selection of the end configurations is dependent on the application and the inputdesire of the end user. Not all end options are appropriate for all applications - this will be determined by the manufacturer. Each manufacturer has their own end configuration availability. The end options may vary between manufacturers depending on their process andor design parameters. It is not uncommon for a hose to have different end styles on each end. FittingsCouplings Built-In Nipple See Illustration Below Steel nipple is built into the hose during fabrication providing maximum holding power and a full flow unrestricted transition area. Available in threaded fixed flange floating flange beveled for weld or grooved end styles. Recommended for heavy duty high pressure applications. Built-In NippleRubber Lined Hose tube extends through the nipple and up the face of the flange providing a full flow unrestricted transition area. Extends service life by protecting the steel nipple from contact with conveyed material. Recommended for heavy duty high pressure abrasive applications. Provides added abrasion resistance and extended service life. Recommended for highly abrasive or corrosive applications. Built-In Rubber Flange B.I.R.F. See Illustration Below Fabric plies and hose tube turn up the face of the flange. Steel back-up flange and rubber flange are molded together. Recommended for light to medium duty low pressure abrasive applications. Sometimes known as Duck Rubber Flange or integral rubber flange. Enlarged Hose end is enlarged to accommodate the outside diameter of pipe. Used in typically lower pressure rated applications with soft cuffs. Consideration must be given to enlarged i.d. and length. Split Bolted Flange Two piece reusable coupling system is attached externally with compression bolts and allows the user to fabricate assemblies in the field. Designed for large bore material transfer hose. Beaded End B.E. See Illustration Below Hose tube and reinforcement extends through the steel ring and up the face of the stub end providing a full flow. Either full floating or split ring flanges are used to ensure proper bolt hole alignment. Recommended for abrasive applications. Soft Cuff Internal wire reinforcement is eliminated from the end of the hose providing a soft and flexible section for ease of attaching. Consideration must be given to cuff length and cuff o.d. Capped ends Hose end covered to protect its internal elements End Styles Custom ends Hose couplings designed specifically to engineered specifications sanitary fittings tapered ends Straight or plain ends End of hose is square and cut straight with no end fittings or cuffs. Built-in Nipple Attachments Fixed floating flanges 150 and 300 drilling ANSI forged steel flanges. Metric sizes also available. Also available in stainless steel. Can also be reducing. Beveled for weld Plain end nipple ready for welding. Other styles of built-in fittings available on request Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.60 Built-In Rubber Flange BIRF Built-In Nipple Flange BINF Beaded End Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 61 5.9 Ducting 5.9.1 General All types of ducts are classified into two general groups by Positive or Negative Pressure. Positive Air Ducts tend to have wider pitch while Negative pressure Air Ducts typically need a narrow pitch to handle vacuum. General warning these are general guidelines please consult Section 3 STAMPED for more specific guidance. For application-specific uses please check with the manufacturer. Air Ducting General Uses Air ducts tend to be lighter in weight as they are designed to transport air. Their pitch will be determined by either a negative or positive air application. The products tend to have lighter weight fabric and helix. Lay flat duct is also used for positive pressure air handling. Some typical applications are Heating and Cooling Drying Dehumidifiying Cleaning Dust Covers Supply Connectors Air Filter Intake General purpose Limitations Not recommended for heavy particulate media. Fume Ducting General Uses Fume ducts are designed to carry gaseous or other types of non-particulate media so they tend to be lighter in weight. Material selection for fume ducts is important because chemical resistance of the media needs to be taken into consideration. Chemical resistant materials such as TPV TPR Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.62 EPDM Hypalon Polyethylene Polypropylene or Fluoropolymer are some typical material types. Some typical applications are Laboratory Industrial Automotive Painting Welding Soldering Plating Dust Ducting General Uses Dust ducts are generally medium weight as they are designed for light particulate media. Material selection for dust ducts is important so that abrasion resistant materials are used. Abrasion resistant materials such as Neoprene Coated Polyester Neoprene Coated Nylon TPU TPV EPDM Polyethylene or Polypropylene are some typical material types. Dust ducts as a negative air application generally require a narrower pitch. Some typical applications are Filtering Movement Exhaust Duct Cleaning Textile Fiber Collection Vacuum Cleaning Lint collection Loading containment Cutting Grinding Material Handling Ducting General Uses Material handling ducts are generally heavier in weight with thicker wall sections because they are designed to handle heavier particulate media. Material selection wall thickness pitch and wire gauge are critical components for the duct design. Abrasion resistant materials such as Neoprene Coated Polyester Neoprene Coated Nylon TPU TPV EPDM Polyethylene or Polypropylene are some typical material types. Some typical applications are Shavings Chips Powders Debris Leaf Collection Street Sweeping Lawn Vacuum Slurries Sawdust Collection Drains Packing Popcorn Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 63 5.9.2 Types of Duct Construction Flexible PVC with Helix Flexible PVC with rigid PVC helix - for use in dust and fume ducting applications up to 150 F Flexible PVC ducting with wire helix. Unique wire reinforcedpolypropylene construction allows full contractibility with extendibility for use in air dust and fume ducting applications up to 175 F 64 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. Metal Ducting Metal Ducting flexible interlocked metal duct A single metal strip is formed to create a duct that can be used for dust fume and hot air ducting applications up to 750 F for Galvanized material and 1500 F for Stainless Steel. This type of ducting can be used in packed or unpacked configurations. Metal Ducting flexible gas-tight metal duct A single metal strip is corrugated and helically-wound to form a duct that can be used for air supply and fume exhaust ducting applications up to 600 F for Aluminum material and 1500 F for Stainless Steel. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 65 Crushproof-type ducting hoses are custom designed to handle vacuum air intake and industrial bellows applications. They are made to accommodate applications requiring flexibility or stretching using Butyl EPDM Nitrile and Neoprene rubber materials. Wire Reinforced Neoprene Ducting Neoprene wire reinforced ducting hoses offer flexibility combined with excellent crush resistance and tensile strength. Can be used for all air handling applications dust and fume control and light material handling. Wire Reinforced Thermoplastic Rubber Ducting Thermoplastic rubber wire reinforced ducting hoses provide flexibility with compressibility for demanding and difficult applications. They can be used for air transfer venting systems fume control exhaust gases dust collection and light abrasion transfer. Crushproof type ducting Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.66 Custom Ducting Certain applications may require ducting manufactured to custom specifications. Custom ducting may involve special shapes raw materials special sizes and configurations. Custom ducting can be used in all four application areas listed above. Contact manufacturers with specific requirements. Below are examples of custom ducting. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 67 5.9.3 Ends for Ducting When working with duct assemblies there are a number of end finishes that can be considered. Based on the application or use the customer will determine what type of end finish is required. The following are a sampling of a variety of end finishings that are available and typically used. Typical end finishes are usually provided by the manufacturer specialty end finishes can be provided by either the manufacturer or the distributor. In general the larger the duct size the fewer end finish options available. Sewn or fabric type cuffs are typically used on larger diameter ducts. Molded cuffs would typically be used for smaller diameter vacuum hoses below six inches in diameter. See section 5.8 for specialty or custom end finishes. Consult the manufacturer for specific requirements. Standard end fittings and finishings Sewn Cuff provides a smooth surface that can be used with banded clamps. If the customer needs to fit the cuff over piping or a round port and secure clamps this end configuration offers a soft cuff which can easily be clamped over. It is also known as a factory made soft cuff. StandardEnclosed Belted Cuff creates an easy attachment method or quick connection capability. It includes a belt with a spring clamp that can be cinched around the connection. Pull Tabs Used to pull the duct onto the connector or to pull through enclosed areas good for applications where the ducting must be pulled through a man-hole utility applications these belt loops and pull tabs allow easy routing through a man-hole. Flat BandNylon or Steel RingWire Rope Keeps the end open for easy air flow also used for interlocked duct connections gives the end of the hose form so it wont collapse and makes it easier to fit over pipe or ports. Funnel Cuff reducer Sewn transition piece to adapt to larger or smaller connection points allows for a soft cuff that can slip easily over a pipe to transition from one ID up to a larger pipe OD. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.68 Enlarged Cuff belled end transition piece used when cuff ID is larger than hose or duct ID Fabric Cuff - provides an integral smooth surface that can be used for use with banded clamps Reduced Cuff transition piece used when cuff ID is smaller than duct ID Flange can be made from steel aluminum or felt also can have hole patterns drilled for custom connection purposes. Screw on Cuff - Screw on cuffs are produced from a multitude of materials such as PVC Urethane Polypro or Polyeth and simply provide a means to plug into or slip or fittings in existing vacuum system or create a finished end for vacuum applications. These cuffs can also be sealed on to provide air tightwater tight seal with the appropriate adhesive or sealer. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 69 Specialty End Finishings for Ducting At times OEM customers will request custom made cuffs made to print for their application. Custom made cuffs can be injection molded or over molded from a variety of materials including TPE PVC and EVA. In this instance careful consideration must be given to the pitch and diameter of the wire helix and the design of the particular duct cuff. Consult the manufacturer with specific application requirements. Below is a duct with a custom specialty end cuff is overmolded onto a custom hose below that is another custom specialty end Santoprene molded 90 degree elbow in a screw on cuff Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.70 5.9.4 Ducting Accessories Screw Clamps also called worm gear clamps used to secure duct. Bridge Clamps typically used in applications without a cuff used to secure duct and bridge the wire available in both clockwise or counter clockwise configurations. Spiral double bolt clamp - These clamps provide a means to secure heavy or light wall ducting with the wire on the clamp located on both sides of the duct outer helix available in both clockwise and counter clockwise helix configurations. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 71 Clamp Preformed - To permanently secure ducting to barbed or beaded connectors Aluminum or stainless steel sleeves Used to connect two ducts with band clamps used to extend the length of the overall duct or to repair existing duct. Duct Coupler Standard duct coupler to minimum on 24 gauge sheet metal construction with rolled containment bead in middle of coupling or on ends of coupling. The coupler slips into the ID of two duct lengths and are simply attached with worm drive clamps to create extended lengths. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.72 J Lock connector used for quick connection of two ducts or connecting a duct to equipment. Pin lock connector - used for quick connection of two ducts or connecting a duct to equipment. Latch lock connector - used for quick connection of two ducts or connecting a duct to equipment. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 73 Reducer molded or metal alternative to the sewn reducer used to adapt to larger or smaller connection points. Transition used to adapt duct to square shaped connectors molded or metal. T used to connect multiple ducts Y used to connect multiple ducts. Sto-sack A handy sewn on loop makes transporting the hose from location to location easy for the operator. This page left intentionally blank. 74 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 1 Section 6 - Composite Hose Section Contents 6.1 General Information 6.2 STAMPED 6.3 Composite Hose Materials and Construction 6.4 Composite Hose Fittings 6.5 Testing 6.6 Installation Usage for Composite Hose Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.2 6.1 General This section pertains to hoses used in multi-layered non-vulcanized thermoplastic hose assemblies suitable for hydrocarbons products aromatic hydrocarbons solvents cryogenic hydrocarbons and chemicals with nominal diameters from 1 to 12 inches 25.4mm to 304.8mm. General Uses Composite hose consisting of thermoplastics and wire reinforcement can be used in selective petroleum and chemical service where flexibility combined with strength is required. Limitations The type of hose selected is dependent on application. The hose supplier or manufacturer should be consulted to determine the style of hose needed. Warnings Special attention needs to be given to the following Composite hose should not be used to convey solids or abrasive slurries consult a Hose Safety Institute distributor for an alternative hose type and construction. For applications of composite hose conveying gaseous products consult the manufacturer for specific recommendations. Before cleaning or examining composite hose it is important the MSDS sheets be supplied detailing all media transferred by that hose to avoid serious injury. All media should be thoroughly drained prior to cleaning to avoid chemical or exothermic reactions when the hose is returned to service. Pigging of lines should not be used with composite hose. Compressed air may be used but hose must be open-ended. Consult manufacturer for maximum pressure rating. Consult with the manufacturer for temperature limitations as composite is constructed with thermoplastics which tend to weaken at elevated temperatures. Care must be taken when cleaning with hot water so as not to exceed the maximum working temperature of the hose. If steam must be used contact the manufacturer for any special recommended practices. During any cleaning operation the assembly must be electrically grounded to avoid build-up of static charge. 6.2 STAMPED The STAMPED acronym stands for the 7 major information areas required to provide a quality hose assembly for the customer as follows S stands for SIZE I.D. and length any O.D. constraints Overall length should be specified to include fittings Tolerances need to be specified if special requirements exist I.D. O.D. and overall length of the assembly To determine the replacement hose I.D. read the layline printing on the side of the original hose. If the original hose layline is painted over or worn off the original hose must be cut and inside diameter measured for size. The inside diameter of the hose must be adequate to keep pressure loss to a minimum maintain adequate flow and avoid damage to the hose due to heat generation or excessive turbulence. The hose should be sized according to the nomographic chart in appendix D. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 3 Length tolerances The length of hose ordered should be the OAL including the end fittings. OAL measurements should be from flange face to flange face seat to seat end of threads to end of threads etc. If in question this data should be added to the purchase order. o In the as fabricated condition after testing the overall length OAL should be within 5-2 of the OAL. o The maximum change in length at the maximum test pressure should not exceed 10 of initial length. o Because of the elongation under pressure the distributor may need to seek the advice of the manufacturer for applications where length in use is critical. Flow Rate Fluid Velocity - The flow rate of the system in conjunction with the inside diameter of the hose will dictate the fluid velocity through the hose. Typical fluid velocities can be seen in the nomographic chart in Appendix D. Please consult your hose supplier for specific recommended velocity ranges. Please note that suction line recommendations are different than pressure lines. T stands for TEMPERATURE of the material conveyed and environmental conditions Are there factors such as heat sources in the environment in which the hose will be used Continuous average and minimum and maximum temperatures have to be specified for both the environment and material conveyed Note if flame resistance or flammability will be an issue Sub-zero exposure Care must be taken when routing near hot manifolds and in extreme cases a heat shield may be advisable. Other things to consider maximum intermittent ambient temperature fluid temperature ambient temperature and maximum temperature. Maximum assembly working pressures will decrease as temperatures increase. A stands for the APPLICATION the conditions of use Configurationrouting add a sketch or drawing if applicable o is the hose hanging laying horizontally supported unsupported orientation and aspect of the hose o what else is attached to the hose any external load on the hose o bend radius requirements flexibility o elongation considerations with working pressure Quantify anticipated movement and geometry of use requirements Intermittent or continuous service Indoor and outdoor use Unusual mechanical loads Excessive abrasion Electrical conductivity requirements Equipment type External conditions abrasion oil specify type solvents specify type acid specify type and concentration ozone salt water Hose now in use o Type of hose o Service life being obtained and description of failure or source of customer dissatisfaction Strength and frequency of impulsing or pressure spikes Non-flexing applications static flexing applications dynamic Vacuum requirements M stands for the MATERIAL or MEDIA being conveyed type and concentration Are there special requirements for this hose tube o Any special specifications or agency requirements to be considered e.g. FDA API o Will the material be continuously flowing or sit in the hose for long periods of time specify Media velocity flow rate Chemical nameconcentration MSDS Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.4 Solids description and size Fluid Compatibility - Some applications require specialized oils or chemicals to be conveyed through the system. Hose selection must assure compatibility of the hose tube. In addition to the hose materials all other components which make up the hose assembly hose ends o-rings etc must also be compatible with fluid being used. Depending on the fluid your hose supplier may lower the maximum temperature or pressure rating of the assembly. When selecting any hose assembly always consult your hose suppliers recommendations. P stands for the PRESSURE to which the assembly will be exposed System pressure including pressure spikes. Hose assembly working pressures must be equal to or greater than the system pressure. Pressure spikes greater than the maximum working pressure will shorten hose life and must be taken into consideration. Temperature implications Vacuum considerations Maximum Operating Pressure - This is the maximum pressure that the system should be exposed to in normal operating conditions. For hydraulic hose assemblies this pressure should be dictated by the relief setting of the system. Both the hose and hose end should not be rated to a pressure less than the maximum operating pressure of the system. Pressure Spikes - When a hydraulic system is subjected to a large load in a short period of time the system pressure can overshoot the relief setting and exceed the maximum operating pressure. Frequent pressure spikes can reduce the life of hydraulic hose assemblies. In general spiral hose constructions are better suited to high impulse applications which involve flexing and large pressure spikes. However there are specialized braided hoses available from various manufacturers. Please consult your hose supplier if there are multiple constructions which meet your application needs. Maximum assembly working pressures will decrease as temperatures increase. E stands for ENDS style type orientation attachment methods etc. Uncoupled or coupled hose hose with built-in fittings Specify end style see charts and pictures in Section 5 Materials and dimensions steel stainless etc. Conductivity requirements D stands for DELIVERY Specific to customer requirements Testing requirements o certification requirements e.g. Coast Guard Any special packaging requirements Any special shipping requirements Tagging requirements Also refers to Determined Overall Length when working with Metal Hose Dimension and tolerance guidelines for composite assemblies Size - The bore and bend radius of the hose should comply with the nominal dimensions given by the manufacturer. Length - The length of hose ordered should be the OAL including the end fittings. OAL measurements should be from flange face to flange face seat to seat end of threads to end of threads etc. If in question this data should be added to the purchase order. In the as fabricated condition after testing the overall length OAL should be within 5-2 of the OAL. The maximum change in length at the maximum test pressure should not exceed 10 of initial length. Because of the elongation under pressure the distributor may need to seek the advice of the manufacturer for applications where length in use is critical. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 5 Temperature Derating Factors for Hose Assemblies Temperature directly affects maximum allowable working pressure. Most manufacturers rate maximum operating pressures at an ambient temperature of 70 degrees F. If a hose is to be considered for use in an application that exceeds this ambient temperature consult manufacturer for any pressure derating of the hose assembly. 6.3 Hose Materials and Construction Composite hoses are comprised of the following A. An internal metal wire helix. This may be stainless steel galvanized carbon steel aluminum or carbon steel sheathed in a polymeric material resistant to the materials of service. Stainless steel wire as specified and agreed between purchaser and manufacturer. Galvanized carbon steel wire as specified and agreed between purchaser and manufacturer. Aluminum wire as specified and agreed between purchaser and manufacturer. Carbon wire sheathed in a polymeric material should be coated as required with material resistant to liquid hydrocarbon aromatic hydrocarbon or liquid chemicals as specified and agreed between the purchaser and manufacturer. Stainless steel wire with a fluoropolymer liner. B. A multi-ply wall of thermoplastic films and reinforcing fabrics in proportions that give the required physical properties and provide a complete seal. The films may be a flat film tube andor fabric. C. A fabric cover with an abrasion and ozone resistant polymeric coating. D. An external metal wire helix. Wire material should be as outlined above. In all cases they should be connected to the construction wire or bonding wire to provide electrical continuity. Care should be taken so that wire exposed if a poly-covering has been stripped does not come in contact with highly corrosive materials. Consult manufacturer for chemical resistance recommendations for the application. Sample Composite Hoses Composite Hose with Male NPT and Male QDC Composite Hose Bottom Loading TTMA Composite Hose Fixed Flange Composite Hose with Male NPT Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.6 Composite Vapor Recovery Hose Composite Hose with Floating Flange Pressure Ratings The maximum working pressure of a composite hose should be equal to the Nominal Burst pressure divided by four as a minimum. This may change dependent upon customer requirements andor regulatorystatutory requirements. 6.4 Composite Adapter Fittings For all types of end connections used the part of the fitting which enters the hose and forms the means by which the fitting is connected to the hose should be provided with scrolls or protrusions on the surface that correspond to the pitch of the inner reinforcing wire or the hose. Care should be taken to not compress the inner wire and make sure it is properly engaged with the scrolls and protrusions on the surface of the stem. In all cases they should be connected to the construction wire or bonding wire to provide electrical continuity. End fitting to end fitting continuity will not be possible when installing non-metallic end fittings. Typical composite hose fittings Male NPT Stainless Steel Carbon Steel Polypropylene Male and Female Cam and Groove Stainless Steel Aluminum Polypropylene Note Gaskets in the female Cam and Groove must be specified based on the application Victaulic Groove Stainless steel Carbon Steel TTMA Flange Typically Carbon Steel but may be Stainless Steel ANSI Flanges Fixed or Floating Carbon Steel or Stainless Steel Crimp andor Swage Ferrules can be Stainless Steel Carbon Steel or aluminum depending on the application. Sample Composite Hose Fitting Adapters Male Adapter to Thread on Male NPT Female Adapter to Thread on Male NPT Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 7 6.5 Testing Procedures for Composite Hose Hydrostatic Pressure Tests All fitted hose assemblies should be pressure tested to establish that the end fittings have been correctly fitted and the assembly is leak free. When testing hose assemblies with epoxy-style end fittings the epoxy should be allowed to cure prior to hydrostatic testing. Consult Manufacturer for recommended cure time. The following criteria should apply when pressure testing hose assemblies Composite hose assemblies with 1 inch to 4 inches 25 mm to 100 mm nominal bore composite standard duty or general purpose oil and chemical hose should be tested to a minimum of the rated working pressure of the end fittings but must not exceed one and a half times the rated working pressure of the hose for a minimum period of five 5 minutes. Longer test times may be required consult manufacturer for specific requirements. Polypropylene cam and groove NPT males and flanges do not have the same test criteria. Composite hose assemblies with 4 inch 100 mm nominal bore heavy duty and 6 inches to10 inches 150 mm to 250 mm nominal bore composite hose should be tested to a minimum of the rated test pressure of the end fittings but must not exceed one and a half times the rated working pressure of the hose for a minimum period of 30 minutes andor regulatory statutory requirements. Polypropylene cam and groove NPT males and flanges do not have the same test criteria. o Note Composite hose manufacturers may differentiate the 4 inch 100mm nominal diameter between standard duty and heavy duty. It is common practice to suggest that standard duty hose is for general purpose in plant applications whereas the heavy duty is used in either more rigorous or marine applications. Unless otherwise stated by the purchaser the test medium should be water. Recommended Testing Procedure The following testing procedure is recommended 1. Lay the hose out straight whenever practical slightly elevating one end to ensure trapped air is expelled allowing space for elongation under pressure preferably on supports to allow free movement under pressure. 2. Blank off one end and fill hose with water taking particular care to ensure that all trapped air is released from the hose. 3. When testing a composite assembly the MAWP of all components should be considered. The assembly test pressure should be 1.5 times the working pressure of the lowest rated component. While pressure is maintained examine the assembly for leaks and any unusual appearance and test for electrical continuity between the end fittings. 4. When tested using the procedure above the tested assembly should be totally leak free for the duration of the test. Hoses must be properly cleaned prior to inspection and testing. This will prevent unexpected reactions between conveyants and the test media. Always wear safety glasses gloves and protective clothing to protect from leaks or high pressure spray. Also use shields to protect people in the work area in the event of a hose burst spray or coupling blow-off. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.8 It is recommended to never stand in front of over or behind the ends of a hose assembly during pressure testing. Also make sure that the hose is sufficiently shielded during pressure testing to stop a coupling in case of a coupling blow-off. Any failure during testing is likely to be of an explosive nature Elongation Length Measurement A characteristic of composite hose is elongation. This characteristic should not be used solely as an assessment of the condition of the hose or an indication of failure. Consult manufacturer for more information. See Section finished assembly dimension tolerances In the event that elongation length measurement is required the following is an accepted process and may be incorporated into your test procedure. A. Pressurize the hose to one time working pressure hold for 30 seconds release pressure to 10 psi and take the initial length measurement at 10 psi. Lo _____. B. Measure the hose length under pressure Test Pressure Length Lt_____. Calculate the temporary elongation as follows Lt Lo x 100 _____ Lo. C. Release the pressure wait 30 seconds measure and record the Overall Final Length and drain hose. Special requirements Coast Guard testing requirements From Coast Guard document 33 CFR Ch. 1 7-1-07 Edition Subpart C Equipment Requirements 154.500 Hose Assemblies Each hose assembly used for transferring oil or hazardous material must meet the following requirements a The minimum design burst pressure for each hose assembly must be at least four times the sum of the pressure of the relief valve setting or four times the maximum pump pressure when no relief valve is installed plus the static head pressure of the transfer system at the point where the hose is installed. b The maximum allowable working pressure MAWP for each hose assembly must be more than the sum of the pressure of the relief valve setting or the maximum pump pressure when no relief valve is installed plus the static head pressure of the transfer system at the point where the hose is installed. c Each nonmetallic hose must be usable for oil or hazardous material service. d Each hose assembly must either have 1 full threaded connections 2 Flanges that meet standard B16.5 Steel Pipe Flanges and Flange Fittings or standard B16.24 Brass or Bronze Pipe Flanges of the American National Standards Institute ANSI or 3 Quick-disconnect couplings that meet ASTM F1122 e Each hose must be marked with one of the following 1 The name of each product for which the hose may be used or 2 For oil products the words OIL SERVICE or 3 For hazardous materials the words HAZMAT SERVICE SEE LIST followed immediately by a letter number or other symbol that corresponds to a list or chart contained in the facilitys operation manual or the vessels transfer procedure documents which identifies the products that may be transferred through a hose bearing that symbol. f Each hose also must be marked with the following except that the information required by paragraphs f 2 and 3 of this section need not be marked on the hose if it is recorded in the hose records of the vessel or facility and the hose is marked to identify it with that information 1 Maximum allowable working pressure 2 Date of manufacture and Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 9 3 Date of the latest test required by section 156.170. g The hose burst pressure and the pressure used for the test required by 156.170 of this chapter must not be marked on the hose and must be recorded elsewhere at the facility as described in paragraph f of this section. h Each hose used to transfer fuel to a vessel that has a fill pipe for which containment cannot practically be provided must be equipped with an automatic back pressure shutoff nozzle. Additional Information available httpwww.lawserver.comlawcountryuscfr33_cfr_156-170 33 CFR 156.170 - Equipment tests and inspections Current as of July 2010 Check for updates a Except as provided in paragraph d of this section no person may use any equipment listed in paragraph c of this section for transfer operations unless the vessel or facility operator as appropriate tests and inspects the equipment in accordance with paragraphs b c and f of this section and the equipment is in the condition specified in paragraph c of this section. b During any test or inspection required by this section the entire external surface of the hose must be accessible. c For the purpose of paragraph a of this section 1 Each nonmetallic transfer hose must i Have no unrepaired loose covers kinks bulges soft spots or any other defect which would permit the discharge of oil or hazardous material through the hose material and no gouges cuts or slashes that penetrate the first layer of hose reinforcement as defined in Sec. 156.120i. ii Have no external deterioration and to the extent internal inspection is possible with both ends of the hose open no internal deterioration iii Not burst bulge leak or abnormally distort under static liquid pressure at least 112 times the maximum allowable working pressure and iv Hoses not meeting the requirements of paragraph c1i of this section may be acceptable after a static liquid pressure test is successfully completed in the presence of the COTP. The test medium is not required to be water. 2 Each transfer system relief valve must open at or below the pressure at which it is set to open 3 Each pressure gauge must show pressure within 10 percent of the actual pressure 4 Each loading arm and each transfer pipe system including each metallic hose must not leak under static liquid pressure at least 112 times the maximum allowable working pressure and 5 Each item of remote operating or indicating equipment such as a remotely operated valve tank level alarm or emergency shutdown device must perform its intended function. d No person may use any hose in underwater service for transfer operations unless the operator of the vessel or facility has tested and inspected it in accordance with paragraph c1 or c4 of this section as applicable. e The test fluid used for the testing required by this section is limited to liquids that are compatible with the hose tube as recommended by the hose manufacturer. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.10 f The frequency of the tests and inspections required by this section must be 1 For facilities annually or not less than 30 days prior to the first transfer conducted past one year from the date of the last tests and inspections 2 For a facility in caretaker status not less than 30 days prior to the first transfer after the facility is removed from caretaker status and 3 For vessels annually or as part of the biennial and mid-period inspections. Electrical Continuity Test Unless otherwise specified all lengths of composite hose that have been fitted with electrically conductive end fittings must have an electrical resistance not exceeding 10 ohms. The test should be made from end fitting to end fitting using a calibrated multi-meter to ensure that the hose is electrically continuous. Visual Inspection All sample assemblies should be visually inspected for substandard quality conditions in the hose or couplings. Each assembly should be visually inspected for kinks loose covers bulges or ballooning soft spots cuts broken wires or any obvious defect in the hose. The fittings and attachments should be inspected for any type of visible defects that may affect the performance of the assembly. Visual inspection checkpoints should include but are not limited to the following Hose Identification - Size and type must correspond to the fabrication order work order. Coupling Identification - Coupling size type and product number must correspond to information on the fabrication order work order and specifications. Identified with date code part number etc. when required. Inspection Items - o Bulge behind the coupling. o Cocked couplings. o Cracked couplings. o Displacement of inner and outer reinforcing wires from normal pitch o General appearance of the assembly. o Freedom of swivels o Internal contaminants. o Protective caps or plugs. o Restrictions in the tube o Rusted Couplings Test Documentation If required by the customer a test certificate may be issued to provide written confirmation that the assembly has been tested and conforms to certain performance criteria. If a test certificate is not supplied test results should be maintained and kept on file for five years. Each test certificate should bear a unique number for traceability. Test certificates should include the following information as a minimum A. Test Certificate Number B. Customers Name and Purchase Order Number Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 11 C. Suppliers Name and Job Number D. Hose Serial Numbers E. Hose details including length type of hose and diameter F. End fitting details with types of ferrules and seals used G. Test Date H. Test Pressure I. Electrical Continuity Conformance J. Suppliers Authorization Signature 6.6 Installation and Usage for Composite Hose General Hoses must be correctly supported during use. These supports should be arranged so that the hoses are never bent beyond the minimum bend radius. Hoses should never be supported along their live length by a single rope. Slings saddles or some other means of proper support must be used. The support must be wide enough to spread the load sufficiently so that the hose is not deformed in the area of support. Incorrect installation can unduly stress hose assemblies leading to a shortened working life or premature failure. A. Flanged hose assemblies should ideally have one end secured with a floating flange. B. Hose assemblies must not be twisted either on installation or in use. C. Hose assemblies subject to movement while operating should be installed in such a way that flexing occurs in the same plane. D. When installing hose assemblies careful attention should be paid to minimum bend radii specifications. Transfer Hose Handling Guidelines while in Service DOS a Support all 4 thru 10 dock hoses within 3-4 ft. of flange connections always maintaining horizontal plane. For small bore hoses 1 thru 4 it is recommended the hose assemblies be positioned to maintain a horizontal plane for 12 to 24 depending on the id size. b Support the hose using recommended hose supports throughout the balance of the length. c Cushion the hose against sharp edges dock edge ships rail etc. d Cushion the hose when the application demands use of reciprocating machinery. It is recommended that all points of contact be cushioned to avoid potential damage due to the pulsating effect of reciprocating machinery. See Figure 6.1 DONTS a Do not use the hose unsupported. b Do not support the hose with a single rope or chain. c Do not allow the hose to hang unsupported between ship and quay. See Figure 6.1 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.12 Figure 6.1 Transfer Hose Handling Guide Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 1 Section 7 - Hydraulic Hose Section Contents 7.1 Introduction to Hydraulics 7.2 STAMPED 7.3 Hydraulic Hose and Hose Selection 7.4 Coupling Selection 7.5 Hose Assemblies Length Orientation Measurement Testing 7.6 Accessories and Equipment 7.7 Cleanliness Considerations 7.1 Introduction to Hydraulics This NAHAD Guideline is intended to complement existing industry standards and federal regulations. This document recommends methods and requirements necessary for the selection of components fabrication and testing of hose assemblies and pertains to hydraulic hose and hydraulic hose assemblies. Hydraulics can be simply defined as the science of using fluid under pressure to do work. Hydraulic hose assemblies are flexible fluid power connectors used to convey and direct these fluids. Today hydraulics has progressed to where it is used in agriculture construction metal working marine forestry mining and practically any other industry you can name. It is extremely important that the specific instructions of the hose and coupling manufacturers be followed. The intermixing of hose and couplings from different manufacturers is not typically acceptable. Couplings are engineered to only work with approved hoses and vice-versa. Do not use hosecoupling combinations that are not approved by the manufacturer. If the hose and coupling are supplied by different manufacturers then both must approve of their use together. In no instance should the information printed in this section supersede a manufacturers instructions. Safety should be a paramount concern whenever working with a hydraulic system. The fluids conveyed are often at high temperatures and extremely high pressures which present unique dangers. Hydraulic fluid injuries are generally very sever and may come in several forms. Fluid injections wounds may occur Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.2 any time there is a leak in a hydraulic system. Never check for leaks or damage to a hydraulic system by feel the best case scenario with a fluid injection wound is months of painful treatment to recover additional risks include amputation and death. Due to the high temperatures any time a user is exposed to hydraulic fluids severe burns may result this exposure may be a result of an assembly failure or even oil released during maintenance. Additionally there is a danger of fire or explosion if a hose fails around a hot engine or exhaust manifold or if a static discharge takes place in a fluid spray. Unconstrained hoses may whip on pressurization or in the event of failure and are extremely dangerous. Additionally during the release of pressure on the hydraulic system improperly secured booms or other cylinder supported components may drop suddenly. A sometimes less recognized risk is that of electrical shock. Any equipment used to work around live electrical lines such as lifts etc. should be equipped with hydraulic hoses rated as non-conductive. This is because most hydraulic hoses have wire reinforcement and are inherently conductive. Also even when non-conductive hoses are used it is important to recognize that hydraulic fluids may also act as conductors. 7.1.1 Basic Components of Hydraulic Systems Energy transmission systems Motors supply mechanical energy. An electric motor gets its motion from an electric flow of energy transforming it in mechanical power supplying another form of energy to be used otherwise. Also chemical energy is transformed a good example is diesel engines whose movements supply energy. Unfortunately this first transformation is often unsatisfactory for the actual needs of many applications. Not always the place where the action is required can be equipped with a motor and a proper operator. The solution to this problem can be found making energy flow from the prime mover to the application point. A common way to do this is by the use of hydraulic systems. Any mass can have potential and kinetic energy a fluid can also transport it from one point to another. For example waterfalls take advantage of the potential energy linked to the different heights in which the water is before and after the transmission. Some turbines get their motion from the kinetic energy of the used fluid. Other systems the ones we will deal with in this manual use an energy flow under form of pressure. Hydraulic circuits A hydraulic circuit is a system to supply energy transported by means of a fluid under pressure. A prime mover drives generally a pump whose task is to send a fluid into a circuit it converts the mechanical energy of the motor into fluid power. The fluid moves along a pipeline and reaches an actuator generally a cylinder but often also a hydraulic motor rotary actuator. The described circuits can be represented by simple schemes related to a system with a linear actuator cylinder similarly in the case of rotative actuators hydraulic motors. Pipeline The pipeline conveys the fluid it may be built either with rigid steel pipes or with flexible hoses or also using a combined solution. Many applications would hardly accept a rigid pipeline often the connected parts are in relative motion between themselves and a flexible hose suits at best the needs. Moreover using fluid transmission mainly in engines operating at high speed the systems have also a lot of vibrations a flexible part in the system can better absorb them so to create a sort of insulation. Flexible hoses will be widely described in this manual basically the hose consists in a rubber tube winded up by reinforcement and covered with a rubber or textile layer. The reinforcement consists in steel wires or textile yarns spiraled or braided around the tube generally 4-6 wire spirals or 1-2 wire or textile braids. Actuator The most frequent actuator met in hydraulic systems is a cylinder. Cylinders may be single or double effect Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 3 Single effect cylinders consist in a tube in which a piston is pushed by the pressurized fluid. These applications generally use gravity to end their cycle and return to the start position. Double effect cylinders have a piston with a non-constant diameter for the whole length the pistons diameter is smaller than the internal diameter of the cylinder generally in the center of the piston the diameter is nearly equal so to have at disposal two surfaces to convert pressure in force. The circuit will direct the fluid to one or the other of the inlets moving the piston in one or the other direction. The cylinder bears two oil inlets at each end. Other types of actuators for example hydraulic motors are currently used to transform hydraulic energy into mechanical power. Fluids The most common fluid is certainly water yet most of the circuits we are describing use oils to convey energy. Actually the first systems used water and only with increasing complexity of technology oils started to be used. The necessity to change came because water couldnt assure the required properties first of all a lubricant action but also the absence of corrosive action and sediments no evaporation at higher temperature and therefore a higher boiling temperature. These properties can be found with mineral oils. An oil pump can work at about 2000 cyclesmin. This means it can be directly connected to the motor. Using a water pump between it and the motor requires a speed reducer as the maximum number of cycles of this pump is about 200 the motor cant work directly at such a slow rate. The necessity of a reducer leads to greater sizes of the whole equipment creating space problems. Furthermore while water causes oxidation and corrosion oil protects the material of the pump assuring a longer life of the engines. From a chemical point of view oils have generally higher boiling temperatures than water so they can be used at higher intensity gaining productivity. The difference in price purchasing oil instead of water is certainly covered by the advantages here mentioned. The most common oil used in hydraulics is mineral based. Lately it is becoming necessary to use environment-friendly fluids. These fluids are bio-degradable and commonly called bio-oils. Their use is constantly increasing replacing mineral oils. Also water is still used in certain applications but mainly where it is directly used as working fluid and its consumption is substantial water cleaning and water blasting are examples where the pressurized fluid carries out its function and gets lost. The main difference between these two applications is the level of pressure at which the water is used. Fluid compatibility with various tube compounds increases the complexity of the selection process the relevant manufacturers should be consulted in all cases for recommendations. 7.1.2 Main Applications Construction and Public Works Road pavers Construction equipment Earth moving equipment Underground and Open Pit Mining Long wall support Open pit mining equipment drilling machine Industrial Machines Production machinery Injection molding Steel works Marine fleets Agriculture Tractors Combined harvester Implements Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.4 7.1.3 Standards for Hydraulic Hose It is important to understand the agency specification requirements that may be pertinent to your application. There are dozens of standards nationally and internationally. Only the more popular US standards will be listed here. SAE The Society of Automotive Engineers establishes the American standard for most hydraulic hose. SAE guidelines provide general properties of size tolerances and minimum performance characteristics of each major hose type. SAE is made up of representatives from the major manufacturers. SAE does not test or certify hose and fitting performance. Note SAE rated hoses from different manufacturers are not exactly the same. They are similar. SAE J517 identifies the 100R hose series which ranges from 100R1 to 100R19. The number designation following the R does not identify the number of reinforcement layers but rather the specific requirement of a type of hose See SAE 517 standards. MSHA Mine Safety and Health Administration specifies flame resistant properties required of hose used in underground mining applications. Its also the recognized standard for flame resistance for many industries. DOTFMVSS The Department of Transportation Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards describe the requirements for hydraulic air and vacuum brake hose hose assemblies and fittings for use on passenger vehicles trucks buses trailers and motorcycles. USCG The United States Coast Guard requirements are met through two SAE specifications for hose and fittings that are used on Marine vessels. They are SAE J1475 and J1492. Also J19421 lists manufacturers hose that is accepted but not approved by the USCG. DOD and MIL The United States Department of Defense has many specifications that identify dimensional and performance requirements for various hose types. Some specifications require a manufacturer to be listed as an approved source. Many specifications require a low temperature rating to - 65 F. Other industry agencies that have specific requirements ABS American Bureau of Shipping DIN Deutsches Institut fur Normung Germany IJS Industrial Jack Specifications ISO International Organization for Standardization Lloyds of London DNV Det Norske Veritas for North Sea Floating Vessels 7.2 STAMPED Proper hose selection is critical in order to realize a safe hydraulic system. The first step in having a safe hydraulic system is selecting components that meet the needs. Compromises in hose selection may create situations of danger as well as affect the performance and durability of the system. The choice may work for the short run but may not be a good long-term decision. The guide uses the STAMPED process. STAMPED is an acronym and stands for the 7 major information areas required to provide a quality hose assembly for your customer as follows S T A M P E D S Size T Temperature A Application M Material to be conveyed P Pressure E Ends or couplings D Delivery volume and velocity Size I.D. Inside Diameter The hydraulics industry has adopted a measuring system called Dash Numbers to indicate hose and coupling size. The number which precedes the hose or coupling description is the dash size see table. This industry standard number denotes hose I.D. in sixteenths of an inch. The exception to this is the SAE100R5 SAE100R14 hoses as well as SAEJ51 and SAEJ2064 refrigerant hoses where dash sizes denote hose I.D. equal to equivalent tube O.D. Hose O.D. Outside Diameter can be a critical factor when hose routing clamps are used or hoses are routed through bulkheads. Check manufacturers individual hose specification tables for O.D.s. Dash No. Hose I.D. Inches All Except SAE 100R5 SAE100R14 SAEJ51 SAEJ2064 SAE 100R5 SAE100R14 SAEJ51 SAEJ2064 Inches Millimeters Inches Millimeters -2 18 3.2 -- -- -3 316 4.8 -- -- -4 14 6.4 316 4.8 -5 516 7.9 14 6.4 -6 38 9.5 516 7.9 -8 12 12.7 1332 10.3 -10 58 15.9 12 12.7 -12 34 19.0 58 15.9 -14 78 22.2 -- -- -16 1 25.4 78 22.2 -20 1-14 31.8 1-18 28.6 -24 1-12 38.1 1-38 34.9 -32 2 50.8 1-1316 46.0 -36 2-14 57.6 -- -- -40 2-12 63.5 2-38 60.3 -48 3 76.2 -- -- -56 3-12 88.9 -- -- -64 4 101.6 -- -- -72 4-12 115.2 -- -- Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 5 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.6 The inside diameter of the hose must be adequate to keep pressure loss to a minimum and avoid damage to the hose due to heat generation or excessive turbulence. Note for existing assemblies to determine the replacement hose I.D. read the lay line printing on the side of the original hose. If the original hose lay line is painted over or worn off the original hose must be cut and inside diameter measured for size. Flow Rate Fluid Velocity The flow rate of the system in conjunction with the inside diameter of the hose will dictate the fluid velocity through the hose. Please consult your hose supplier for specific recommended velocity ranges. Please note that suction line recommendations are different than pressure lines. Inside Diameter The correct inside diameter should be determined for the hose required for the application. If the flow rate of the system allows two options for a suitable inside diameter it is recommended that the larger be selected if pressure allows. High fluid velocities can contribute excessive noise and heat to hydraulic systems and can reduce efficiency. Temperature Temperature of both the fluid conveyed and environmental conditions Two areas of temperature must be considered fluid temperature and ambient temperature. The hose selected must be capable of withstanding the minimum and maximum temperature seen by the system. Care must be taken when routing near hot manifolds and in extreme cases a heat shield may be advisable. Maximum Intermittent Ambient Temperature Hose constructions which use a rubber inner tube andor cover can have significant change in properties when exposed to extreme heat or cold. This may require some hoses to be rated to a lower operating pressure when exposed to such conditions. Fluid Temperature The fluid temperature is the temperature of fluid being conveyed inside of the hose during operation. Ambient Temperature The ambient temperature is the temperature of the environment to which the hose assembly is exposed. Maximum Temperature The maximum temperature is the highest temperature to which the fluid or environment may reach. This temperature is typically short in duration and occurs under extreme operating conditions. The hose selected for an application should be rated at or above the maximum ambient and maximum fluid temperature. Minimum Temperature The minimum temperature is the lowest temperature to which the hose assembly will be exposed. For a hydraulic system this is based on the minimum ambient temperature. A hose should be rated at or below the minimum ambient temperature to which the assembly may be exposed. Maximum assembly working pressures will decrease as temperatures increase. Application The conditions under which the hose assembly will be used The type of application in which a hose assembly will be used is very important in determining what type of hose should be selected. The most common types of applications are listed below. High Impulse Hydraulic system is subjected to frequent pressure spikes. Low Impulse Hydraulic system is seldom subjected to pressure spikes. Non-flexing Applications Hose assemblies are not subjected to bending or flexing from articulation of the equipment. Flexing Applications Hose assemblies are subjected to bending or flexing due to articulation or movement of the equipment. Vacuum Hose assembly is exposed to negative pressure less than atmospheric. Environmental conditions such as ultraviolet light salt water air pollutants temperature ozone chemicals electricity abrasion and paint application will all negatively impact hose assembly life Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 7 Static discharge can become an issue when non-polar liquids or mixtures including non-polar liquids are conveyed in non-conductive hose. A static charge will build and on discharge perforate the hose tube to avoid this use conductive tube products when conveying non-polar or mixtures of non-polar liquids. Electrical conductivity of hydraulic hoses or conveyed fluids is an issue with equipment used to work around electrical lines. If hydraulic equipment is to be used around electrical lines always use hydraulic hoses rated as non-conductive. Be sure to select products that will meet any regulatory standards required in the application. Examples of these standards would include SAE USCG ENDIN ABS etc Never place hoses in a position where they are pulled on. Hoses are designed to hold pressure and convey fluids exposing them to axial loads will cause premature failure. Any special or unusual applications should always be approved by the hose manufacturer otherwise additional independent testing may be required. The following questions may need to be answered such as Where Will Hose be Used Fluid andor Ambient Temperature Hose Construction Equipment Type Fluid Compatibility Thread End Connection Type Working and Surge Pressures Environmental Conditions Permanent or Field Attachable Couplings Suction Application Routing Requirements Thread Type Government and Industry Standards Being Met Unusual Mechanical Loads Minimum Bend Radius Non-Conductive Hose Required Excessive Abrasion Material Fluid being conveyed type and concentration Some applications require specialized oils or chemicals to be conveyed through the system. Hose selections must assume compatibility of the hose inner tube and cover material. In addition to the hose materials all other components which make up the hose assembly hose ends o-rings etc must also be compatible with fluid being used. Permeation or effusion is the movement of a substance through the hose tube walls which may degrade the hose tube cause cover blistering or other undesired effects and must be considered especially when conveying compressed gasses. Be sure to select a hose that is compatible and approved by the manufacturer for the fluid conveyed. Concentration pressure temperature and other factors may impact the compatibility of the hose and fluid. Depending on the fluid your hose supplier may lower the maximum temperature or pressure rating of the assembly. When selecting any hose assembly always consult your hose suppliers recommendations. Additional caution must be exercised in hose selection for gaseous applications such as refrigerants and LPG. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.8 NOTE All block type couplings contain nitrile O-rings which must be compatible with the fluids being used. Pressure Pressure to which the assembly will be exposed The most important step in the hose selection process is knowing system pressure including pressure spikes. Maximum Operating Pressure This is the maximum pressure that the system should be exposed to in normal operating conditions. This pressure should be dictated by the relief setting of the system. Both the hose and hose end should not be rated to a pressure less than the maximum operating pressure of the system. Pressure Spikes When a hydraulic system is subjected to a large load in a short period of time the system pressure can overshoot the relief setting and exceed the maximum operating pressure. Frequent pressure spikes can reduce the life of hydraulic hose assemblies. Hose assembly working pressures must be equal to or greater than the system pressure. Pressure spikes greater than the maximum working pressure will shorten hose life and must be taken into consideration. Any time a hose assembly is to be exposed to external pressures which may exceed the internal hose pressures be sure to consult the hose manufacturer for recommendations. Maximum assembly working pressures will decrease as temperatures increase. Ends Termination end style type orientation attachment methods etc. Always use manufacturer approved couplings for hose assemblies. Be sure to select the appropriate end termination for a system working pressure and other requirements such as vibration resistance. Delivery Testing quality cleanliness packaging and delivery requirements define any special requirements needed. Always follow manufacturer recommendations for maximum fluid velocity within a hose. Excessive fluid velocity may cause excessive pressure loss heat generation hose movement or whipping system noise and hammer effects. Temperature Derating Factors for Hose Assemblies Temperature directly affects maximum allowable working pressure. Most manufacturers rate maximum operating pressures at an ambient temperature of 70 degrees F. If a hose is to be considered for use in an application that exceeds this ambient temperature consult manufacturer for any pressure derating of the hose assembly. 7.3 Hose and Hose Selection Many hydraulic hose types and constructions are available today regarding Pressure Lines Return Lines and Suction lines of a typical hydraulic circuit. The most common and popular hydraulic hoses are manufactured per ISO SAE EN standards summarized in Figures 7-a 7-b and 7-c. ISO International Standards Organization has become more recognized by the industry and manufacturers in recent years. ISO has incorporated general build and performance characteristics of SAE EN specifications to help eliminate confusion associated with hydraulic hose construction types and performance ratings. ISO has adopted SAEJ517 SAEJ517 Standard provides general dimensional and performance specification for the most common hoses used in hydraulic systems on mobile and stationary equipment. SAE Hose Working Pressures psi Nominal Hose Inside Diameter in Inches and Dash Size SAE Hose Spec ISO Hose Spec Description 316 -3 14 -4 516 -5 38 -6 12 -8 58 -10 -12 1 -16 1 14 -20 1 12 -24 2 -32 100R1 1 Wire Braid 3000 2750 2500 2250 2000 1500 1250 1000 600 500 400 100R1 Type S 1436 Type 1SN High Pressure 1 Wire Braid 3630 3260 3120 2610 2320 1890 1520 1280 900 725 600 100R2 2 Wire Braid 5000 5000 4250 4000 3500 2750 2250 2000 1600 1250 1100 100R2 Type S 1436 Type 2SN High Pressure 2 Wire Braid 6020 5800 5080 4790 3990 3630 3120 2390 1800 1300 1150 100R3 2 Fabric Braid 1500 1250 1200 1125 1000 875 750 565 400 100R4 Suction 300 250 200 150 100 100R6 1 Fabric Braid or Spiral 500 400 400 400 400 350 300 100R7 Thermoplastic 3000 2750 2500 2250 2000 1500 1250 1000 100R8 High Pressure Thermoplastic 5000 5000 4000 3500 2750 2250 2000 100R9 4 Wire Spiral 4500 4000 3000 3000 100R10 High Pressure 4 Wire Spiral 10000 8750 7500 6250 5000 4000 100R11 high Pressure 6 Wire Spiral 12500 11250 10000 7500 6250 5000 100R12 4 Wire Spiral 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 3050 2500 2500 100R13 5000 PSI Wire Spiral 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 100R15 6000 PSI Wire Spiral 6000 6000 6000 6000 100R16 Compact Wire Braid 5000 4250 4000 3500 2750 2250 2000 1600 100R16 Type S 11237 2SC High Pressure Compact Wire Braid 6020 5800 5080 4790 3990 3630 3120 2390 1800 100R17 3000 PSI Wire Braid 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 100R18 3000 PSI Thermoplastic 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 100R19 4000 PSI Wire Braid 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 The SAE J517 100R9 100R10 and 100R11 hoses are discontinued per SAE due to lack of demand. Figure 7a Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 9 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.10 ISO Hose Working Pressures psi per hose size ISO ID Size mm 5 6.3 8 10 12.5 16 19 25 31.5 38 51 63 76 102 IS Spec Dash Size Inches -3 -4 -5 -6 -8 -10 -12 -16 -20 -24 -32 -40 -48 -56 -64 ISO 18752 Class 35 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 ISO 18752 Class 70 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 ISO 18752 Class 140 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 ISO 18752 Class 210 3050 3050 3050 3050 3050 3050 3050 3050 3050 3050 3050 ISO 18752 Class 250 3625 3625 3625 3625 3625 3625 3625 3625 3625 3625 3625 ISO 18752 Class 280 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 ISO 18752 Class 350 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 ISO 18752 Class 420 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 ISO 18752 Class 560 8000 8000 8000 8000 ISO 1436 1ST1SNR1ATS 3625 3250 3100 2600 2300 1900 1500 1250 900 725 600 ISO 1436 2ST2SNR2ATS 6000 5800 5000 4800 4000 3625 3100 2400 1800 1300 1150 1000 ISO 11237 1SC 3250 3100 2600 2300 1900 1500 1300 900 ISO 11237 2SCR16S 5800 5000 4800 4000 3625 3100 2400 1800 ISO 11237 R17 3050 3050 3050 3050 3050 3050 3050 3050 ISO 11237 R19 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 ISO 3862 4SP 6500 6500 6000 5000 5000 4000 3050 2700 2400 ISO 3862 4SH 6000 5500 4700 4200 3625 ISO 3862 R12 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 3050 2500 2500 ISO 3862 R13 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 ISO 3862 R15 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 Figure 7b EN Hose Working Pressures psi Nominal Hose Inside Diameter in Inches and Dash Size Hose Style Description 316 -3 14 -4 516 -5 38 -6 12 -8 58 -10 34 -12 1 -16 1-14 -20 1-12 -24 2 -32 1ST 1 Wire Braid Standard Cover 3630 3265 3120 2610 2320 1890 1525 1280 915 725 580 1SN 1 Wire Braid Thin Cover 3630 3265 3120 2610 2320 1890 1525 1280 915 725 580 2ST 2 Wire Braid Standard Cover 6020 5800 5075 4785 3990 3625 3120 2395 1815 1305 1160 2SN 2 Wire Braid Thin Cover 6020 5800 5075 4785 3990 3625 3120 2395 1815 1305 1160 4SP 4 Wire Spiral 6530 6455 6020 5080 5080 4065 3050 2685 2395 4SH High Pressure 4 Wire Spiral 6095 5515 4715 4210 3630 1SC Compact 1 Wire Braid 3265 3120 2610 2325 1890 1525 1280 2SC Compact 2 Wire Braid 5805 5080 4790 3990 3630 3120 2395 Figure 7c Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 11 7.3.1 Basics of Hydraulic Hose Hydraulics allow the transfer of energy through an incompressible fluid liquid this gives a very high power density. Hydraulic hose assembly is a conduit to transfer energy from port-to-port or point A to point B within a hydraulic circuit. Hydraulic hose assembly consists of a flexible hose with connectors Couplings Fittings andor Stems Ferrules at each end. Hydraulic hoses are constructed of three main components Tube Reinforcement and Cover. The inner most part of the hydraulic hose is the tube wrapped up by reinforcement which is encapsulated with a cover. . Tube The tube is the inner most lining of a hydraulic hose and comes into contact with the fluid being conveyed tube and fluid compatibility is most critical. As described above the inner part of a hose is the tube its function is to contain and convey the service fluid. Furthermore it also protects the outer elements of the hose from the possible aggression of the conveyed fluid. Additional caution must be exercised in hose selection for gaseous applications where permeation may occur. Permeation or effusion is seepage through the hose pores resulting in loss of fluid. This may occur when hose is used with fluids such as but not limited to liquid and gas fuels refrigerants helium fuel oil natural gas. The material of the tube is chosen among a great number of synthetic rubbers. The chemical composition of the compounds should be selected to meet the requirements of the application. Reinforcement The tube itself cannot withstand the pressure of the conveyed fluid in fact as mentioned above the design of the tube considers only its compatibility with the fluid to contain while the very wide range of pressures present in hydraulic applications must be analyzed otherwise. The reinforcement material is the MuscleStrength to resist internal or external pressures. The three basic types of reinforcement are Spiral Braid and Helical. Helical Reinforcement Spiral Reinforcement Braid Reinforcement Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.12 Spiral reinforcement is typically steel wire Textile for lower pressure and has four or six overlapping layers of reinforcement. Spiral wire hose can handle more severe applications with longer service impulse cycle life at extremely high pressures. Braid reinforcement can be steel wire or textile and can have single or multiple layers. Braided hose can handle low to high pressure impulse applications Helical coil monofilament reinforcement keeps the hose from collapsing in on itself when used in suction line applications. Helical hose can be rated to a full vacuum rating of 30Hg. The pressure resistance of the hose must be higher than the working pressure. The safety factor is defined as the ratio between the burst pressure and the max working pressure for the hydraulic applications the safety factor is set to 41 by International Standards some special static applications as water cleaning for example ISO 7751 have 2.51 safety factor. For low pressure applications up to 100 bar for example textile reinforcements may be used. So nylon rayon or polyester fabrics are woven braided or wrapped around the tube. When the pressure gets higher stronger materials are needed and steel wire spirals or braids are used. Wire braided hoses bear generally one or two layers of reinforcement in some cases even three while spiral ones have commonly four or six spirals layers. The application of braids and spirals can also be mixed depending on the most appropriate design. Between each layer of braids or spirals an interlayer or friction layer is installed to create a bonding effect and to prevent frictional wear between the wires. In general spiral hose constructions are better suited to high impulse heavy duty applications which involve flexing and large pressure spikes. However there are specialized braided hoses available from various manufacturers that can achieve significant impulse cycle life in a flexing application with a tight bend radius. Helical coil monofilament reinforcement hose is found primarily in suction line applications and low pressure return line applications. Please consult your hose supplier if there are multiple constructions required to meet your application needs. Cover Environment machines and operators themselves can damage the reinforcement. The cover outermost element of the hose is used to protect it. There are several types of cover each designed depending on specific requirements economy safety abrasion resistance chemical resistance etc. even aesthetics are features linked to the choice of the cover e.g. color. Rubber cover can have wrapped finish instead of the smooth finish a wet nylon tape is used around the hose during the vulcanization at last the nylon tape is removed and leaves the hose bearing its imprint. Free steam vulcanization is also used the hose is directly vulcanized without any wrapping or shaping method. The vapor steam at high temperature is directly in contact with the outer rubber cover of the hose. This allows saving some steps of the entire manufacturing cycle saving time and materials. Particular attention must be paid to maintain the tolerances and to avoid local defects on the cover. Cover finish is smooth. Also fabric braided covers are still used the cover is braided fabric often impregnated with rubber adhesive. This is the best solution when minimum weight and heat dissipation are required. This solution is usually used on low or medium pressure hoses due to its relative weakness e.g. R5 hose type. Coverless type is usually only used for stainless steel braided hoses mostly PTFE hoses. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 13 7.3.2 Hose Materials The characteristics shown below are for the normal or usual range of these specific stocks. Stocks can be changed somewhat through different compounding to meet the requirements of specialized applications. Tube and cover stocks may occasionally be upgraded to take advantage of improved materials and technology. Neoprene Poly- Choro- prene Type A Nitrile Acrylo- nitrile and Butadiene Type C Nylon Type Z Hypalon Chloro- sulfonated Poly- ethylene Type M EPDM Ethylene Propylene Diene Type P CPE Chlorin- ated Poly- ethylene Type J PTFE Poly- tetrafluoro- ethylene Type T Flame Resistance Very Good Poor Good Good Poor Good Good Petroleum Base Oils Good Excellent Good to Excellent Good Poor Very Good Excellent Diesel Fuel Fair to Good Good to Excellent Good to Excellent Good Poor Good Excellent Resistance to Gas Permeation Good Good Good To Excellent Good to Excellent Fair to Good Good Good to Excellent Weather Good to Excellent Poor Excellent Very Good Excellent Good Excellent Ozone Good to Excellent Poor for Tube Good For Cover Excellent Very Good Outstanding Good Excellent Heat Good Good Good Very Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Low Temperature Fair to Good Poor to Fair Excellent Poor Good to Excellent Good Excellent Water-Oil Emulsions Excellent Excellent Good to Excellent Good Poor Excellent Excellent WaterGlycol Emulsions Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Diesters Poor Poor Excellent Fair Excellent Very Good Excellent Phosphate Esters Fair For Cover Poor Excellent Fair Very Good Very Good Excellent Phosphate Ester Base Emulsions Fair For Cover Poor Excellent Fair Very Good Very Good Excellent Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.14 7.4 Coupling Selection A hose end coupling is the connector attached at the end of the hose that connects with a port adapter another coupling or attachment such as a quick disconnect. Therefore the coupling has two functional ends. These are the hose end or stem which connects onto the hose and the terminal end which connects the hose assembly to whatever it is that you are attaching the hose assembly to. Coupling selection refers to the choice of hose end coupling that attaches to the hose to form the hose assembly. Choosing the proper stem and ferrule depends on the specific hose and terminal end to be used in the assembly. Check the manufacturers recommendations to ensure proper hose assembly components and crimp specifications. NOTE Care must be taken to determine proper compatibility between the hose and fitting. Hose from one manufacturer is not usually compatible with couplings from another. Do not intermix hose and fittings from two manufacturers without approval from both manufacturers. It is imperative that the coupling selected is compatible and approved for use with the choice of hose. 7.4.1 Types of Couplings There are two primary types of hose end couplings that are commonly used permanent and field attachable or reusable. There are different styles and method of attaching to the hose for each. Permanent fittings can be 1. One-piece pre-crimped stem and ferrule assembly or two-piece 2. Crimped or swaged 3. Skive or no-skive Field AttachableReusable can be 1. Two-piece or three-piece screw-on 2. One-piece clamped or push-on no ferrule 3. Mandrel or mandrelless When using two-piece couplings it is important to match the ferrule with its appropriate stem and hose 7.4.2 Coupling Selection Different hoses may require different coupling styles. To make your selection determine the correct stem to be used. There are two functional ends of the stem to consider The hose end for hose attachment The terminal end for portaccessoryadapter attachment. Terminal EndHose End Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 15 Coupling selection is determined by The size of hose it is to attach to The type of hose it is to attach to The terminal end connection typically threaded The coupling type permanentfield attachableclamped The coupling configuration straight angled drop dimensions etc. The system operating pressure The media being conveyed in determining the coupling material selected It is important to keep in mind that the hose assembly coupling and hose is only one component of the system. In choosing the correct end terminations for the couplings attached to the hose formal design standards and sound engineering judgment should be used. In the absence of formal design standards consider the following factors in choosing the proper end termination Pressure Impulse frequency amplitude and wave form Vibration Corrosion Dissimilar metals galvanic corrosion Maintenance procedures and frequency Installation reliability Connections risk in the system Exposure to the elements Operators andor bystanders exposure to the connection Installation operation and service activities and practices that affect safety If there are any questions as to what end fittings should be used consult your NAHAD Hose Safety Institute Distributor for assistance 7.4.3 Coupling Material Hydraulic hose couplings most commonly come in three basic materials carbon steel plated stainless steel brass More exotic materials such as monel may also be available for some coupling types as well as combinations of materials such as couplings where the wetted parts which come into contact with the media being conveyed may be brass or stainless steel while the ferrule or threaded nut may be a standard carbon steel. Coupling choices in the exotic or multi-materials are usually limited as these have more specific applications that do not require a full range of connection type. 7.4.4 Coupling Sizing Both the hose end stem and the terminal threaded end are measure by industry standard dash sizes. The hose end dash size refers to the inside diameter in 116 segments except for SAE 100R5 and SAE 100R14 which are based on tube O.D.. The pneumatic industry uses the inch or metric sizing rather than the dash numbers. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.16 It is always important to measure the threads since there are so many threads similar in measurement and which may look very similar. The proliferation of threads on the world market today makes it easy to mismatch threads resulting in leakage and possible serious accident. Each manufacturer has his own shell and stem markings to match the different hose types. This marking system can be part numbers stamped on the product notches lines etc. For this reason it is recommended to consult the manufacturer if there is any question. Identification of a couplingend connection requires the correct tools and reference materials such as a coupling suppliers catalog. The tools are available from most coupling manufacturers or your local tool store. The recommended tools are Thread pitch gauge capable of measuring inch and metric thread pitches. I.D.O.D. Caliper capable of measuring both inches and millimeters. Seat angle gauge capable of measuring different seating angles i.e 37 or 45 flare and 60 or 24 inverted flares. Reference materials showing different threaded end charts inch and metric systems. Thread Pitch Gauge I.D.O.D. Seat Angle Gauge Caliper It is important to know the three basic steps in identifying a couplingend connection. Similarity of thread in measurement as well as appearance can result in a mismatch and possible serious consequences. The three steps are as follows Measure the thread pitch Measure the thread diameter Determine the seating angle if applicable 7.4.5 Measuring Thread Pitch Use a thread pitch gauge to determine the number of threads per inch or the distance between two threads for a metric connection. In the inch thread system NPT the thread pitch is referred to as the number of threads per inch or in other words how many crests there are per inch. The metric system measures the distance between two threads or crests. Using a thread pitch gauge designed for fluid connector threads try different thread gauges looking for the tightest fit. Engage as many threads as possible the more threads engaged the more accurate the reading. 7.4.5 Coupling Terminal End Thread Identification Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 17 Hold the fitting and thread gauge up to the light and look for gaps or light appearing between the gauge and the threads. This is easy on a male connection and more difficult to see on the female end connection. It should be a tight fit with very little light coming through. Keep in mind the tools may not be machinist quality just a measuring device so some light coming through is normal. Measuring the thread diameter Using the I.D.O.D. caliper measure the thread diameter. Male thread diameter is measured on the outside diameter of the thread. It is recommended to hold the caliper at a slight angle for a more accurate reading. Female thread diameter is measured on the inside diameter of the thread. For female thread it is recommended to hold the caliper perpendicular to the thread. Measuring the seatingsealing surface angle when applicable If the connection seals on a flared surface example 37 or 45 flare or on an inverted angle seat example 60 or 24 inverted flares the next step is to determine that angle of seal. Use a seat angle gauge on the male connection. Place the gauge on the sealing surface. If the centerlines of the connection and gauge are parallel the correct angle has been determined. Measuring the female is accomplished in a similar manner by inserting the gauge into the connection and placing it on the sealing surface. If the centerlines of the connection and gauge are parallel the correct angle has been determined. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.18 One additional important step is required when identifying a metric 24 male connection and that is to determine if it is an L light series or S heavy series. This is accomplished by measuring the inside diameter of the recessed counter bore at the base of the 24 inverted sealing surface Fig. 17 and 18. This measurement will be in millimeters and determines if the connection is L or S series Fig. 15 R dimension. It is an important required measurement to determine the correct replacement fittingend connection. Match the thread pitch diameter and seating angle measurements taken to the various threaded end charts in your reference materials. The following pages list a variety of hydraulic hose ends. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 19 7.4.5.1 37 Flare JIC The Society of Automotive Engineers SAE specifies a 37 angle flare or seat be used with high pressure hydraulic tubing. These are commonly called JIC couplings. The JIC 37 flare male will mate with a JIC female only. The JIC male has straight threads and a 37 flare seat. The JIC female has straight threads and a 37 flare seat. The seal is made on the 37 flare seat. Some sizes have the same threads as the SAE 45 flare. Carefully measure the seat angle to differentiate. Note Some couplings may have dual machined seats both 37 and 45 seats. Dash Size Nominal Size in. Thread Size Female Thread I.D. in. Male Thread O.D. in. -2 18 516-24 1764 516 -3 316 38-24 2164 38 -4 14 716-20 2564 716 -5 516 12-20 2964 12 -6 38 916-18 12 916 -8 12 34-16 1116 34 -10 58 78-14 1316 78 -12 34 1-116-12 3132 1-116 -14 78 1-316-12 1-764 1-316 -16 1 1-516-12 1-1564 1-516 -20 1-14 1-58-12 1-3564 1-58 -24 1-12 1-78-12 1-5164 1-78 -32 2 2-18-12 2-2764 2-12 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.20 7.4.5.2 SAE 45 Flare A term usually applied to fittings having a 45 angle flare or seat. Soft copper tubing is generally used in such applications as it is easily flared to the 45 angle. These are for low pressure applications such as for fuel lines and refrigerant lines. The SAE 45 flare male will mate with an SAE 45 flare female only. The SAE male has straight threads and a 45 flare seat. The SAE female has straight threads and a 45 flare seat. The seal is made on the 45 flare seat. Some sizes have the same threads as the SAE 37 flare. Carefully measure the seat angle to differentiate. Note Some couplings may have dual machined seats both 37 and 45 seats. Dash Size Nominal Size in. Thread Size Female Thread I.D. in. Male Thread O.D. in. -2 18 516-24 1764 516 -3 316 38-24 2164 38 -4 14 716-20 2564 716 -5 516 12-20 2964 12 -6 38 58-18 916 58 -7 716 1116-6 58 1116 -8 12 34-16 1116 34 -10 58 78-14 1316 78 -12 34 1-116-14 6364 1-116 -14 78 1-14-12 1-1164 1-14 -16 1 1-38-12 1-1964 1-38 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 21 7.4.5.3 O Ring Boss The O-ring boss male will mate with an O-ring boss female only. The female is generally found on ports. The male has straight threads and an O-ring. The female has straight threads and a sealing face. The seal is made at the O-ring on the male and the sealing face on the female. Dash Size Nominal Size in. Thread Size Female Thread I.D. in. Male Thread O.D. in. -2 316 38-24 2164 38 -4 14 716-20 2564 716 -5 516 12-20 2964 12 -6 38 916-18 12 916 -8 12 34-16 1116 34 -10 58 78-14 1316 78 -12 34 1-116-12 3132 1-116 -14 78 1-316-12 1-764 1-316 -16 1 1-516-12 1-1564 1-516 -20 1-14 1-58-12 1-3564 1-58 -24 1-12 1-78-12 1-5164 1-78 -32 2 2-12-12 2-2764 2-12 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.22 7.4.5.4 O Ring Flange -- SAE J518 The SAE Code 61 and Code 62 4-Bolt Split Flange is used worldwide usually as a connection on pumps and motors. There are three exceptions. 1. The -10 size which is common outside of North America is not an SAE Standard size. 2. Caterpillar flanges which are the same flange O.D. as SAE Code 62 have a thicker flange head C dimension in Table. 3. Poclain flanges which are completely different from SAE flanges. Nominal Flange Size Code 61 Flange O.D. A B C Code 62 Flange O.D. A B C Caterpillar Flange O.D. A B C 12 1.188 .688 1.500 .265 1.250 .718 1.574 .305 - - - - 58 1.338 .265 - .265 - - - - - - - - 34 1.500 .875 1.875 .265 1.625 .937 2.000 .345 1.625 .938 2.000 .560 1 1.750 1.031 2.062 .315 1.875 1.093 2.250 .375 1.875 1.094 2.250 .560 1-14 2.000 1.188 2.312 .315 2.125 1.250 2.625 .405 2.125 1.250 2.625 .560 1-12 2.375 1.406 2.750 .315 2.500 1.437 3.125 .495 2.500 1.438 3.125 .560 2 2.812 1.688 3.062 .375 3.125 1.750 3.812 .495 3.125 1.750 3.812 .560 2-12 3.312 2.000 3.500 .375 - - - - - - - - 3 4.000 2.438 4.188 .375 - - - - - - - - 3-12 4.500 2.750 4.750 .442 - - - - - - - - 4 5.000 3.062 5.125 .442 - - - - - - - - 5 6.000 3.625 6.000 .442 - - - - - - - - Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 23 7.4.5.5 O Ring Face Seal SAE J1453 A seal is made when the O-ring in the male contacts the flat face on the female. Couplings are intended for hydraulic systems where elastomeric seals are acceptable to overcome leakage and leak resistance is crucial. The solid male O-ring face seal fitting will mate with a swivel female O-ring face seal fitting only. An O-ring rests in the O-ring groove in the male. Dash Size Nominal Size in. Thread Size Female Thread I.D. in. Male Thread O.D. in. -4 14 916-18 916 12 -6 38 1116-16 1116 58 -8 12 1316-16 1316 34 -10 58 1-14 1 1516 -12 34 1-316-12 1-316 1-18 -16 1 1-716-12 1-716 1-1132 -20 1-14 1-1116-12 1-1116 1-1932 -24 1-12 2-12 2 1-2932 7.4.5.6 Pipe Threads NPTF -- This is a dryseal thread the National pipe tapered thread for fuels. This is used for both male and female ends. The NPTF male will mate with the NPTF NPSF or NPSM female. The NPTF male has tapered threads and a 30 inverted seat. The NPTF female has tapered threads and no seat. The seal takes place by deformation of the threads. The NPSM female has straight threads and a 30 inverted seat. The seal takes place on the 30 seat. The NPTF connector is similar to but not interchangeable with the BSPT connector. The thread pitch is different in most sizes. Also the thread angle is 60 instead of the 55 angle found on BSPT threads. NPSF -- The National pipe straight thread for fuels. This is sometimes used for female ends and properly mates with the NPTF male end. However the SAE recommends the NPTF thread in preference to the NPSF for female ends. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.24 Dash Size Nominal Size in. Thread Size Female Thread I.D. in. Male Thread O.D. in. -2 18 27 2364 1332 -4 14 18 1532 3564 -6 38 18 1932 4364 -8 12 14 34 2732 -12 34 14 6164 1-116 -16 1 11-12 1-1364 1-1364 -20 1-14 11-12 1-1732 1-1732 -24 1-12 11-12 1-2532 1-2532 -32 2 11-12 2-14 2-38 7.4.5.7 DIN 7631 DIN 60 Cone This series combines an internal 60 seat with parallel metric Light series threads. This connection provides a metal-to-metal seal when tightened. This style can be identified by the internal 60 seat on the male metric threaded portion. Metric Thread Size Female Thread I.D. mm Male Thread O.D. mm PipeTube O.D. mm M12 x 1.5 10.5 12.0 6 M14 x 1.5 12.5 14.0 8 M16 x 1.5 14.5 16.0 10 M18 x 1.5 16.5 18.0 12 M22 x 1.5 20.5 22.0 15 M26 x 1.5 24.5 26.0 18 M30 x 1.5 28.5 30.0 22 M38 x 1.5 36.5 38.0 28 M45 x 1.5 43.5 45.0 35 M52 x 1.5 50.5 52.0 42 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 25 7.4.5.8 DIN 3902 DIN 24 Cone Light and Heavy Duty This connection style consists of a common male and two female options. The male has a straight metric thread a 24 included angle and a recessed counterbore that matches the tube OD used with it. In the first female design a metal-to-metal seal is accomplished as the female nose and male taper are forced against one another. The other option uses an o-ring on the female tapered nose. This creates an o- ring seal as the connection is tightened. Both a heavy and light-duty series are offered. The series can be determined by measuring the seat counterbore which is the approximate tube outside diameter and comparing it to the thread size. Metric Thread Size Female Thread I.D. mm Male Thread O.D. mm Light Duty PipeTube O.D. mm Heavy Duty PipeTube O.D. mm M12 x 1.5 10.5 12.0 6 - M14 x 1.5 12.5 14.0 8 6 M16 x 1.5 14.5 16.0 10 8 M18 x 1.5 16.5 18.0 12 10 M20 x 1.5 18.5 20.0 14 12 M22 x 1.5 20.5 22.0 15 14 M24 x 1.5 22.5 24.0 - 16 M26 x 1.5 24.5 26.0 18 - M30 x 2.0 28.0 30.0 22 20 M36 x 2.0 34.0 36.0 28 25 M42 x 2.0 40.0 42.0 - 30 M45 x 2.0 43.0 45.0 35 - M52 x 2.0 50.0 52.0 42 38 Male 24 Cone Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.26 7.4.5.9 British Standard Pipe Parallel BSPP The BSPP male has straight threads and a 30 seat. The female has straight threads and a 30 nose. An o-ring design is also available on the nose from some manufacturers. Sealing can either be metal-to- metal or via an o-ring depending on the design. If the female design is used as a port connection then an o-ring must be utilized on the male similar in design to the o-ring boss. Dash Size Nominal Size in. Thread Size Female Thread I.D. in. Male Thread O.D. in. -2 18 18-28 1132 38 -4 14 14-19 1532 1732 -6 38 38-19 1932 2132 -8 12 12-14 34 1316 -10 58 58-14 1316 2932 -12 34 34-14 3132 1-132 -16 1 1-11 1-732 1-1132 -20 1-14 1-14-11 1-1732 1-2132 -24 1-12 1-12-11 1-2532 1-78 -32 2 2-11 2-732 2-1132 7.4.5.10 British Flat-Face Seal A seal is made when the o-ring in the male contacts the flat face on the female. Couplings are intended for hydraulic systems where elastomeric seals are acceptable to overcome leakage and leak resistance in crucial. Although similar in design to the o-ring face seal they are not interchangeable. Dash Size Nominal Size in. Thread Size Female Thread I.D. in. Male Thread O.D. in. -6 38 38-19 1932 2132 -8 12 12-14 34 1316 -12 34 34-14 3132 1-132 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 27 7.4.5.11 JIS 30 Inverted Seat Parallel Pipe and Metric Threads The JIS inverted seat connection is available with two different thread styles. The parallel pipe thread design operates similarly to the BSPP connection. However please consult your hose end supplier for interchangeability recommendations. The metric threaded design is identical to the parallel pipe design except for thread differences. Parallel Pipe Threads Dash Size Nominal Size in. Thread Size Female Thread I.D. in. Male Thread O.D. in. -4 14 14-19 1532 1732 -6 38 38-19 1932 2132 -8 12 12-14 34 1316 -12 34 34-14 3132 1-132 -16 1 1-11 1-732 1-1132 -20 1-14 1-14-11 1-1732 1-2132 -24 1-12 1-12-11 1-2532 1-78 -32 2 2-11 2-732 2-1132 JIS 30 Inverted Seat Parallel Pipe Metric Threads Dash Size Equivalent Nominal Size mm Thread Size Female Thread I.D. mm Male Thread O.D. mm -4 6 M14 x 1.5 12.5 14.0 -6 9 M18 x 1.5 16.5 18.0 -8 12 M22 x 1.5 20.5 22.0 -12 19 M30 x 1.5 28.5 30.0 -16 25 M33 x 1.5 31.5 33.0 -20 32 M42 x 1.5 40.5 42.0 JIS 30 Inverted Seat Metric Threads Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.28 7.4.5.12 JIS 30 Cone Seat Parallel Pipe Threads The JIS 30 flare is similar to the American SAE 37 flare connection in application as well as sealing principles. However the flare angle and dimensions are different. The threads are similar to BSPP. Parallel Pipe Threads Dash Size Nominal Size in. Thread Tapered Size Female Thread I.D. in. Male Thread O.D. in. -4 14 14-19 1532 3364 -6 38 38-19 1932 2132 -8 12 12-14 34 1316 -12 34 34-14 3132 1-132 -16 1 1-11 1-732 1-516 -20 1-14 1-14-11 1-916 1-2132 -24 1-12 1-12-11 1-2532 1-78 -32 2 2-11 2-14 2-1132 7.4.5.13 British Standard Pipe Tapered BSPT Japanese Tapered Pipe Thread The BSPT is similar to NPTF but not interchangeable due to thread differences. Sealing like the NPTF is accomplished on the threads. BSPT is identical and fully interchangeable with Japanese Tapered Pipe Thread. Dash Size Nominal Size in. Thread Size Female Thread I.D. in. Male Thread O.D. in. -2 18 18-28 1132 38 -4 14 14-19 1532 1732 -6 38 38-19 1932 2132 -8 12 12-14 34 1316 -10 58 58-14 1316 2932 -12 34 34-14 3132 1-132 -16 1 1-11 1-732 1-1132 -20 1-14 1-14-11 1-1732 1-2132 -24 1-12 1-12-11 1-2532 1-78 -32 2 2-11 2-732 2-1132 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 29 7.4.5.14 French GAZ 24 Cone This end connection is similar to the DIN 24 cone however they are not interchangeable. Even though the sealing angles are the same the threads are different. Metric Thread Size Female Thread I.D. mm Male Thread O.D. mm PipeTube O.D. mm M20 x 1.5 18.5 20.0 13.25 M24 x 1.5 22.5 24.0 16.75 M30 x 1.5 28.5 30.0 21.25 M36 x 2.0 34.5 36.0 26.75 M45 x 2.0 43.5 45.0 33.50 M52 x 2.0 50.5 52.0 42.25 M58 x 2.0 55.0 58.0 48.25 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.30 7.4.5.15 French GAZ Poclain 24 Flange This flange differs from standard SAE flanges in that it has a lip that protrudes from the male flange face with a 24 angle. This lip fits into mating the female flange seat and provides the metal-to-metal seal when the bolts are tightened. Nominal Size in. A in. B in. C in. D in. E in. F in. 12 1.57 .72 2.20 1.89 .55 .35 58 1.57 .72 2.20 1.89 .55 .35 34 2.00 .94 2.75 2.38 .71 .43 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 31 7.4.5.16 Metric Standpipe Assembly A metric standpipe assembly is comprised of three components attached to a male fitting. The components are a Standpipe tube Bite Sleeve and Metric Nut. The nut is placed over the Standpipe followed by the Bite Sleeve. For DIN light assemblies a DIN light metric nut is used. For DIN heavy assemblies a DIN heavy metric nut is used. The Bite Sleeve and Standpipe are selected on the basis of tube O.D. required. Metric Standpipe DIN Tube O.D. mm Bite Sleeve DIN Tube O.D. mm Metric Light Nut Thread Metric Heavy Nut Thread 6 6 M12 x 1.5 - 8 8 M14 x 1.5 M16 x 1.5 10 10 M16 x1.5 M18 x 1.5 12 12 M18 x 1.5 M20 x 1.5 15 15 M22 x 1.5 - 16 16 - M24 x 1.5 18 18 M26 x 1.5 - 20 20 - M30 x 2.0 22 22 M30 x 2.0 - 25 25 M36 x 2.0 28 28 M36 x 2.0 - 30 30 - M42 x 2.0 35 35 M45 x 2.0 - 38 38 - M52 x 2.0 42 42 M52 x 2.0 - Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.32 7.4.5.17 Komatsu 30 Flare Metric Threads The Komatsu 30 flare is similar to the 37 JIC flare connection except for two things. The seat angle is 30 instead of 37 and the threads are metric. Dash Size Nominal Size in. Nominal Size mm Metric Thread Size Female Thread I.D. mm Male Thread O.D. mm -6 38 9.5 M18 x 1.5 18.5 20.0 -8 12 13 M22 x 1.5 22.5 24.0 -10 58 16 M24 x 1.5 28.5 30.0 -12 34 19 M30 x 1.5 34.5 36.0 -16 1 25 M33 x 1.5 43.5 45.0 -20 1-14 32 M36 x 1.5 50.5 52.0 -24 1-12 38 M42 x 1.5 55.0 58.0 7.4.5.18 Kobelco Metric Bite Sleeve These are similar to the German DIN 24 Cone but the DIN style uses courser threads. Therefore the Kobelco and DIN connections are not interchangeable. Dash Size Metric Thread Size Female Thread I.D. mm Male Thread O.D. mm -22 M30 x 1.5 28.0 30.0 -28 M36 x 1.5 34.0 36.0 -35 M45 x 1.5 43.0 45.0 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 33 7.4.6 Coupling Configuration The variety of fitting configuration is quite large and in most cases fittings are selected based on the matching port or adapter connection and the routing requirements. Fig. 1 Figure 1 above shows a small sampling of the variety of fitting configurations and selection will vary between the various applications installations and hose types. 7.4.7 Coupling Sealing Methods There are a variety of hose ends which are available when creating a hose assembly. There are typically three different methods of sealing. They are elastomeric seal metal-to-metal and sealing on threads. Connections which use elastomeric seals normally seal on an o-ring. Metal-to-metal hose ends force mating angled surfaces together causing the seal. Sealing on threads is accomplished by the distortion of the connections threads when the male and female halves are tightened. The most common hose ends are described below. For additional information contact your Hose Safety Institute Distributor. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.34 7.5 Hose Assemblies Length Orientation Measurement Testing When establishing proper hose length motion absorption hose length changes due to pressure as well as hose and machine tolerances must be considered. Typical length tolerances for assemblies are shown in the table below. Note SAE is the standards organization which originated in the United States and is predominantly a North American organization while ISO originated in Europe. For hose assembly tolerance length either standard may be referenced and used unless stated otherwise. Hose Assembly Length Tolerances SAE Assembly Length Tolerances decimal in Tolerances fraction in Tolerances mm Up through 12 inches 304.8 mm 0.125 18 3.2 Over 12 through 18 inches 304.8 through 457.2 mm 0.187 316 4.8 Over 18 through 36 inches 457.2 through 914.4 mm 0.250 14 6.4 Over 36 inches 914.4 mm 1 1 1 Hose Assembly Length Tolerances ISO Assembly Length -16 and smaller Tolerances mm Tolerances in Up through 24.8 inches 630 mm -3 to 7 -0.1 to 0.3 Over 24.8 through 49.2 inches 630 through 1250 mm -4 to 12 -0.2 to 0.5 Over 49.2 through 98.4 inches 1250 through 2500 mm -6 to 20 -0.2 to 0.8 Over 98.4 through 315.0 inches 2500 through 8000 mm -0.5 to 1.5 -0.5 to 1.5 Over 315 inches 8000 mm -1.0 to 3.0 -0.5 to 3.0 Assembly Length Larger than -16 Tolerances mm Tolerances in Up through 24.8 inches 630 mm -4 to 12 -0.2 to 0.5 Over 24.8 through 49.2 inches 630 through 1250 mm -6 to 20 -0.2 to 0.8 Over 49.2 through 98.4 inches 1250 through 2500 mm -6 to 25 -0.2 to 1.0 Over 98.4 through 315.0 inches 2500 through 8000 mm -0.5 to 1.5 -0.5 to 1.5 Over 315 inches 8000 mm -1.0 to 3.0 -0.5 to 3.0 7.5.1 Measuring Hose to determine hose cut-off length With some assemblies the length must be within tight tolerances for proper installation. This is especially true for short high pressure hose assemblies. Note Before cutting the hose make sure you understand the difference between cut hose length and assembly overall length OAL The hose cut length for a hose assembly is calculated by subtracting the cut-off factor distance from the bottom of the ferrule or collar to the end of the fitting dimension C in Fig. 39. Typical length tolerance Up to and including 12 - 3mm .13in up to 18 - 5mm .19in up to 36 - 7mm .25in over 36 - 1 of length. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 35 Unless otherwise specified by the customer the assemblys overall length is measured from the extreme end of one fitting to the extreme end of the other except for the O-ring face seal fittings which shall be measured from the sealing face. Where elbow fittings are used the measurement shall be to the centerline of the sealing surface of the elbow end. For examples please see the illustrations below. For male thread fittings40 a the cutoff is measured from the locking collar to the end of the threads C as shown. Fig. a Fig. b Fig. c For straight female fittings Fig. b c the cutoff is measured from the locking collar to either the end of the nut or seat depending on whether the nut can be pulled back exposing the seating surface as shown. All cutoff values are identified in the fitting tables found in the manufacturers catalog. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.36 7.5.2 Hydraulic Hose Assembly Orientation for Offset Elbow Fittings For double elbow assemblies it is imperative that the method of description and measurement provide the desired displacement rather than its mirror image. To achieve this either end may be selected as the reference point provided angle displacement is determined appropriately clockwise or counterclockwise for the reference selected. As shown below with the centerline of the near end as a base reference angular displacement is measured counterclockwise to the centerline of the far end. NEAR END REFERENCEMEASURED COUNTER-CLOCKWISE As shown below with the centerline of the far end as a base reference angular displacement is measured clockwise to the centerline of the near end. FAR END REFERENCEMEASURED CLOCKWISE Displacement angle may have any value up to 360 degrees. Please note that making the angle determination in the wrong direction will result in an unacceptable part. Unless otherwise specified a tolerance of 3 degrees is acceptable for assembly lengths up to 610 mm inclusive and 5 degrees for assembly lengths over 610 mm. Try to avoid use of double elbow hose assemblies. Twisting of the hose during installation may occur. The relative location of the natural curvature in the hose may induce a twist during pressure cycling. Twisted hose may reduce the life of the hose assembly. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 37 7.5.3 Hose Routing Considerations for Hydraulic Hose Assemblies Hose assemblies should be routed to prevent damage from the environment. Damage may come in the form of abrasion or excessive heat. Do not route assemblies in high-abrasion areas without proper protection. Similarly do not place hoses near hot exhaust manifolds or other objects which can expose the assembly to temperatures above its maximum rating without proper shielding. The best practices described in this section represent corrections to some of the most common routing mistakes. A more complete guide can be found in SAE J1273. Twisting Hose assemblies should not be installed in a twisted condition. Swivel fittings andor the layline may be used to aid in twist-free installation. When possible a second back-up wrench should be used to prevent twisting while tightening the hose end swivel nut. Minimum Bend Radius Routing at less than minimum bend radius will reduce the service life of the hose. Use the static or dynamic minimum bend radius according to service conditions. Sharp bends at the hose to fitting juncture should be avoided. Bending the hose to a radius tighter than the minimum bend radius can cause kinking of the hose and shorten the life of the assembly. The bending radius should not begin closer than one hose diameter to the ferrule. Care should be taken when routing hoses to take into account any movement of the hose due to articulation of the equipment while in use. This may include cylinders extendingretracting or the rotation of hydraulic motors. Extra length may be required to prevent the hose from exceeding the rated minimum bend radius. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.38 Angled Adapters and Fittings The use of angled adapters and fittings can prevent the violation of the hose minimum bend radius. They can also improve appearance and accessibility to hose assemblies. Minimum Free Length When routing short hose assemblies it is recommended that a minimum free hose length is always used. Minimum Free Length MFL is defined as equal to 4 times the hose OD plus half the hose minimum bend radius as a rule of thumb for hydraulic hose assemblies. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 39 Length Change under Pressure It is also important to ensure that hose assemblies have enough length to compensate for the change in length of the hose when pressurized. Enough slack should be provided in case the hose contracts under pressure to prevent creating tension into the hose assembly. In assemblies where the hose is bent the hose length should be sufficient so that the minimum bend radius is not exceeded if the hose contracts under pressure. Abrasion Clamping and Supports Abrasion is the wearing of a hose through physical contact. This could be from another hose or other objects in the environment. To prevent abrasion care should be taken when routing a hose assembly so that it will not come in contact with any object which can cause abrasion. This includes hoses clamps brackets or structural components of the equipment. Such devices should not create additional stress or wear points. To reduce the abrasion of a hose assembly more abrasion resistant cover materials can be used. Most hose manufacturers offer hose cover materials which can provide increased abrasion resistance. For specific recommendations please consult with your hose supplier. In addition to cover materials which offer increased abrasion resistance external sleeves can also be added to hose assemblies to provide even greater abrasion resistance. These materials may also allow the replacement of the abrasion guard without replacing the hose assembly. These include but are not limited to UV-protected nylon fabric sleevingwrap Spiral wraps metal or plastic Convoluted tubing plastic Spring guards Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.40 Articulation can also cause abrasion points that were not previously present. Hose assemblies subject to movement while operating should be installed in such a way that flexing occurs in the same plane to prevent twisting. WRONG If flexing in multiple planes cannot be avoided the hose should be clamped so that the planes are separated. Clampssupports should also be used to provide support to long hose assemblies which may sag. This prevents the assembly from getting caught on the equipment itself or other objects. 7.5.4 Testing Hydraulic Hose Assemblies Coupled hose assembly lots should be sampled and tested utilizing an acceptable burst and proof pressure procedure. It is recommended that proof and burst testing be performed in accordance with SAE J517 and SAE J343 as shown below or an applicable industry standard or customer specification. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 41 The SAE J343 standard gives methods for testing and evaluating the performance of the SAE 100R series hydraulic hose and hose assemblies hose and attached end fittings used in hydraulic systems. Proof Pressure Test This proof test is conducted at twice the working pressure of the hose unless otherwise specified by the customer. The test pressure shall be maintained for a period of not less than 30 seconds or more than 60 seconds. There shall be no indication of failure or leakage. Burst Test - Hose assemblies on which the end fittings have been attached less than 30 days shall be subjected to a hydrostatic pressure increased at a constant rate so as to attain the specified minimum burst pressure within a period of not less than 15 seconds nor more than 30 seconds. There shall be no leakage hose burst or indication of failure below the specified minimum burst pressure. WARNING Water or another liquid suitable for the hose under test shall be used as the test medium. The use of air or other gaseous materials as testing media should be avoided because of the risk to operators. In special cases where such media are required for the tests strict safety measures are imperative. Furthermore it is stressed that when a liquid is used as the test medium it is essential that all air is expelled from the test piece because of the risk of injury to the operator due to the sudden expansion of trapped air released when the hose bursts. The hose assemblies to be bench tested must be inspected to ensure conformance to applicable test specifications. It is important to realize that with the exception of proof test and change in length all hose assemblies under pressure testing are to be destroyed after the test. Specific test and performance criteria for evaluating hose assemblies used in hydraulic service are in accordance with requirements for hose in the respective specifications of SAE J517. It is recommended that every facility making hydraulic hose assemblies have a copy of the SAE HS-150 standards manual. Current issue is on disk and available from SAE Headquarters. Test methods for threaded hydraulic fluid power connectors shall conform to SAE standard J1644. This is equivalent to ISO 8434-5 with the exception that the SAE standard includes repeated assembly test for male flare shaped fittings assembled to tube flare. The same cautions apply to tube testing as with hose assemblies. Bursts and fine jets can penetrate the skin. Sudden energy release can be very hazardous. Salt Spray Standards and Testing General Most steel fittings are required to meet minimum corrosion resistance requirements. Corrosion resistance is important to prevent the degradation of a part during transportation storage and service. Some examples of corrosion problems are listed below. Cosmetic issues Contamination due to corrosion of interior surfaces Thread interference from corrosion product build-up Degradation of surface finish in o-ring glands Part fracture Test Methods Typically steel fittings are tested under accelerated conditions to ensure that the component will perform in the field. Most manufacturers subject parts to a neutral salt spray test per ASTM B117 or the ISO 9227. The two standards are considered equivalent for neutral salt spray. This method subjects parts to a controlled fog produced from a sodium chloride salt solution. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.42 Coating Types To meet corrosion resistance specifications carbon steel parts have a coating or plating applied. Common finishes are Zinc plating with a chromate conversion coating Organic coatings Zinc-nickel Currently zinc plating with a chromate conversion coating is the most common method. Zinc chromate plating replaced cadmium plating due to environmental reasons. Similarly many manufacturers have eliminated hexavalent chrome from fittings in favor of trivalent for environmental reasons. The European Union has already banned hexavalent chromium from some vehicle applications. Hexavalent chromate can range from yellowgold to olive green in color. In contrast trivalent chromate is silver and can sometimes have a slight blue tint. Corrosion resistance can be changed by changing the thickness of the zinc and chromate layers or also the addition of topcoats. Zinc-plated parts show two corrosion products. Initially the zinc layer corrodes forming white corrosion zinc oxide. After the zinc layer is penetrated red corrosion iron oxide of the base carbon steel results. Since the zinc layer is sacrificial not all customers or standards have requirements for white corrosion. Specifications without a white corrosion requirement typically only include one for red corrosion as it indicates degradation of the base metal. Severe red corrosion of the base metal carbon steel can ultimately result in cracking and failure. However white corrosion can still be problematic causing cosmetic assembly and sealing issues. Organic coatings can also be used to prevent corrosion. These layers can be used either alone or in combination with other coatings. Zinc-nickel offers excellent corrosion resistance and does not contain hexavalent chromium. Additionally a more resistant base material can be substituted to improve performance. In some applications stainless steel or brass can be substituted to eliminate the use of carbon steel. Specifications ASTM B117 and ISO 9227 specify the evaluation of parts every 24 hours therefore most specifications are in 24-hour increments. SAE J514J516 and ISO 4520 specify that carbon steel fittings must not show signs of red corrosion prior to 72 hours with the following exceptions Internal fluid passages Edges such as hex points serrations and crests of threads where there may be mechanical deformation of the plating or coating typical of mass-produced parts of shipping effects Areas where there is mechanical deformation of the plating or coating caused by crimping flaring bending and other post-plate metal forming operations Areas where the parts are suspended or affixed in the test chamber where condensate can accumulate Large OEMs and customers may also specify corrosion resistance specifications. Most include some or all of the following items. Test method ASTM B117ISO 9227 or different method Hours to white corrosion Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 43 Hours to red corrosion Plating thickness typically referenced in ASTM B633 Exceptions to requirements through hole corrosion mechanical deformation threads etc Failure criteria for corrosion products first sign of corrosion 5 of test surface etc white corrosion red corrosion Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.44 7.6 Accessories and Equipment Hydraulic Hose Attachments O-Rings In todays market place leaking components translates to money lost through loss of horsepower reduced component life increased system down time and increased maintenance to name just a few factors. As such tapered pipe thread connections are slowly being phased out of industry to be replaced with superior connections like flanges and straight thread o-ring type fittings. When choosing an o-ring for the first time or when replacing an existing o-ring the best source of information is the manufacturers catalog. This can be as simple as matching the part number if it is available or if not available it will be necessary to identify the o-ring by measuring. Different o-rings are required depending on the type of fitting or flange being used. Once you have determined the type and size of fitting finding the correct o-ring is simply a matter of finding the part in the original manufacturers catalog and cross referencing the o-ring part number. To determine the correct o-ring without the fitting the size and material must be determined. This can be done by the following method Measure the inside diameter Measure the thickness of the o-ring Determine the o-ring material required. buna-n viton ethylene propylene etc. If you are unsure use a compatibility chart based on the fluid and temperature requirements. Determining the durometer may be necessary With this information use SAE J515 standard or ISO 3601-1 o-ring charts in determining the correct replacement. The correct replacement is vitally important to ensure there are no compatibility issues that may cause leakage or component failure through contamination. Temperature Fluid compatibility High temperature and fluid compatibility will vary by o-ring supplier and application. Increased pressure can also shorten o-ring life. For specific recommendations please consult your hose end andor o-ring supplier. Replacement Depending on the application o-rings may need to be replaced. Factors which can reduce o-ring life necessitating replacement include high temperature high pressure aggressive fluids and frequent reconnections. O-rings which have been damaged should be discarded. Also it is recommended that new o-rings be used when a hose assembly is replaced. Sleeving Abrasion in most cases is caused by continuous rubbing against equipment components other hose or objects in the operating environment. Cover erosion may also be caused by non-compatible fluids such as toxic chemicals acids detergents and non-compatible hydraulic fluids. Exposed hose reinforcement is susceptible to rust and accelerated damage leading to failure. One solution is to bundle hose that flex in the same direction. Clamps bent tube fittings nylon ties straps spring guards and sleeving can be used to keep hose away from abrasion sources and exposure to non-compatible fluids. Remember Group and bundle similarly constructed and sized hoses together using clamps nylon straps or nylon sleeving. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 45 Never bundle high pressure hose with low pressure hose. Under pressure they can work against each other. Never bundle rubber hose with thermoplastic or fluoropolymer hose. Under pressure they can also work against each other. Always consider mechanical movement when bundling. Allow sufficient slack without pulling on a fitting or another hose. Bundles like individual hose should bend in one plane only. Another solution is the use of covers or sleeves see Figures below. Bend Restrictors 7.7 Hydraulic Hose Cleanliness Considerations Hydraulics Modern Hydraulics is defined as the use of confined liquid to transmit power multiply force or produce motion. Clean hydraulic fluid is an integral part of a hydraulic system and contaminated fluid will reduce the service life of hydraulic systems. If contamination is left in the hose after the cutting and crimping process it is very likely that these particles will work their way into the hydraulic system and cause premature wear and tear or even catastrophic failure. Therefore hose cleaning and the removal of contamination is an important part of the fabrication process. Reason for Cleaning The cleaning process ensures that contamination generated during the assembly process has been removed. The primary source of contamination in a hydraulic hose assembly is the result of the cutting process with either a metal blade or abrasive wheel. Therefore it is recommended that the hose be cleaned immediately after the cutting process and always before stem insertion. The 3 main reasons for cleaning the hose after the cutting process are as follows. 1. Heat from the cutting process causes both rubber and metal particles to become very hot. As the particles cool they Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.46 may stick or adhere to the tube thus becoming much more difficult to remove. 2. If contaminants are trapped between the O.D. of the stem and the I.D. of the tube they could act as an eventual leak path for hydraulic fluid when the system is under pressure. 3. Stem insertion is much more difficult when trying to push stems over or past the internal contamination. A clean tube is usually smooth and slippery in nature which means stem lubrication may not be necessary. Stem insertion should be done as cleanly as possible. If lubricants are necessary they should be kept clean and never stored in an open container such as a coffee can. Atmospheric contamination in the shop air will enter the open container and contaminate the lubricant. Never dunk the stem or hose into a lubricant as this will add contamination back into the cleaned piece of hose. Apply clean lubricants sparingly to the O.D. of the stem only. During the crimping or swaging process stem deformation occurs to insure the proper coupling retention. The crimping or swaging process may cause metal and plating flash to occur inside the stem. The hose assembly should go through a final cleaning process. Immediately cap or plug each end of the hose to keep airborne contaminants from entering the clean hose assembly. Caps and plugs will protect the fitting threads and keep the assembly contamination free. Other sources of contamination include dust moisture and airborne particles that can enter a completed hose assembly. Customer requirements and the specific application will dictate the required cleanliness level. Cleaning Methods Projectiles The projectile cleaning method requires clean dry compressed air or an inert gas source such as nitrogen as the propellant. A pneumatic launcher is then used for propelling the projectile through the hose or hose assembly. A virgin polyurethane foam projectile wipes the tube wall clean and pushes contamination out of the assembly. Fluid Flushing Clean fluids that are compatible with the hose and tube stock can be flushed through the assembly to remove contamination. A flushing system that provides a high turbulent flow is desirable to make sure that the contamination is removed from the tube wall. The fluid flushing system should have filtration to ensure that the flushing fluids are clean. After flushing the hose assembly will then need to have the flushing fluid removed and the tube should be dry. Air Blow Clean dry air can be used to blow loose particles of contamination from the hose or hose assembly. Long lengths of hose or hoses with inside diameters of more than a may present a problem when using air only as the cleaning method. The customers cleanliness requirement and the specific application will dictate the required level of cleanliness and cleaning method. The only sure way to know if your meeting a specific ISO NAS or SAE cleanliness code is testing. There are 3 methods of specifying cleanliness. 1. Gravimetric analysis reference ISO 4405 ISO 4407 specifies a method to determine fluid contamination by filtering a volume of fluid under vacuum through 1 or 2 filter membranes. 2. Particle counting reference ISO 4406 ISO 4406 specifies a code of 3 scale numbers to measure the particle level in a fluid sample. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 47 The scale numbers are as follows The first scale number represents the number of particles equal or larger to 4 microns per milliliter of fluid. The second scale number represents the number of particles equal or larger to 6 microns per milliliter of fluid. The third scale number represents the number of particles equal or larger to 14 microns per milliliter of fluid. The scale code is represented for example as 181612. The lower the scale code number the cleaner the fluid. Table 1 illustrates particle counts to scale numbers. Table 1 Allocation of scale numbers Number of particles per millilitre Scale Number More than Up to and including 2 500 000 28 1 300 000 2 500 000 28 640 000 1 300 000 27 320 000 640 000 26 160 000 320 000 25 80 000 160 000 24 40 000 80 000 23 20 000 40 000 22 10 000 20 000 21 5 000 10 000 20 2 500 5 000 19 1 300 2 500 18 640 1 300 17 320 640 16 160 320 15 80 160 14 40 80 13 20 40 12 10 20 11 5 10 10 2.5 5 9 1.3 2.5 8 0.64 1.3 7 0.32 0.64 6 0.16 0.32 5 0.08 0.16 4 0.04 0.08 3 0.02 0.04 2 0.01 0.02 1 0.00 0.01 0 NOTE Reproducibility below scale number 8 is affected by the actual number of particles counted in the fluid sample. Raw counts should be more than 20 particles. I When the raw data in one of the size ranges results in a particle count of fewer than 20 particles the scale number for that size range shall be labeled with the symbol . Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.48 3. Maximum particle size reference ISO 4407 ISO 4407 specifies methods to determine contamination levels in a hydraulic system by counting the particles trapped on a membrane filter using an optical microscope. Particles to 2 microns can be counted using this method. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 1 Section 8 Fluoropolymer Hose Section Contents 8.1 General Information 8.2 STAMPED 8.3 Measurements for Fluoropolymer Hose Assemblies 8.4 Fluoropolymer Hose Fittings Attachments 8.5 Performance Characteristics 8.6 Hose Assembly Length Determination for Various Movements 8.7 Hose Routing 8.8 Assembly Methods 8.9 Testing Procedures for Fluoropolymer Hose 8.1 General The fluoropolymer hose assemblies specified are suitable for the major portion of commercial and industrial applications. This document is not intended to prohibit either supplier or customer from attaching additional requirements for fluoropolymer hose assemblies if necessary to satisfy the application. The following applications are excluded from the scope of this document Installations involving torque axial compression or extension Extreme working pressures above 3500 psi Extreme Temperature above 500 F Chlorine or Bromine applications High Purity Compressed Gas The purpose of this section is to identify the types of linersinner cores most frequently used in the fabrication of fluoropolymer hose. This information will guide you in the selection of the proper fluoropolymer hose required for a specific application. Fluoropolymer hoses are manufactured in several different configurations depending on the application. When selecting the hose consideration must be given to corrosion resistance service temperature pressure ratings end fittings and exterior environmental conditions. See S.T.A.M.P.E.D section NOTE The manufacturer should identify which fluoropolymer is used in any product being referenced. The following components comprise a fluoropolymer hose assembly. The hose construction may consist of one or more of the components listed below. Typically fluoropolymer hoses are reinforced by one of the Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.2 following outer covers such as an exterior braid however some applications do not require any exterior reinforcement and the inner core alone may be adequate. Consult NAHAD Hose Safety Institute Distributor for specific limits. It is necessary to select the appropriate construction materials for the specific application. A. Fluoropolymer Innercore tube Smooth tube extruded Convoluted o Extruded vacuum formed construction o Tape wrapped Fiberglass backed molded convolution Materials o PTFE virgin and anti-static o PFA virgin and anti-static o FEP B. Reinforcements Metallic braided on slip braided CRES 300 series Bronze Monel Hastelloy Others consult manufacturer Non-Metallic braided on or slip braided Polypropylene PVDF Nylon Fiberglass Aramid Fibers Rubber covered fluoropolymer core wbonded rubber layers w - wo helix wire fabric reinforced wbonded rubber covering Metal hose stainless steel High pressure gang braid hose 3000 to 6000 psi depending on size Medium pressure smooth bore hose 1000 to 3500 psi Low pressure hose convoluted innercore 1000 psi and below Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 3 Others available consult your NAHAD Hose Safety Institute Distributor. The preceding specifications should be considered minimal and each manufacturer may suggest additional requirements to assure best results in fabrication testing and service life. Specialty hoses are typically supplied directly by the manufacturer for special needs consult your manufacturer. o Electrically heated hose viscosity control o Jacketed hose C. Fittings Type 316 Stainless Steel or 316L Type 304 Stainless Steel Type 303302 Stainless Steel Brass Carbon Steel plated Aluminum Non-Metallic Hastelloy Monel Alloy 20 PFE Encapsulated coated Smooth Bore Reusable Fittings D. CollarsFerrules Stainless Steel Carbon Steel plated Brass Monel Hastelloy Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.4 8.2 STAMPED The STAMPED acronym stands for the 7 major information areas required to provide a quality hose assembly for the customer as follows S stands for SIZE I.D. and length any O.D. constraints overall length should be specified to include fittings. Note When gathering information for determining length of an assembly NAHAD traditionally is seat to seat however many customers require an OAL overall length which is from fitting end to fitting end and is the normal SAE assembly length standard. tolerances need to be specified if special requirements exist I.D. O.D. and overall length of the assembly To determine the replacement hose I.D. read the layline printing on the side of the original hose. If the original hose layline is painted over or worn off the original hose must be cut and inside diameter measured for size. The inside diameter of the hose must be adequate to keep pressure loss to a minimum maintain adequate flow and avoid damage to the hose due to heat generation or excessive turbulence. The hose should be sized according to the nomographic chart in appendix D. Length tolerances Assembly Length Tolerances Inches MM Length Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 5 o elongation considerations with working pressure Quantify anticipated movement and geometry of use requirements Intermittent or continuous service Indoor and outdoor use Unusual mechanical loads Excessive abrasion Electrical conductivity requirements Equipment type External conditions abrasion oil specify type solvents specify type acid specify type and concentration ozone salt water Hose now in use o Type of hose o Service life being obtained and description of failure or source of customer dissatisfaction Strength and frequency of impulsing or pressure spikes Non-flexing applications static flexing applications dynamic Vacuum requirements Ensure compatibility with cleaning requirements of the application M stands for the MATERIAL or MEDIA being conveyed type and concentration Are there special requirements for this hose tube o Any special specifications or agency requirements that need to be considered e.g. FDA API o Will the material be continuously flowing or sit in the hose for long periods of time specify Media velocity flow rate Chemical nameconcentration MSDS Solids description and size Fluid Compatibility - Some applications require specialized oils or chemicals to be conveyed through the system. Hose selection must assure compatibility of the hose tube. In addition to the hose materials all other components which make up the hose assembly hose ends o-rings etc must also be compatible with fluid being used. Depending on the fluid your hose supplier may lower the maximum temperature or pressure rating of the assembly. When selecting any hose assembly always consult your hose suppliers recommendations. P stands for the PRESSURE to which the assembly will be exposed System pressure including pressure spikes. Hose assembly working pressures must be equal to or greater than the system pressure. Pressure spikes greater than the maximum working pressure will shorten hose life and must be taken into consideration. Temperature implications Vacuum considerations Maximum Operating Pressure - This is the maximum pressure that the system should be exposed to in normal operating conditions. For hydraulic hose assemblies this pressure should be dictated by the relief setting of the system. Both the hose and hose end should not be rated to a pressure less than the maximum operating pressure of the system. Pressure Spikes - When a hydraulic system is subjected to a large load in a short period of time the system pressure can overshoot the relief setting and exceed the maximum operating pressure. Frequent pressure spikes can reduce the life of hydraulic hose assemblies. In general spiral hose constructions are better suited to high impulse applications which involve flexing and large pressure spikes. However there are specialized braided hoses available from various manufacturers. Please consult your hose supplier if there are multiple constructions which meet your application needs. Maximum assembly working pressures will decrease as temperatures increase. E stands for ENDS style type orientation attachment methods etc. Uncoupled or coupled hose hose with built-in fittings Specify end style see charts and pictures in Section 5 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.6 Materials and dimensions steel stainless etc. Conductivity requirements Media compatibility also needs to be considered D stands for DELIVERY Specific to customer requirements Testing requirements o certification requirements e.g. Coast Guard Any special packaging requirements Any special shipping requirements Tagging requirements 8.3 Measurements for Fluoropolymer Hose Assemblies Metric English Measurement System The hose manufacturer shall state in their brochures or documentation which system will be employed in their manufacturing process. All tolerances will be applied to their system of measurement. Optional cross-referencing of another system will be done in brackets. e.g. 14 inch 6 means manufacture is in English and reference is to metric. Inside Diameter of the Hose The inside diameter of the hose may be true bore or nominal bore as specified by the manufacturer. Developed Lengths Tolerances for the overall length of the hose assembly shall be observed according to the following table unless otherwise stated. Table Tolerances This chart is intended for smooth bore hose. For other styles of hose consult your manufacturer for actual tolerances. Assembly Length Tolerances Inches MM Length Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 7 Figure 8.1 Measurement of Hose Assembly Figure 8.2 Measurement of Hose Assembly having an End Connection with a Seating Face Figure 8.3 Measurement of Hose Assembly having an Elbow Fitting Drop Measurement Distance between elbow seat and hose centerline. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.8 8.4 Coupling Terminal End Thread Identification It is always important to measure the threads since there are so many threads similar in measurement and which may look very similar. The proliferation of threads on the world market today makes it easy to mismatch threads resulting in leakage and possible serious accident. Each manufacturer has his own shell and stem markings to match the different hose types. This marking system can be part numbers stamped on the product notches lines etc. For this reason it is recommended to consult the manufacturer if there is any question. Identification of a couplingend connection requires the correct tools and reference materials such as a coupling suppliers catalog. The tools are available from most coupling manufacturers or your local tool store. The recommended tools are Thread pitch gauge capable of measuring inch and metric thread pitches. I.D.O.D. Caliper capable of measuring both inches and millimeters. Seat angle gauge capable of measuring different seating angles i.e 37 or 45 flare and 60 or 24 inverted flares. Reference materials showing different threaded end charts inch and metric systems. Thread Pitch Gauge I.D.O.D. Seat Angle Gauge Caliper It is important to know the three basic steps in identifying a couplingend connection. Similarity of thread in measurement as well as appearance can result in a mismatch and possible serious consequences. The three steps are as follows Measure the thread pitch Measure the thread diameter Determine the seating angle if applicable Measuring Thread Pitch Use a thread pitch gauge to determine the number of threads per inch or the distance between two threads for a metric connection. In the inch thread system NPT the thread pitch is referred to as the number of threads per inch or in other words how many crests there are per inch. The metric system measures the distance between two threads or crests. Using a thread pitch gauge designed for fluid connector threads try different thread gauges looking for the tightest fit. Engage as many threads as possible the more threads engaged the more accurate the reading. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 9 Hold the fitting and thread gauge up to the light and look for gaps or light appearing between the gauge and the threads. This is easy on a male connection and more difficult to see on the female end connection. It should be a tight fit with very little light coming through. Keep in mind the tools may not be machinist quality just a measuring device so some light coming through is normal. Measuring the thread diameter Using the I.D.O.D. caliper measure the thread diameter. Male thread diameter is measured on the outside diameter of the thread. It is recommended to hold the caliper at a slight angle for a more accurate reading. Female thread diameter is measured on the inside diameter of the thread. For female thread it is recommended to hold the caliper perpendicular to the thread. Measuring the seatingsealing surface angle when applicable If the connection seals on a flared surface example 37 or 45 flare or on an inverted angle seat example 60 or 24 inverted flares the next step is to determine that angle of seal. Use a seat angle gauge on the male connection. Place the gauge on the sealing surface. If the centerlines of the connection and gauge are parallel the correct angle has been determined. Measuring the female is accomplished in a similar manner by inserting the gauge into the connection and placing it on the sealing surface. If the centerlines of the connection and gauge are parallel the correct angle has been determined. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.10 One additional important step is required when identifying a metric 24 male connection and that is to determine if it is an L light series or S heavy series. This is accomplished by measuring the inside diameter of the recessed counter bore at the base of the 24 inverted sealing surface Fig. 17 and 18. This measurement will be in millimeters and determines if the connection is L or S series Fig. 15 R dimension. It is an important required measurement to determine the correct replacement fittingend connection. Match the thread pitch diameter and seating angle measurements taken to the various threaded end charts in your reference materials. The following pages list a variety of hydraulic andor fluoropolymer hose ends. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 11 8.4.1 37 Flare JIC The Society of Automotive Engineers SAE specifies a 37 angle flare or seat be used with high pressure hydraulic tubing. These are commonly called JIC couplings. The JIC 37 flare male will mate with a JIC female only. The JIC male has straight threads and a 37 flare seat. The JIC female has straight threads and a 37 flare seat. The seal is made on the 37 flare seat. Some sizes have the same threads as the SAE 45 flare. Carefully measure the seat angle to differentiate. Note Some couplings may have dual machined seats both 37 and 45 seats. Dash Size Nominal Size in. Thread Size Female Thread I.D. in. Male Thread O.D. in. -2 18 516-24 1764 516 -3 316 38-24 2164 38 -4 14 716-20 2564 716 -5 516 12-20 2964 12 -6 38 916-18 12 916 -8 12 34-16 1116 34 -10 58 78-14 1316 78 -12 34 1-116-12 3132 1-116 -14 78 1-316-12 1-764 1-316 -16 1 1-516-12 1-1564 1-516 -20 1-14 1-58-12 1-3564 1-58 -24 1-12 1-78-12 1-5164 1-78 -32 2 2-18-12 2-2764 2-12 8.4.2 SAE 45 Flare A term usually applied to fittings having a 45 angle flare or seat. Soft copper tubing is generally used in such applications as it is easily flared to the 45 angle. These are for low pressure applications such as for fuel lines and refrigerant lines. The SAE 45 flare male will mate with an SAE 45 flare female only. The SAE male has straight threads and a 45 flare seat. The SAE female has straight threads and a 45 flare seat. The seal is made on the Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.12 45 flare seat. Some sizes have the same threads as the SAE 37 flare. Carefully measure the seat angle to differentiate. Note Some couplings may have dual machined seats both 37 and 45 seats. Dash Size Nominal Size in. Thread Size Female Thread I.D. in. Male Thread O.D. in. -2 18 516-24 1764 516 -3 316 38-24 2164 38 -4 14 716-20 2564 716 -5 516 12-20 2964 12 -6 38 58-18 916 58 -7 716 1116-6 58 1116 -8 12 34-16 1116 34 -10 58 78-14 1316 78 -12 34 1-116-14 6364 1-116 -14 78 1-14-12 1-1164 1-14 -16 1 1-38-12 1-1964 1-38 8.4.3 O Ring Boss The O-ring boss male will mate with an O-ring boss female only. The female is generally found on ports. The male has straight threads and an O-ring. The female has straight threads and a sealing face. The seal is made at the O-ring on the male and the sealing face on the female. Dash Size Nominal Size in. Thread Size Female Thread I.D. in. Male Thread O.D. in. -2 316 38-24 2164 38 -4 14 716-20 2564 716 -5 516 12-20 2964 12 -6 38 916-18 12 916 -8 12 34-16 1116 34 -10 58 78-14 1316 78 -12 34 1-116-12 3132 1-116 -14 78 1-316-12 1-764 1-316 -16 1 1-516-12 1-1564 1-516 -20 1-14 1-58-12 1-3564 1-58 -24 1-12 1-78-12 1-5164 1-78 -32 2 2-12-12 2-2764 2-12 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 13 8.4.4 O Ring Flange -- SAE J518 The SAE Code 61 and Code 62 4-Bolt Split Flange is used worldwide usually as a connection on pumps and motors. There are three exceptions. 4. The -10 size which is common outside of North America is not an SAE Standard size. 5. Caterpillar flanges which are the same flange O.D. as SAE Code 62 have a thicker flange head C dimension in Table. 6. Poclain flanges which are completely different from SAE flanges. Nominal Flange Size Code 61 Flange O.D. A B C Code 62 Flange O.D. A B C Caterpillar Flange O.D. A B C 12 1.188 .688 1.500 .265 1.250 .718 1.574 .305 - - - - 58 1.338 .265 - .265 - - - - - - - - 34 1.500 .875 1.875 .265 1.625 .937 2.000 .345 1.625 .938 2.000 .560 1 1.750 1.031 2.062 .315 1.875 1.093 2.250 .375 1.875 1.094 2.250 .560 1-14 2.000 1.188 2.312 .315 2.125 1.250 2.625 .405 2.125 1.250 2.625 .560 1-12 2.375 1.406 2.750 .315 2.500 1.437 3.125 .495 2.500 1.438 3.125 .560 2 2.812 1.688 3.062 .375 3.125 1.750 3.812 .495 3.125 1.750 3.812 .560 2-12 3.312 2.000 3.500 .375 - - - - - - - - 3 4.000 2.438 4.188 .375 - - - - - - - - 3-12 4.500 2.750 4.750 .442 - - - - - - - - 4 5.000 3.062 5.125 .442 - - - - - - - - 5 6.000 3.625 6.000 .442 - - - - - - - - Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.14 8.4.5 O Ring Face Seal SAE J1453 A seal is made when the O-ring in the male contacts the flat face on the female. Couplings are intended for hydraulic systems where elastomeric seals are acceptable to overcome leakage and leak resistance is crucial. The solid male O-ring face seal fitting will mate with a swivel female O-ring face seal fitting only. An O-ring rests in the O-ring groove in the male. Dash Size Nominal Size in. Thread Size Female Thread I.D. in. Male Thread O.D. in. -4 14 916-18 916 12 -6 38 1116-16 1116 58 -8 12 1316-16 1316 34 -10 58 1-14 1 1516 -12 34 1-316-12 1-316 1-18 -16 1 1-716-12 1-716 1-1132 -20 1-14 1-1116-12 1-1116 1-1932 -24 1-12 2-12 2 1-2932 8.4.6 Pipe Threads NPTF -- This is a dryseal thread the National pipe tapered thread for fuels. This is used for both male and female ends. The NPTF male will mate with the NPTF NPSF or NPSM female. The NPTF male has tapered threads and a 30 inverted seat. The NPTF female has tapered threads and no seat. The seal takes place by deformation of the threads. The NPSM female has straight threads and a 30 inverted seat. The seal takes place on the 30 seat. The NPTF connector is similar to but not interchangeable with the BSPT connector. The thread pitch is different in most sizes. Also the thread angle is 60 instead of the 55 angle found on BSPT threads. NPSF -- The National pipe straight thread for fuels. This is sometimes used for female ends and properly mates with the NPTF male end. However the SAE recommends the NPTF thread in preference to the NPSF for female ends. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 15 Dash Size Nominal Size in. Thread Size Female Thread I.D. in. Male Thread O.D. in. -2 18 27 2364 1332 -4 14 18 1532 3564 -6 38 18 1932 4364 -8 12 14 34 2732 -12 34 14 6164 1-116 -16 1 11-12 1-1364 1-1364 -20 1-14 11-12 1-1732 1-1732 -24 1-12 11-12 1-2532 1-2532 -32 2 11-12 2-14 2-38 8.4.7 DIN 7631 DIN 60 Cone This series combines an internal 60 seat with parallel metric Light series threads. This connection provides a metal-to-metal seal when tightened. This style can be identified by the internal 60 seat on the male metric threaded portion. Metric Thread Size Female Thread I.D. mm Male Thread O.D. mm PipeTube O.D. mm M12 x 1.5 10.5 12.0 6 M14 x 1.5 12.5 14.0 8 M16 x 1.5 14.5 16.0 10 M18 x 1.5 16.5 18.0 12 M22 x 1.5 20.5 22.0 15 M26 x 1.5 24.5 26.0 18 M30 x 1.5 28.5 30.0 22 M38 x 1.5 36.5 38.0 28 M45 x 1.5 43.5 45.0 35 M52 x 1.5 50.5 52.0 42 8.4.8 DIN 3902 DIN 24 Cone Light and Heavy Duty Male 24 Cone Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.16 This connection style consists of a common male and two female options. The male has a straight metric thread a 24 included angle and a recessed counterbore that matches the tube OD used with it. In the first female design a metal-to-metal seal is accomplished as the female nose and male taper are forced against one another. The other option uses an o-ring on the female tapered nose. This creates an o- ring seal as the connection is tightened. Both a heavy and light-duty series are offered. The series can be determined by measuring the seat counterbore which is the approximate tube outside diameter and comparing it to the thread size. Metric Thread Size Female Thread I.D. mm Male Thread O.D. mm Light Duty PipeTube O.D. mm Heavy Duty PipeTube O.D. mm M12 x 1.5 10.5 12.0 6 - M14 x 1.5 12.5 14.0 8 6 M16 x 1.5 14.5 16.0 10 8 M18 x 1.5 16.5 18.0 12 10 M20 x 1.5 18.5 20.0 14 12 M22 x 1.5 20.5 22.0 15 14 M24 x 1.5 22.5 24.0 - 16 M26 x 1.5 24.5 26.0 18 - M30 x 2.0 28.0 30.0 22 20 M36 x 2.0 34.0 36.0 28 25 M42 x 2.0 40.0 42.0 - 30 M45 x 2.0 43.0 45.0 35 - M52 x 2.0 50.0 52.0 42 38 8.4.9 British Standard Pipe Parallel BSPP The BSPP male has straight threads and a 30 seat. The female has straight threads and a 30 nose. An o-ring design is also available on the nose from some manufacturers. Sealing can either be metal-to- metal or via an o-ring depending on the design. If the female design is used as a port connection then an o-ring must be utilized on the male similar in design to the o-ring boss. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 17 Dash Size Nominal Size in. Thread Size Female Thread I.D. in. Male Thread O.D. in. -2 18 18-28 1132 38 -4 14 14-19 1532 1732 -6 38 38-19 1932 2132 -8 12 12-14 34 1316 -10 58 58-14 1316 2932 -12 34 34-14 3132 1-132 -16 1 1-11 1-732 1-1132 -20 1-14 1-14-11 1-1732 1-2132 -24 1-12 1-12-11 1-2532 1-78 -32 2 2-11 2-732 2-1132 8.4.10 British Flat-Face Seal A seal is made when the o-ring in the male contacts the flat face on the female. Couplings are intended for hydraulic systems where elastomeric seals are acceptable to overcome leakage and leak resistance in crucial. Although similar in design to the o-ring face seal they are not interchangeable. Dash Size Nominal Size in. Thread Size Female Thread I.D. in. Male Thread O.D. in. -6 38 38-19 1932 2132 -8 12 12-14 34 1316 -12 34 34-14 3132 1-132 8.4.11 JIS 30 Inverted Seat Parallel Pipe and Metric Threads The JIS inverted seat connection is available with two different thread styles. The parallel pipe thread design operates similarly to the BSPP connection. However please consult your hose end supplier for interchangeability recommendations. The metric threaded design is identical to the parallel pipe design except for thread differences. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.18 Parallel Pipe Threads Dash Size Nominal Size in. Thread Size Female Thread I.D. in. Male Thread O.D. in. -4 14 14-19 1532 1732 -6 38 38-19 1932 2132 -8 12 12-14 34 1316 -12 34 34-14 3132 1-132 -16 1 1-11 1-732 1-1132 -20 1-14 1-14-11 1-1732 1-2132 -24 1-12 1-12-11 1-2532 1-78 -32 2 2-11 2-732 2-1132 JIS 30 Inverted Seat Parallel Pipe Metric Threads Dash Size Equivalent Nominal Size mm Thread Size Female Thread I.D. mm Male Thread O.D. mm -4 6 M14 x 1.5 12.5 14.0 -6 9 M18 x 1.5 16.5 18.0 -8 12 M22 x 1.5 20.5 22.0 -12 19 M30 x 1.5 28.5 30.0 -16 25 M33 x 1.5 31.5 33.0 -20 32 M42 x 1.5 40.5 42.0 JIS 30 Inverted Seat Metric Threads 8.4.12 JIS 30 Cone Seat Parallel Pipe Threads The JIS 30 flare is similar to the American SAE 37 flare connection in application as well as sealing principles. However the flare angle and dimensions are different. The threads are similar to BSPP. Parallel Pipe Threads Dash Size Nominal Size in. Thread Tapered Size Female Thread I.D. in. Male Thread O.D. in. -4 14 14-19 1532 3364 -6 38 38-19 1932 2132 -8 12 12-14 34 1316 -12 34 34-14 3132 1-132 -16 1 1-11 1-732 1-516 -20 1-14 1-14-11 1-916 1-2132 -24 1-12 1-12-11 1-2532 1-78 -32 2 2-11 2-14 2-1132 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 19 8.4.13 British Standard Pipe Tapered BSPT Japanese Tapered Pipe Thread The BSPT is similar to NPTF but not interchangeable due to thread differences. Sealing like the NPTF is accomplished on the threads. BSPT is identical and fully interchangeable with Japanese Tapered Pipe Thread. Dash Size Nominal Size in. Thread Size Female Thread I.D. in. Male Thread O.D. in. -2 18 18-28 1132 38 -4 14 14-19 1532 1732 -6 38 38-19 1932 2132 -8 12 12-14 34 1316 -10 58 58-14 1316 2932 -12 34 34-14 3132 1-132 -16 1 1-11 1-732 1-1132 -20 1-14 1-14-11 1-1732 1-2132 -24 1-12 1-12-11 1-2532 1-78 -32 2 2-11 2-732 2-1132 8.4.14 French GAZ 24 Cone This end connection is similar to the DIN 24 cone however they are not interchangeable. Even though the sealing angles are the same the threads are different. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.20 Metric Thread Size Female Thread I.D. mm Male Thread O.D. mm PipeTube O.D. mm M20 x 1.5 18.5 20.0 13.25 M24 x 1.5 22.5 24.0 16.75 M30 x 1.5 28.5 30.0 21.25 M36 x 2.0 34.5 36.0 26.75 M45 x 2.0 43.5 45.0 33.50 M52 x 2.0 50.5 52.0 42.25 M58 x 2.0 55.0 58.0 48.25 8.4.15 French GAZ Poclain 24 Flange This flange differs from standard SAE flanges in that it has a lip that protrudes from the male flange face with a 24 angle. This lip fits into mating the female flange seat and provides the metal-to-metal seal when the bolts are tightened. Nominal Size in. A in. B in. C in. D in. E in. F in. 12 1.57 .72 2.20 1.89 .55 .35 58 1.57 .72 2.20 1.89 .55 .35 34 2.00 .94 2.75 2.38 .71 .43 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 21 8.4.16 Metric Standpipe Assembly A metric standpipe assembly is comprised of three components attached to a male fitting. The components are a Standpipe tube Bite Sleeve and Metric Nut. The nut is placed over the Standpipe followed by the Bite Sleeve. For DIN light assemblies a DIN light metric nut is used. For DIN heavy assemblies a DIN heavy metric nut is used. The Bite Sleeve and Standpipe are selected on the basis of tube O.D. required. Metric Standpipe DIN Tube O.D. mm Bite Sleeve DIN Tube O.D. mm Metric Light Nut Thread Metric Heavy Nut Thread 6 6 M12 x 1.5 - 8 8 M14 x 1.5 M16 x 1.5 10 10 M16 x1.5 M18 x 1.5 12 12 M18 x 1.5 M20 x 1.5 15 15 M22 x 1.5 - 16 16 - M24 x 1.5 18 18 M26 x 1.5 - 20 20 - M30 x 2.0 22 22 M30 x 2.0 - 25 25 M36 x 2.0 28 28 M36 x 2.0 - 30 30 - M42 x 2.0 35 35 M45 x 2.0 - 38 38 - M52 x 2.0 42 42 M52 x 2.0 - Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.22 8.4.17 Komatsu 30 Flare Metric Threads The Komatsu 30 flare is similar to the 37 JIC flare connection except for two things. The seat angle is 30 instead of 37 and the threads are metric. Dash Size Nominal Size in. Nominal Size mm Metric Thread Size Female Thread I.D. mm Male Thread O.D. mm -6 38 9.5 M18 x 1.5 18.5 20.0 -8 12 13 M22 x 1.5 22.5 24.0 -10 58 16 M24 x 1.5 28.5 30.0 -12 34 19 M30 x 1.5 34.5 36.0 -16 1 25 M33 x 1.5 43.5 45.0 -20 1-14 32 M36 x 1.5 50.5 52.0 -24 1-12 38 M42 x 1.5 55.0 58.0 8.4.18 Kobelco Metric Bite Sleeve These are similar to the German DIN 24 Cone but the DIN style uses courser threads. Therefore the Kobelco and DIN connections are not interchangeable. Dash Size Metric Thread Size Female Thread I.D. mm Male Thread O.D. mm -22 M30 x 1.5 28.0 30.0 -28 M36 x 1.5 34.0 36.0 -35 M45 x 1.5 43.0 45.0 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 23 8.5 Performance Characteristics Purpose The purpose of this section is to establish various performance characteristics of fluoropolymer hose assemblies. Maximum Allowable Working Pressure MAWP The typical MAWP for fluoropolymer hoses is 41 ratio of its burst pressure to working pressure. Some manufacturers state this as 31 ratio as well. End users must validate the appropriate MAWP to the application. Please note that the MAWP of the assembly is that of the lowest WP spec of either the fitting or the hose. Temperature Unless otherwise stated hose of fluoropolymer assemblies are suitable for applications up to 300F - 500F depending on style of hose and manufacturer. Most manufacturers rate maximum operating pressures at 70 F temperatures. If a hose is to be considered for use in an application that exceeds 70 F consult manufacturer for any pressure de-rating of the hose of fluoropolymer assembly. The type of chemical being conveyed through the hose will impact temperature considerations as well. Chemical Compatibility For the corrosion resistance of the non-fluoropolymer components of a hose assembly consult the component manufacturer or the following trusted handbooks National Association of Corrosion Engineers Handbook 1440 South Creek Drive Houston TX 77084 Compass Guide Compass Publications 7731 Lookout Drive La Jolla CA 92037 Phone 858 551-9240 Fax 858 551-9340 Internet httpwww.compasspublications.com Minimum Bend Radius A sphere with a diameter equal to 85 of the internal diameter of the hose must be able to roll freely from end to end in an unpressurized assembly bent 180 degrees at the hoses stated minimum bend radius. Vacuum Rating The maximum amount of vacuum that can be drawn on the inside of a hose assembly without causing the assembly to fail the minimum bend test as specified by the hose manufacturer. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.24 8.6 Hose Assembly Length Determination For Various Movements Purpose The information in this section is provided as a guide to determine the overall length of hose assemblies for the conditions shown. All formulas determine the minimum live length required. To obtain the overall length the length of the fittings including braid sleeves must be added to the live length. Definitions of Symbols The following definitions of symbols shall be used in all formulas T Travel R Radius of the installation. L Live length S Outside diameter of the hose OAL Overall length of the assembly MBR Minimum bend radius of the hose Example Values In all calculations the following example values are assigned Hose outside diameter S 2.75 Minimum bend radius of hose MBR 14 Fitting length including braid sleeve 3.50 Constant Radius Traveling Loop Figure 8.4 Constant Radius Traveling Loop - Vertical Travel Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 25 Figure 8.5 Constant Radius Traveling Loop - Horizontal Travel Formula L 4R T2 Example Travel T 6.00 2R 40 R 402 20 L 420 62 L 83.00 OAL 83.00 23.5 90.00 Note For fluoropolymer hose R must be or MBR S2 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.26 Variable Radius Traveling Loop Figure 8.6 Variable Radius Traveling Loop - Vertical Travel Formula L 4R 1.57T Example Travel T 6.00 2R 40 R 402 20 L 420 1.576 L 89.42 OAL 89.42 23.5 96.42 Note For fluoropolymer hose R must be or MBR S2 Figure 8.7 Variable Radius Traveling Loop - Horizontal Travel Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 27 Offset Motion Figure 8.8 Offset Motion Formula L 20RxT12 For fluoropolymer hose R MBR S2 Example Travel T 3.00 Metal Hose R MBR 14 L 20x14x312 L 28.98 OAL 28.98 23.5 35.98 Live Straight Length Lp Lp L2 T 212 Lp 28.98 212 3 2 Lp 28.92 Overall straight installed length 28.82 23.5 35.82 Note 1 When the offset motion occurs on both sides of the centerline T total travel T1T2. Note 2 The offset distance T for constant flexing should never exceed 25 of the hoses stated minimum bend radius. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.28 Angular Motion Figure 8.9 Angular Motion Formula L 2S 057.3R For fluoropolymer hose R MBR S2 Example 15 Degrees OAL 9.17 23.5 16.17 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 29 Vertical Loop with Movement in Two Directions Figure 8.10 Vertical Loop with Movement in Two Directions Formula L 4R 1.57 Th Tv2 Example 2R 40 Th 6 Tv 8 R 402 20 L 420 1.576 82 L 93.42 OAL 93.42 23.5 100.42 Note For fluoropolymer hose R must be or MBR S2 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.30 8.7 Hose Routing Fluoropolymer Hose When planning the hose routing use the following practices for optimum performance and more consistent and predictable service life. Caution When determining the overall lengths for the final routed length of an assembly it must be noted that hose lengths in these assemblies can by design grow in length 2 or shrink in length -4 If this is not accounted for severe damage can occur to the hose assembly. Routing at less than minimum bend radius will reduce the service life of the hose andor cause premature hose failure. Use the static or dynamic minimum bend radius according to service conditions. Sharp bends at the hose to fitting juncture should be avoided Hose assemblies subject to movement while operating should be installed in such a way that flexing occurs in the same plane. Hose assemblies shall not be installed or operated in a twisted or torqued condition. Swivel fittings or a lay line may be used to aid in torque-free installation. Also flanged hose assemblies should ideally have one end secured with a floating flange. Flange to flange bolt hole alignment is critical for proper installation. Figure 8.11 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 31 Figure 8.12 Right Wrong Right Wrong Do Not Kink Hose Use the Correct Length Adjust Piping to Avoid Kinking Do Not Axially Compress Hose Keep Hose in One Plane to Avoid Torsion Avoid Contact with Other Items Do Not Torque Hose Do Not Apply Wrench to Hose or Braid Sleeve Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.32 When planning the hose routing use the following practices for optimum performance and more consistent and predictable service life. Routing at less than minimum bend radius will reduce the service life of the hose. Use the static or dynamic minimum bend radius according to service conditions. Sharp bends at the hose to fitting juncture should be avoided. Bending radius should not begin closer than one hose diameter to the ferrule. Typical bend radius is measured from the inside but confirm with the manufacturer . Figure 8.13 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 33 8.8 Assembly Methods The purpose of this section is to identify the most common types of assembly methods typically used to fabricate fluoropolymer hose assemblies. Crimp Method This method utilizes a machine that reduces the diameter of the fitting collar or sleeve simultaneously along its length. The sizing die set usually consists of eight or ten fingers that are machined to a prescribed diameter. When placed in a series inside the throat of the crimper the reduced diameter can usually be adjusted with minor changes to the crimper. Crimp diameters are established by the hose manufacturer based on the successful completion of a series of qualification tests. When crimping the collar the fitting remains stationary to the die set and is reduced through radial loading of the fingers. It is anticipated that the resulting outside surface of the collar or sleeve will exhibit multiple axial tool marks along its length. Care should be exercised to insure that the tooling does not leave deep marks that could be detrimental. Figure 8.14 Typical Crimped Collar Swage Method This method utilizes a machine that reduces the diameter of the fitting collar or sleeve progressively along its length. The sizing die set usually consists of two halves that are machined to a prescribed diameter and cannot be adjusted. Swage diameters are established by the hose manufacturer based on the successful completion of a series of qualification tests. When swaging the collar the fitting is pushed progressively into the stationary die thus reducing the collar to a prescribed diameter. It is anticipated that the resulting outside surface of the collar or sleeve will exhibit two axial tool marks along its length. Figure 8.15 Typical Swaged Collar Flared Over Tubes of Fluoropolymer Convoluted Smooth Typically these types of hoses feature a heavy wall fluoropolymer tube either smooth or a straightened portion of the convoluted hose extending through the fitting. The liner is then formed over the fitting sealing surface to provide an area for sealing against a mating fitting. Metallic hose with a smooth inner liner of fluoropolymer should meet the following criteria A. Metal hose assembled to NAHAD Flexible Metal Hose Standard. B. Hose must incorporate a smooth transition from the convoluted I.D. to the Fitting with vent holes burr free no sharp edges no metal chips machined radii transition at the fitting sealing surface C. Hose features same flared over fluoropolymer liner as above. Consult manufacturer for actual fabrication assembly features. This type assembly is usually a factory produced item due to the requirements of liner fit. One or more assemblies from each lot or batch shall be tested. 34 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 8.9 Testing Procedures for Fluoropolymer Hose The purpose of this section is to define minimum test requirements and identify other types of tests. This is inclusive of leak and proof pressure testing. All fluoropolymer hose assemblies shall be tested in a condition such that the end fittings and the section of hose immediately behind the fittings is visible. Do not obstruct the access to these areas with any type of optional chafe or fire sleeve that may be required to complete the assembly. NOTE Not every fluoropolymer hose is or should be hydrostatically tested pneumatic testing is perfectly appropriate in certain situations and in all cases should be conducted under water at a pressure below 500 psi in a closed container. Using a gaseous media the assembly is immersed in a bath of water for a sufficient length of time to permit visual examination of all fabricated joints. Typical gas testing media are air nitrogen and helium. Ultimately it should be up to the customer to determine what testing is required but the NAHAD Guidelines provide guidance regarding how those tests are performed. Testing requirements are dictated by both the application and the pressure rating. SAE J517 is the appropriate standard in this case. All hoses are made to a specific spec this could be the manufacturers own spec or that of a standard such as J517. The testing methods for many of the SAE specs are spelled out in J343 which is also called out in J517 and in most cases these specs call out an ASTM test method to perform these tests. Bottom line the hose assembly shop needs to test Integrity of the finished hose assembly o Are the couplings properly secure o Are there any leaks Electrical continuity Pressure integrity of the assembly is tested using a hydrostatic test of 1.5 times the WP of the assembly. It must be noted that the test adapters used so fittings are not damaged during these pressure tests may not have a pressure rating high enough to perform tests at these pressures. Test pressures of 2X and higher are considered destructive to the hose by many manufactures and this should be considered when requested by a customer. If the hose requirements call out for a specific electrostatic discharge ESD spec then that was adhered to during the creation of the hose by the manufacturer some tests can be done to see if it is in fact static dissipative but proper adherence to the standard is not feasible as the standard is a test for a lab is destructive and is not done in the field. 1000 VDC can be applied to the bore of the product to see if it passes or not but this does not equal the lab test done on a 12 piece when done on a 50 foot assembly. J517 or J343 detail the method and intent of this testing. All fluoropolymer hose assemblies shall be tested in a condition such that the end fittings and the section of hose immediately behind the fittings is visible. However if you are using an automated system you do not need to see the assembly during test. Do not obstruct the access to these areas with any type of optional chafe or fire sleeve that may be required to complete the assembly. Leakage Tests After hose assembly each hose assembly shall be subject to a leakage test protocol. Testing may either be based on a sampling or every assembly depending on the criticality of the application. The test protocol must evaluate leakage pressure capacity and motion of the fitting relative to the hose broken wire and all other permanent damage. The object of the test is to assure a high quality and safe hose assembly. Due to the cutting and injection hazard of high pressure testing personnel should be shielded from the assembly during testing. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 35 Considerations Hydrostatic vs. Pneumatic Pressure Due to the stored energy of pneumatic pressure testing pressure capacity also known as structural integrity should be done hydrostatically. Pneumatic testing should be consigned to leakage testing. Sampling vs. 100 Testing Sampling is more cost effective than 100 testing. 100 testing is more risk effective than sampling. The balance requires knowing the product process and application. What can go wrong How consistently can the assembly procedure be controlled How critical or hazardous is the application Hydrostatic Proof Pressure The following testing procedure is recommended 1. Lay the hose out straight whenever practical slightly elevating one end to ensure trapped air is expelled allowing space for elongation under pressure preferably on supports to allow free movement under pressure. 2. Blank off one end and fill hose with water taking particular care to ensure that all trapped air is released from the hose. This is very important as a safety measure because expansion of air compressed in the hose when suddenly released by bursting or other failure might result in a serious accident. 3. When testing a fluoropolymer assembly the MAWP of all components should be considered. The assembly test pressure should be 1.5 times the working pressure of the lowest rated component. While pressure is maintained examine the assembly for leaks and any unusual appearance and test for electrical continuity between the end fittings. 4. Steadily increase the pressure using water or other suitable test liquid. Maintain pressure for the length of the test. Any evidence of leakage permanent deformation or coupling slippage is cause for rejection. Leakage is defined as a continuous stream of water droplets emitted from a single or multiple locations. 5. When tested using the procedure above the tested assembly should be totally leak free for the duration of the test one minute. 6. Assemblies should be thoroughly drained of all test media after hydrostatic testing. Pneumatic Proof Pressure Because liquids may block gaseous leaks the assembly must be thoroughly dry inside. The hose assembly shall be subjected to a proof pressure test at a value defined by the contract or the maximum working pressure using gaseous nitrogen as the media while the assembly is immersed in a bath of water for at least one minute. An alkaline or neutral pH wetting agent may be added to the water bath to assist in defining the leakage. Water temperature should be room temperature for consistent testing. Care should be exercised to remove all entrapped air residing under the braid during the test so as not to confuse it with actual leakage. This may be accomplished by flowing water over the assembly and into the braid while the assembly is immersed in the water bath. Any evidence of leakage or permanent deformation is cause for rejection. Leakage is defined as a continuous stream of bubbles emitted from a single or multiple locations. Depending on the gaseous media and pressure fluoropolymer hose held at pressure under water for extended periods of time may permeate. These gaseous emissions through the hose wall due to permeation are not leakage. WARNINGWARNINGWARNINGWARNINGWARNING Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.36 Wherever particular skills are required only specially trained persons should engage in those applications or testing procedures. Failure to do so may result in damage to the hose assembly or to other personal property and more importantly may also result in serious bodily injury. Hoses must be properly cleaned prior to inspection and testing. Always wear safety glasses gloves and protective clothing to protect from leaks or high pressure spray. Also use shields to protect people in the work area in the event of a hose burst spray or coupling blow-off. Great care should be taken when positioning the test operator to avoid being hit by potential coupling blow-offs during pressure testing. Also make sure that the hose is sufficiently shielded during pressure testing to stop a coupling in case of a coupling blow-off. Any failure during testing is likely to be of an explosive nature NOTE Not every fluoropolymer hose is or should be hydrostatically tested pneumatic testing is perfectly appropriate in certain situations. Ultimately it should be up to the customer to determine what testing is required but the NAHAD Guidelines provide guidance regarding how those tests are performed. Testing requirements are dictated by both the application and the pressure rating. SAE J517 is the appropriate standard in this case. Other Leakage Tests When leak rates are critical consult the manufacturer for more sensitive testing methods. These may include but are not limited to the following Mass Spectrometer Leak Testing Pressure Decay Vacuum Decay Mass Flow and Helium Leak Test. Electrical Continuity Test There are two types of electrical grounding paths for hoses metallic and non-metallic. Hoses should be tested with a calibrated multi-meter from end fitting to end fitting to determine if the assembly is electrically continuous. Electrical continuity means you can light a light bulb or make a buzzer buzz this cannot be done with a tube measurement. The helix or wire outer braid properly connected to both end fittings of an assembly will give you electrical continuity but not provide any electrostatic dissipation ESD. White tube no conductivity or ESD period helix wire wire braid or not. Not all black tubes will give ESD but a properly created black tube will provide ESD but this will not by itself provide electrical continuity. Electrostatic dissipation meets a minimum conductance of 20 micro amps with a 1000 volt DC applied over a 12 inch piece. Proof testing for electrical continuity and static dissipation are different and should be conducted according to manufacturer recommendations as necessary for the application. Visual Inspection All sample assemblies should be visually inspected for substandard quality conditions in the hose or couplings. Each assembly should be visually inspected for kinks loose covers bulges or ballooning soft spots cuts broken wires or any obvious defect in the hose. The fittings and attachments should be inspected for any type of visible defects that may affect the performance of the assembly. Visual inspection checkpoints should include but are not limited to the following A. Hose Identification - Size and type must correspond to the fabrication order work order. B. Coupling Identification - Coupling size type and product number must correspond to information on the fabrication order work order and specifications. Identified with date code part number etc. when required. C. Inspection Items Bulge behind the coupling. Cocked couplings. Cracked couplings. Exposed reinforcement. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 37 Freedom of swivels. General appearance of the assembly. Hose cover pricked if required. Internal contaminants. Protective caps or plugs. Restriction in the tube. Rusted couplings. Braid integrity frayed discolored broken strands etc. This page left intentionally blank. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 1 Section 9 Testing Procedures 9.1 Purpose The purpose of this section is to define minimum test requirements which should be routinely carried out on all new hose assemblies before use. The following testing methods may or may not be required. Refer to the customer requirements andor the appropriate assembly data sheets for recommended testing and documentation needed. 9.2 Testing Procedures for Corrugated Metal Hose Pneumatic Test Unless otherwise specified the hose assembly shall be subjected to a pneumatic test at a value defined in Table 9.1. Using a gaseous media the assembly is immersed in a bath of water for a sufficient length of time to permit visual examination of all fabricated joints. Typical gas testing media are air nitrogen and helium. To guard against corrosion the chloride content of the water used for testing austenitic stainless steel should be controlled to less than 50 ppm parts per million. Minimum testing time should be twenty 20 seconds. Any evidence of leakage or permanent deformation is cause for rejection. Table 9.1 Minimum Pneumatic Test Pressures Unbraided Assemblies Nominal I.D. Pressure 14 through 6 15 psig Hydrostatic Test The hydrostatic test not only tests for leakage it confirms the assemblys structural integrity. The assembly shall be pressurized with water to the maximum test pressure of the assembly and maintained for a sufficient length of time to permit a visual examination. To guard against corrosion the chloride content of the water used for testing austenitic stainless steel should be controlled to less than 50 ppm parts per million. The minimum testing time should be one 1 minute. Any evidence of leakage or permanent deformation is cause for rejection. Helium Mass Spectrometer Test Helium mass spectrometer testing is the most accurate way of evaluating leakage but not strength. Assemblies designed for critical applications should be leak tested with this method. All tested assemblies shall have a leak rate less than 1 x 10-3 stdccsec. Helium mass spectrometer testing to smaller leak rates may be available consult the assembly fabricator. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.2 Cleaning for Oxygen Oxygen can spontaneously ignite and explode in the presence of hydrocarbons or if solid particles are caught in its flow. Methods and parameters for both oxygen cleaning and cleanliness testing can be referenced in the Compressed Gas Association publication Cleaning Equipment for Oxygen Service CGA G-4.1. Breathable oxygen applications require special consideration. Consult the customer for appropriate requirements. Additional Leakage Tests Consult the fabricator for other testing methods. These may include but are not limited to the following Pressure Decay Vacuum Decay Mass Flow and Dye Penetrant Leak Test. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 3 Test to Establish Minimum Static Bend Radius MSBR A hose assembly having one of its end fittings rigidly fixed shall be placed between a cylindrical former and a fixed perpendicular restraint. The diameter of the cylindrical former shall be equal to twice the manufacturers static bend radius minus the outside diameter of the hose being tested. The horizontal axis of the former shall be in the same plane as the second hose convolution when testing unbraided hose assemblies. When testing braided hose assemblies the axis must be as close to the braid sleeve as possible. The Hose Assembly shall be bent over the former making full contact with a minimum of 90 degrees of the formers circumference see below. One cycle includes one 90 degree bend and the return movement to the perpendicular position. The test shall consist of the assembly being flexed through 10 cycles at a rate of 10 to 30 cycles per minute without internal pressure. At the conclusion of the bend test the assembly shall be pneumatically tested as defined in Section 9.2.1. Figure - 1 Static Bend Radius Test Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.4 Test to Establish Minimum Dynamic Bend Radius MDBR An assembly shall be cycle tested to determine its minimum dynamic bend radius. No additional lubrication is permitted for this test. The sample hose assembly shall be pressurized to its MAWP and must withstand at least 10000 cycles without failure. Failure is defined as Leakage or A localized reduction of the installed radius of more than 50 during the test. Hose of nominal diameters less than or equal to 4 shall be tested with the U-Bend Test. Hoses greater than 4 shall be tested with the Cantilever Test. U-Bend Test The assembly shall be installed in a vertical loop as illustrated in Figure 2A. r MDBR x 4 times the nominal hose diameter or 5 whichever is greater Hose Live Length 4 x MDBR x Cycle Rate 3 to 30 cycles per minute One Cycle equals the movement from the starting point up a distance of x then down a distance of x past the starting point and then back up to the starting point. Figure 2A Dynamic Bend Radius U Test Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 5 Cantilever Test The assembly shall be installed in a straight configuration as illustrated in Figure 2B. l 6 x Nominal Hose Diameter a R R x cos57.3o x 2 x D 4 R Where R Minimum dynamic bend radius inches D Nominal hose diameter inches Cycle Rate 3 to 15 cycles per minute One Cycle equals the movement starting from the horizontal position then deflecting down a distance of a and then the return to the starting point. 9.3 Testing Procedures for Industrial Hose Hydrostatic Proof Pressure Tests Non-destructive A proof test is typically conducted for 5 minutes under pressure at one and a half times 1.5x the working pressure for new or used assemblies. Proof or hydrostatic testing refers to testing that proves the finished hose assembly meets the pressure rating required by the application for which it will be used and that the end fittings have been correctly fitted and the assembly is leak free. For assembly testing the rating of the component with the lowest rated working pressure determines the working pressure of the assembly. Pressurize hose to 10 psi for 60 seconds prior to conducting the hydrostatic test. Hose assembly should be secured in an encapsulated tank that will withstand the pressure at a minimum make sure that the hose is sufficiently shielded during pressure testing to stop a coupling in case of a coupling blow-off If applicable secure hose with steel rods or straps close to each end and at ten-foot intervals along the length of the hose. This will prevent it from whipping if a failure occurs. Figure 2B Dynamic Bend Radius Cantilever Test Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.6 The securing rods or straps must be anchored firmly to the test structure but should not contact the hose. The hose must be free to move slightly when pressure is applied. Hoses must be properly cleaned prior to inspection and testing this will prevent unexpected reactions between conveyants and the test media. Always wear safety glasses gloves and protective clothing to protect from leaks or high pressure spray. Also use shields to protect people in the work area in the event of a hose burst spray or coupling blow-off. It is recommended to never stand in front of over or behind the ends of a hose assembly during pressure testing. All hydrostatic testing should be conducted with liquid media. Pneumatic testing with gasses such as air or nitrogen is prohibited. The energy stored when pressure testing with gasses creates a very dangerous system where product failure may cause injury or death. Equipment hand pump a power driven hydraulic pump or an accumulator system outlet valve test tank if applicable Unless otherwise stated by the purchaser the test medium should be water. The following testing procedure is recommended 1. Lay the hose out straight whenever practical slightly elevating one end to ensure trapped air is expelled allowing space for elongation under pressure preferably on supports to allow free movement under pressure take particular care to ensure that all trapped air is released from the hose. This is a critical safety measure because expansion of air compressed in the hose when suddenly released by bursting or other failure might result in a serious accident. 2. For reference mark a line behind the coupling which is at the end of the ferrule clamp band etc. 3. Then gradually raise the pressure to the desired pressure rating. Hold the pressure for the time dictated by hose type and conduct a visual inspection. As the pressure is raised watch for visual indications of permanent deformation leakage and coupling slippage. If any of these are noted it is cause for rejection. After the test is complete relieve the test pressure before disconnecting the hose assembly from the test equipment and drain the water from the hose. The hose may be flushed with alcohol if all of the water must be removed. 4. When tested in accordance with the above the assembly under test should be totally leak free for the duration of the test leakage is defined as a continuous stream of water droplets emitted from a single or multiple locations. For industrial hose and depending on coupling design a minimal amount of hose coupling slippage may be acceptable if the hose does not show any leakage at any time during the test a second test is recommended in that case to confirm assembly integrity. Contact the manufacturer with any concerns. Other Leakage Tests When leak rates are critical consult the manufacturer for more sensitive testing methods. These may include but are not limited to the following Mass Spectrometer Leak Testing Pressure Decay Vacuum Decay Mass Flow and Helium Leak Test. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 7 Electrical Continuity Test Electrical continuity testing determines if an electrical path can be established between two points for hose assemblies refers to testing the assembly to determine if there is a grounding path between end fittings which would allow for an electric charge to discharge through the hose to a ground source if necessary. Electrical continuity is accomplished by terminating all metallic components in the hose to the metallic couplings at both ends. Hoses should be tested with a calibrated multi-meter from end fitting to end fitting to determine if the assembly is electrically continuous. If continuity is required and not present then the hose should be reassembled or rebuilt. Grounding Refers to the ability of the static charge to trace a path to a grounding point to mother earth for dissipation and should be monitored to a level of Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.8 Lp Pressurized measured length at the specified pressure. In the event that elongation length measurement is required the following is an accepted process and may be incorporated into your test procedure. A. Pressurize the hose to one time working pressure hold for 30 seconds release pressure to 10 psi and take the initial length measurement at 10 psi. Initial length Lo _____. B. Measure the hose length under pressure Test Pressure Length Lt_____. Calculate the temporary elongation as follows Lt Lo x 100 _____ Lo. C. Release the pressure wait 30 seconds measure and record the Overall Final Length and drain hose. Requirements for elongation of new dock hose per ARPM IP-8 Testing of used hose needs to meet the following per ARPM IP-11-4 Calculations a. Test pressure elongation percent Lt - Lo Lo X 100 A b. Immediate release elongation percent Li - Lo Lo X 100 B c. Permanent release elongation percent Lp - Lo Lo X 100 C Examination of Elongations After each periodic pressure test the elongation results will be compared to those obtained in the testing of the hose when new. An increase over the original value at the end of any periodic testing greater than shown below requires that hose to be removed from service. a. When tested at 1 times rated working pressure test pressure elongations at any periodic test shall not be greater than the new hose test pressure elongation A plus 4 or twice A whichever is greater. b. Immediate release elongation at any periodic test shall not be greater than the new hose immediate release elongation B plus 4 or twice B whichever is greater. c. Permanent release elongation at any periodic test shall not be greater than the new hose permanent elongation C plus 4 or twice C whichever is greater. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 9 Special requirements Coast Guard testing requirements From Coast Guard document 33 CFR Ch. 1 7-1-07 Edition Subpart C Equipment Requirements 154.500 Hose Assemblies Each hose assembly used for transferring oil or hazardous material must meet the following requirements a The minimum design burst pressure for each hose assembly must be at least four times the sum of the pressure of the relief valve setting or four times the maximum pump pressure when no relief valve is installed plus the static head pressure of the transfer system at the point where the hose is installed. b The maximum allowable working pressure MAWP for each hose assembly must be more than the sum of the pressure of the relief valve setting or the maximum pump pressure when no relief valve is installed plus the static head pressure of the transfer system at the point where the hose is installed. c Each nonmetallic hose must be usable for oil or hazardous material service. d Each hose assembly must either have 1 full threaded connections 2 Flanges that meet standard B16.5 Steel Pipe Flanges and Flange Fittings or standard B16.24 Brass or Bronze Pipe Flanges of the American National Standards Institute ANSI or 3 Quick-disconnect couplings that meet ASTM F1122 e Each hose must be marked with one of the following 1 The name of each product for which the hose may be used or 2 For oil products the words OIL SERVICE or 3 For hazardous materials the words HAZMAT SERVICE SEE LIST followed immediately by a letter number or other symbol that corresponds to a list or chart contained in the facilitys operation manual or the vessels transfer procedure documents which identifies the products that may be transferred through a hose bearing that symbol. f Each hose also must be marked with the following except that the information required by paragraphs f 2 and 3 of this section need not be marked on the hose if it is recorded in the hose records of the vessel or facility and the hose is marked to identify it with that information 1 Maximum allowable working pressure 2 Date of manufacture and 3 Date of the latest test required by section 156.170. g The hose burst pressure and the pressure used for the test required by 156.170 of this chapter must not be marked on the hose and must be recorded elsewhere at the facility as described in paragraph f of this section. h Each hose used to transfer fuel to a vessel that has a fill pipe for which containment cannot practically be provided must be equipped with an automatic back pressure shutoff nozzle. Additional Information available httpwww.lawserver.comlawcountryuscfr33_cfr_156- 170 33 CFR 156.170 - Equipment tests and inspections Current as of July 2010 Check for updates a Except as provided in paragraph d of this section no person may use any equipment listed in paragraph c of this section for transfer operations unless the vessel or facility operator as appropriate tests and inspects the equipment in accordance with paragraphs b c and f of this section and the equipment is in the condition specified in paragraph c of this section. b During any test or inspection required by this section the entire external surface of the hose must be accessible. c For the purpose of paragraph a of this section 1 Each nonmetallic transfer hose must i Have no unrepaired loose covers kinks bulges soft spots or any other defect which would permit the discharge of oil or hazardous material through the hose material and no gouges cuts or slashes that penetrate the first layer of hose reinforcement as defined in Sec. 156.120i. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.10 ii Have no external deterioration and to the extent internal inspection is possible with both ends of the hose open no internal deterioration iii Not burst bulge leak or abnormally distort under static liquid pressure at least 112 times the maximum allowable working pressure and iv Hoses not meeting the requirements of paragraph c1i of this section may be acceptable after a static liquid pressure test is successfully completed in the presence of the COTP. The test medium is not required to be water. 2 Each transfer system relief valve must open at or below the pressure at which it is set to open 3 Each pressure gauge must show pressure within 10 percent of the actual pressure 4 Each loading arm and each transfer pipe system including each metallic hose must not leak under static liquid pressure at least 112 times the maximum allowable working pressure and 5 Each item of remote operating or indicating equipment such as a remotely operated valve tank level alarm or emergency shutdown device must perform its intended function. d No person may use any hose in underwater service for transfer operations unless the operator of the vessel or facility has tested and inspected it in accordance with paragraph c1 or c4 of this section as applicable. e The test fluid used for the testing required by this section is limited to liquids that are compatible with the hose tube as recommended by the hose manufacturer. f The frequency of the tests and inspections required by this section must be 1 For facilities annually or not less than 30 days prior to the first transfer conducted past one year from the date of the last tests and inspections 2 For a facility in caretaker status not less than 30 days prior to the first transfer after the facility is removed from caretaker status and 3 For vessels annually or as part of the biennial and mid-period inspections. Aircraft Fueling Hose Ground Support Please refer to API 1529 for detailed requirements. Section 7.2.2 of the API 1529 standard states 1.2.3 Hose assembly The following tests shall be conducted on each hose assembly d Complete visual inspection e Proof pressure in accordance with section 6.5.3 f Electrical continuity in accordance with section 6.5.3.2 These tests are conducted by the one who assembles the product. Section 7.3 follows with the identification requirements for each assembly including a test certificate that shows testing was performed and marking the couplings via serial numbers that link to the test certificate. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 11 Visual Inspection All sample assemblies should be visually inspected for substandard quality conditions in the hose or couplings. Each assembly should be visually inspected for kinks loose covers bulges or ballooning soft spots cuts broken wires or any obvious defect in the hose. The fittings and attachments should be inspected for any type of visible defects that may affect the performance of the assembly. Visual inspection checkpoints should include but are not limited to the following Hose Identification - Size and type must correspond to the fabrication order work order. Coupling Identification - Coupling size type and product number must correspond to information on the fabrication order work order and specifications. Identified with date code part number etc. when required. Inspection Items - o Bulge behind the coupling. o Cocked couplings. o Cracked couplings. o Exposed reinforcement. o Freedom of swivels. o General appearance of the assembly. o Hose cover pricked if required. o Internal contaminants. o Protective caps or plugs. o Restrictions in the tube. o Rusted Couplings. o Ferrule interlocks properly with hose stem Visual inspections are also an important component of a hose maintenance program. In-service hose assemblies should be periodically checked for o Leaks at the hose fittings or in the hose. o Damaged separated or pulled back covers o Cracked damaged deformed or badly corroded fittings. o Other signs of significant deterioration such as blisters. o Compromised reinforcement where the wires are exposed and show signs such as unwrapped broken or corroded. o Dents twists or kinks o Discoloration of color coded hose cover o Verify test date and pressure are in conformity with requirements for the application. o Fitting Thread and seat condition See Section 12.5 for additional detail. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.12 9.4 Testing Procedures for Composite Hose Hydrostatic Pressure Tests All fitted hose assemblies should be pressure tested to establish that the end fittings have been correctly fitted and the assembly is leak free. When testing hose assemblies with epoxy-style end fittings the epoxy should be allowed to cure prior to hydrostatic testing. Consult Manufacturer for recommended cure time. The following criteria should apply when pressure testing hose assemblies Composite hose assemblies with 1 inch to 4 inches 25 mm to 100 mm nominal bore composite standard duty or general purpose oil and chemical hose should be tested to a minimum of the rated working pressure of the end fittings but must not exceed one and a half times the rated working pressure of the hose for a minimum period of five 5 minutes. Longer test times may be required consult manufacturer for specific requirements. Polypropylene cam and groove NPT males and flanges do not have the same test criteria. Composite hose assemblies with 4 inch 100 mm nominal bore heavy duty and 6 inches to10 inches 150 mm to 250 mm nominal bore composite hose should be tested to a minimum of the rated test pressure of the end fittings but must not exceed one and a half times the rated working pressure of the hose for a minimum period of 30 minutes andor regulatory statutory requirements. Polypropylene cam and groove NPT males and flanges do not have the same test criteria. o Note Composite hose manufacturers may differentiate the 4 inch 100mm nominal diameter between standard duty and heavy duty. It is common practice to suggest that standard duty hose is for general purpose in plant applications whereas the heavy duty is used in either more rigorous or marine applications. Unless otherwise stated by the purchaser the test medium should be water. Recommended Testing Procedure The following testing procedure is recommended 1. Lay the hose out straight whenever practical slightly elevating one end to ensure trapped air is expelled allowing space for elongation under pressure preferably on supports to allow free movement under pressure. 2. Blank off one end and fill hose with water taking particular care to ensure that all trapped air is released from the hose. 3. When testing a composite assembly the MAWP of all components should be considered. The assembly test pressure should be 1.5 times the working pressure of the lowest rated component. While pressure is maintained examine the assembly for leaks and any unusual appearance and test for electrical continuity between the end fittings. 4. When tested using the procedure above the tested assembly should be totally leak free for the duration of the test. Hoses must be properly cleaned prior to inspection and testing. This will prevent unexpected reactions between conveyants and the test media. Always wear safety glasses gloves and protective clothing to protect from leaks or high pressure spray. Also use shields to protect people in the work area in the event of a hose burst spray or coupling blow-off. It is recommended to never stand in front of over or behind the ends of a hose assembly during pressure testing. Also make sure that the hose is sufficiently shielded during pressure testing to stop a coupling in case of a coupling blow-off. Any failure during testing is likely to be of an explosive nature Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 13 Elongation Length Measurement A characteristic of composite hose is elongation. This characteristic should not be used solely as an assessment of the condition of the hose or an indication of failure. Consult manufacturer for more information. See Section finished assembly dimension tolerances In the event that elongation length measurement is required the following is an accepted process and may be incorporated into your test procedure. A. Pressurize the hose to one time working pressure hold for 30 seconds release pressure to 10 psi and take the initial length measurement at 10 psi. Lo _____. B. Measure the hose length under pressure Test Pressure Length Lt_____. Calculate the temporary elongation as follows Lt Lo x 100 _____ Lo. C. Release the pressure wait 30 seconds measure and record the Overall Final Length and drain hose. Special requirements Coast Guard testing requirements From Coast Guard document 33 CFR Ch. 1 7-1-07 Edition Subpart C Equipment Requirements 154.500 Hose Assemblies Each hose assembly used for transferring oil or hazardous material must meet the following requirements a The minimum design burst pressure for each hose assembly must be at least four times the sum of the pressure of the relief valve setting or four times the maximum pump pressure when no relief valve is installed plus the static head pressure of the transfer system at the point where the hose is installed. b The maximum allowable working pressure MAWP for each hose assembly must be more than the sum of the pressure of the relief valve setting or the maximum pump pressure when no relief valve is installed plus the static head pressure of the transfer system at the point where the hose is installed. c Each nonmetallic hose must be usable for oil or hazardous material service. d Each hose assembly must either have 1 full threaded connections 2 Flanges that meet standard B16.5 Steel Pipe Flanges and Flange Fittings or standard B16.24 Brass or Bronze Pipe Flanges of the American National Standards Institute ANSI or 3 Quick-disconnect couplings that meet ASTM F1122 e Each hose must be marked with one of the following 1 The name of each product for which the hose may be used or 2 For oil products the words OIL SERVICE or 3 For hazardous materials the words HAZMAT SERVICE SEE LIST followed immediately by a letter number or other symbol that corresponds to a list or chart contained in the facilitys operation manual or the vessels transfer procedure documents which identifies the products that may be transferred through a hose bearing that symbol. f Each hose also must be marked with the following except that the information required by paragraphs f 2 and 3 of this section need not be marked on the hose if it is recorded in the hose records of the vessel or facility and the hose is marked to identify it with that information 1 Maximum allowable working pressure 2 Date of manufacture and 3 Date of the latest test required by section 156.170. g The hose burst pressure and the pressure used for the test required by 156.170 of this chapter must not be marked on the hose and must be recorded elsewhere at the facility as described in paragraph f of this section. h Each hose used to transfer fuel to a vessel that has a fill pipe for which containment cannot practically be provided must be equipped with an automatic back pressure shutoff nozzle. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.14 Additional Information available httpwww.lawserver.comlawcountryuscfr33_cfr_156- 170 33 CFR 156.170 - Equipment tests and inspections Current as of July 2010 Check for updates a Except as provided in paragraph d of this section no person may use any equipment listed in paragraph c of this section for transfer operations unless the vessel or facility operator as appropriate tests and inspects the equipment in accordance with paragraphs b c and f of this section and the equipment is in the condition specified in paragraph c of this section. b During any test or inspection required by this section the entire external surface of the hose must be accessible. c For the purpose of paragraph a of this section 1 Each nonmetallic transfer hose must i Have no unrepaired loose covers kinks bulges soft spots or any other defect which would permit the discharge of oil or hazardous material through the hose material and no gouges cuts or slashes that penetrate the first layer of hose reinforcement as defined in Sec. 156.120i. ii Have no external deterioration and to the extent internal inspection is possible with both ends of the hose open no internal deterioration iii Not burst bulge leak or abnormally distort under static liquid pressure at least 112 times the maximum allowable working pressure and iv Hoses not meeting the requirements of paragraph c1i of this section may be acceptable after a static liquid pressure test is successfully completed in the presence of the COTP. The test medium is not required to be water. 2 Each transfer system relief valve must open at or below the pressure at which it is set to open 3 Each pressure gauge must show pressure within 10 percent of the actual pressure 4 Each loading arm and each transfer pipe system including each metallic hose must not leak under static liquid pressure at least 112 times the maximum allowable working pressure and 5 Each item of remote operating or indicating equipment such as a remotely operated valve tank level alarm or emergency shutdown device must perform its intended function. d No person may use any hose in underwater service for transfer operations unless the operator of the vessel or facility has tested and inspected it in accordance with paragraph c1 or c4 of this section as applicable. e The test fluid used for the testing required by this section is limited to liquids that are compatible with the hose tube as recommended by the hose manufacturer. f The frequency of the tests and inspections required by this section must be 2 For facilities annually or not less than 30 days prior to the first transfer conducted past one year from the date of the last tests and inspections 2 For a facility in caretaker status not less than 30 days prior to the first transfer after the Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 15 facility is removed from caretaker status and 3 For vessels annually or as part of the biennial and mid-period inspections. Electrical Continuity Test Unless otherwise specified all lengths of composite hose that have been fitted with electrically conductive end fittings must have an electrical resistance not exceeding 10 ohms. The test should be made from end fitting to end fitting using a calibrated multi-meter to ensure that the hose is electrically continuous. Visual Inspection All sample assemblies should be visually inspected for substandard quality conditions in the hose or couplings. Each assembly should be visually inspected for kinks loose covers bulges or ballooning soft spots cuts broken wires or any obvious defect in the hose. The fittings and attachments should be inspected for any type of visible defects that may affect the performance of the assembly. Visual inspection checkpoints should include but are not limited to the following Hose Identification - Size and type must correspond to the fabrication order work order. Coupling Identification - Coupling size type and product number must correspond to information on the fabrication order work order and specifications. Identified with date code part number etc. when required. Inspection Items - o Bulge behind the coupling. o Cocked couplings. o Cracked couplings. o Displacement of inner and outer reinforcing wires from normal pitch o General appearance of the assembly. o Freedom of swivels o Internal contaminants. o Protective caps or plugs. o Restrictions in the tube o Rusted Couplings Test Documentation If required by the customer a test certificate may be issued to provide written confirmation that the assembly has been tested and conforms to certain performance criteria. If a test certificate is not supplied test results should be maintained and kept on file for five years. Each test certificate should bear a unique number for traceability. Test certificates should include the following information as a minimum K. Test Certificate Number L. Customers Name and Purchase Order Number M. Suppliers Name and Job Number N. Hose Serial Numbers O. Hose details including length type of hose and diameter P. End fitting details with types of ferrules and seals used Q. Test Date R. Test Pressure S. Electrical Continuity Conformance T. Suppliers Authorization Signature Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.16 9.5 Testing Procedures for Hydraulic Hose Coupled hose assembly lots should be sampled and tested utilizing an acceptable burst and proof pressure procedure. It is recommended that proof and burst testing be performed in accordance with SAE J517 and SAE J343 as shown below or an applicable industry standard or customer specification. The SAE J343 standard gives methods for testing and evaluating the performance of the SAE 100R series hydraulic hose and hose assemblies hose and attached end fittings used in hydraulic systems. Proof Pressure Test This proof test is conducted at twice the working pressure of the hose unless otherwise specified by the customer. The test pressure shall be maintained for a period of not less than 30 seconds or more than 60 seconds. There shall be no indication of failure or leakage and no indication of coupling slippage. Burst Test - Hose assemblies on which the end fittings have been attached less than 30 days shall be subjected to a hydrostatic pressure increased at a constant rate so as to attain the specified minimum burst pressure within a period of not less than 15 seconds nor more than 30 seconds. There shall be no leakage hose burst or indication of failure below the specified minimum burst pressure. WARNING Water or another liquid suitable for the hose under test shall be used as the test medium. The use of air or other gaseous materials as testing media should be avoided because of the risk to operators. In special cases where such media are required for the tests strict safety measures are imperative. Furthermore it is stressed that when a liquid is used as the test medium it is essential that all air is expelled from the test piece because of the risk of injury to the operator due to the sudden expansion of trapped air released when the hose bursts. The hose assemblies to be bench tested must be inspected to ensure conformance to applicable test specifications. It is important to realize that with the exception of proof test and change in length all hose assemblies under pressure testing are to be destroyed after the test. Specific test and performance criteria for evaluating hose assemblies used in hydraulic service are in accordance with requirements for hose in the respective specifications of SAE J517. It is recommended that every facility making hydraulic hose assemblies have a copy of the SAE HS-150 standards manual. Current issue is on disk and available from SAE Headquarters. Test methods for threaded hydraulic fluid power connectors shall conform to SAE standard J1644. This is equivalent to ISO 8434-5 with the exception that the SAE standard includes repeated assembly test for male flare shaped fittings assembled to tube flare. The same cautions apply to tube testing as with hose assemblies. Bursts and fine jets can penetrate the skin. Sudden energy release can be very hazardous. Salt Spray Standards and Testing General Most steel fittings are required to meet minimum corrosion resistance requirements. Corrosion resistance is important to prevent the degradation of a part during transportation storage and service. Some examples of corrosion problems are listed below. Cosmetic issues Contamination due to corrosion of interior surfaces Thread interference from corrosion product build-up Degradation of surface finish in o-ring glands Part fracture Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 17 Test Methods Typically steel fittings are tested under accelerated conditions to ensure that the component will perform in the field. Most manufacturers subject parts to a neutral salt spray test per ASTM B117 or the ISO 9227. The two standards are considered equivalent for neutral salt spray. This method subjects parts to a controlled fog produced from a sodium chloride salt solution. Coating Types To meet corrosion resistance specifications carbon steel parts have a coating or plating applied. Common finishes are Zinc plating with a chromate conversion coating Organic coatings Zinc-nickel Currently zinc plating with a chromate conversion coating is the most common method. Zinc chromate plating replaced cadmium plating due to environmental reasons. Similarly many manufacturers have eliminated hexavalent chrome from fittings in favor of trivalent for environmental reasons. The European Union has already banned hexavalent chromium from some vehicle applications. Hexavalent chromate can range from yellowgold to olive green in color. In contrast trivalent chromate is silver and can sometimes have a slight blue tint. Corrosion resistance can be changed by changing the thickness of the zinc and chromate layers or also the addition of topcoats. Zinc-plated parts show two corrosion products. Initially the zinc layer corrodes forming white corrosion zinc oxide. After the zinc layer is penetrated red corrosion iron oxide of the base carbon steel results. Since the zinc layer is sacrificial not all customers or standards have requirements for white corrosion. Specifications without a white corrosion requirement typically only include one for red corrosion as it indicates degradation of the base metal. Severe red corrosion of the base metal carbon steel can ultimately result in cracking and failure. However white corrosion can still be problematic causing cosmetic assembly and sealing issues. Organic coatings can also be used to prevent corrosion. These layers can be used either alone or in combination with other coatings. Zinc-nickel offers excellent corrosion resistance and does not contain hexavalent chromium. Additionally a more resistant base material can be substituted to improve performance. In some applications stainless steel or brass can be substituted to eliminate the use of carbon steel. Specifications ASTM B117 and ISO 9227 specify the evaluation of parts every 24 hours therefore most specifications are in 24-hour increments. SAE J514J516 and ISO 4520 specify that carbon steel fittings must not show signs of red corrosion prior to 72 hours with the following exceptions Internal fluid passages Edges such as hex points serrations and crests of threads where there may be mechanical deformation of the plating or coating typical of mass-produced parts of shipping effects Areas where there is mechanical deformation of the plating or coating caused by crimping flaring bending and other post-plate metal forming operations Areas where the parts are suspended or affixed in the test chamber where condensate can accumulate Large OEMs and customers may also specify corrosion resistance specifications. Most include some or all of the following items. Test method ASTM B117ISO 9227 or different method Hours to white corrosion Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.18 Hours to red corrosion Plating thickness typically referenced in ASTM B633 Exceptions to requirements through hole corrosion mechanical deformation threads etc Failure criteria for corrosion products first sign of corrosion 5 of test surface etc white corrosion red corrosion Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 19 9.6 Testing Procedures for Fluoropolymer Hose The purpose of this section is to define minimum test requirements and identify other types of tests. This is inclusive of leak and proof pressure testing. All hoses are made to a specific spec this could be the manufacturers own spec or that of a standard such as J517. The testing methods for many of the SAE specs are spelled out in J343 which is also called out in J517 and in most cases these specs call out an ASTM test method to perform these tests. Bottom line the hose assembly shop needs to test Integrity of the finished hose assembly o Are the couplings properly secure o Are there any leaks Electrical continuity Pressure integrity of the assembly is tested using a hydrostatic test of 1.5 times the WP of the assembly. It must be noted that the test adapters used so fittings are not damaged during these pressure tests may not have a pressure rating high enough to perform tests at these pressures. Test pressures of 2X and higher are considered destructive to the hose by many manufactures and this should be considered when requested by a customer. If the hose requirements call out for a specific electrostatic discharge ESD spec then that was adhered to during the creation of the hose by the manufacturer some tests can be done to see if it is in fact static dissipative but proper adherence to the standard is not feasible as the standard is a test for a lab is destructive and is not done in the field. 1000 VDC can be applied to the bore of the product to see if it passes or not but this does not equal the lab test done on a 12 piece when done on a 50 foot assembly. J517 or J343 detail the method and intent of this testing. All fluoropolymer hose assemblies shall be tested in a condition such that the end fittings and the section of hose immediately behind the fittings is visible. However if you are using an automated system you do not need to see the assembly during test. Do not obstruct the access to these areas with any type of optional chafe or fire sleeve that may be required to complete the assembly. Leakage Tests After hose assembly each hose assembly shall be subject to a leakage test protocol. Testing may either be based on a sampling or every assembly depending on the criticality of the application. The test protocol must evaluate leakage pressure capacity and motion of the fitting relative to the hose broken wire and all other permanent damage. The object of the test is to assure a high quality and safe hose assembly. Due to the cutting and injection hazard of high pressure testing personnel should be shielded from the assembly during testing. One or more assemblies from each lot or batch shall be tested. Considerations Hydrostatic vs. Pneumatic Pressure Due to the stored energy of pneumatic pressure testing pressure capacity also known as structural integrity should be done hydrostatically. Pneumatic testing should be consigned to leakage testing. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.20 Sampling vs. 100 Testing Sampling is more cost effective than 100 testing. 100 testing is more risk effective than sampling. The balance requires knowing the product process and application. What can go wrong How consistently can the assembly procedure be controlled How critical or hazardous is the application Hydrostatic Proof Pressure The following testing procedure is recommended 1. Lay the hose out straight whenever practical slightly elevating one end to ensure trapped air is expelled allowing space for elongation under pressure preferably on supports to allow free movement under pressure. 2. Blank off one end and fill hose with water taking particular care to ensure that all trapped air is released from the hose. This is very important as a safety measure because expansion of air compressed in the hose when suddenly released by bursting or other failure might result in a serious accident. 3. When testing a fluoropolymer assembly the MAWP of all components should be considered. The assembly test pressure should be 1.5 times the working pressure of the lowest rated component. While pressure is maintained examine the assembly for leaks and any unusual appearance and test for electrical continuity between the end fittings. 4. Steadily increase the pressure using water or other suitable test liquid. Maintain pressure for the length of the test. Any evidence of leakage permanent deformation or coupling slippage is cause for rejection. Leakage is defined as a continuous stream of water droplets emitted from a single or multiple locations. 5. When tested using the procedure above the tested assembly should be totally leak free for the duration of the test one minute. Assemblies should be thoroughly drained of all test media after hydrostatic testing. Pneumatic Proof Pressure Because liquids may block gaseous leaks the assembly must be thoroughly dry inside. The hose assembly shall be subjected to a proof pressure test at a value defined by the contract or the maximum working pressure using gaseous nitrogen as the media while the assembly is immersed in a bath of water for at least one minute. An alkaline or neutral pH wetting agent may be added to the water bath to assist in defining the leakage. Water temperature should be room temperature for consistent testing. Care should be exercised to remove all entrapped air residing under the braid during the test so as not to confuse it with actual leakage. This may be accomplished by flowing water over the assembly and into the braid while the assembly is immersed in the water bath. Any evidence of leakage or permanent deformation is cause for rejection. Leakage is defined as a continuous stream of bubbles emitted from a single or multiple locations. Depending on the gaseous media and pressure fluoropolymer hose held at pressure under water for extended periods of time may permeate. These gaseous emissions through the hose wall due to permeation are not leakage. WARNINGWARNINGWARNINGWARNINGWARNING Wherever particular skills are required only specially trained persons should engage in those applications or testing procedures. Failure to do so may result in damage to the hose assembly or to other personal property and more importantly may also result in serious bodily injury. Hoses must be properly cleaned prior to inspection and testing. Always wear safety glasses gloves and protective clothing to protect from leaks or high pressure spray. Also use shields to Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 21 protect people in the work area in the event of a hose burst spray or coupling blow-off. Great care should be taken when positioning the test operator to avoid being hit by potential coupling blow-offs during pressure testing. Also make sure that the hose is sufficiently shielded during pressure testing to stop a coupling in case of a coupling blow-off. Any failure during testing is likely to be of an explosive nature NOTE Not every fluoropolymer hose is or should be hydrostatically tested pneumatic testing is perfectly appropriate in certain situations. Ultimately it should be up to the customer to determine what testing is required but the NAHAD Guidelines provide guidance regarding how those tests are performed. Testing requirements are dictated by both the application and the pressure rating. SAE J517 is the appropriate standard in this case. Other Leakage Tests When leak rates are critical consult the manufacturer for more sensitive testing methods. These may include but are not limited to the following Mass Spectrometer Leak Testing Pressure Decay Vacuum Decay Mass Flow and Helium Leak Test. Electrical Continuity Test There are two types of electrical grounding paths for hoses metallic and non-metallic. Hoses should be tested with a calibrated multi-meter from end fitting to end fitting to determine if the assembly is electrically continuous. Electrical continuity means you can light a light bulb or make a buzzer buzz this cannot be done with a tube measurement. The helix or wire outer braid properly connected to both end fittings of an assembly will give you electrical continuity but not provide any electrostatic dissipation ESD. White tube no conductivity or ESD period helix wire wire braid or not. Not all black tubes will give ESD but a properly created black tube will provide ESD but this will not by itself provide electrical continuity. Electrostatic dissipation meets a minimum conductance of 20 micro amps with a 1000 volt DC applied over a 12 inch piece. Proof testing for electrical continuity and static dissipation are different and should be conducted according to manufacturer recommendations as necessary for the application. Visual Inspection All sample assemblies should be visually inspected for substandard quality conditions in the hose or couplings. Each assembly should be visually inspected for kinks loose covers bulges or ballooning soft spots cuts broken wires or any obvious defect in the hose. The fittings and attachments should be inspected for any type of visible defects that may affect the performance of the assembly. Visual inspection checkpoints should include but are not limited to the following A. Hose Identification - Size and type must correspond to the fabrication order work order. B. Coupling Identification - Coupling size type and product number must correspond to information on the fabrication order work order and specifications. Identified with date code part number etc. when required. 22 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. C. Inspection Items Bulge behind the coupling. Cocked couplings. Cracked couplings. Exposed reinforcement. Freedom of swivels. General appearance of the assembly. Hose cover pricked if required. Internal contaminants. Protective caps or plugs. Restriction in the tube. Rusted couplings. Braid integrity frayed discolored broken strands etc. 9.7 Calibrations Inspection and testing equipment used in the production or testing of coupled hose assemblies should be calibrated at prescribed intervals according to written procedures. All gauging equipment shall be calibrated regularly by means traceable to NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology. The tag giving date of last calibration next calibration due date and signature of the inspector shall be attached to the gauge and a record filed for future reference. 9.8 Test Documentation If required by the customer a test certificate may be issued to provide written confirmation that the assembly has been tested and conforms to certain performance criteria. If a test certificate is not supplied test results should be maintained and kept on file for five years. Each test certificate should bear a unique number for traceability. Test certificates should include the following information as a minimum A. Test Certificate Number B. Customers Name and Purchase Order Number C. Suppliers Name and Job Number D. Hose Serial Numbers E. Hose details including length type of hose and diameter F. End fitting details with types of ferrules and seals used G. Test Date H. Test Pressure I. Electrical Continuity Conformance J. Suppliers Authorization Signature 9.9 Other Documentation Other types of documentation may be requested by the customer. All certificates and reports required should accompany the shipment unless otherwise specified. Certificate of Conformance When required a Certificate of Conformance C of C shall be supplied with the order confirming in the form of a text and without expressed mention of the test results that the product being supplied meets the requirements of the customers purchase order as agreed upon order acceptance. The C of C should have the following information if applicable Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 23 a. Customers Name b. Customers Address c. Customers Purchase Order d. Customers Contract Number e. Customers Specification Number f. Customers Drawing Number g. Suppliers Name h. Suppliers Address i. Suppliers Order Number j. Suppliers Drawing Number k. Quantity l. Description m. Additional Information n. Suppliers Authorized Signature o. Date Test Report A request for a C of C may require that actual test results be included. Certified Material Test Reports When required a Certified Material Test Report CMTR shall be supplied showing the materials meet the requirements of the customers purchase order. These may be supplied as copies of the raw material CMTRs provided by the materials supplier or on the manufacturers form providing certified test results. Third Party Certification When required by the customer an authorized inspection party shall inspect and certify that the product being supplied meets the requirements of the customers purchase order as agreed upon order acceptance. Upon request copies of these certifications shall be supplied. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.24 This page left intentionally blank. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 1 Section 10 Quality Plan 10.1 Purpose The purpose of this section is to outline a quality plan for fabricating hose assemblies. The assurance of an acceptable hose assembly reaching the customer depends upon the quality of the components and the workmanship of the fabricator. An effective quality control plan is based on statistical sampling principles. Responsibility for supervising the quality plan must be designated. Corrective action procedures must be formalized to deal with nonconformance. 10.2 Sampling Plan An effective sampling plan is based on the statistical history of a design that demonstrates quality performance and sets confidence levels. Sampling is performed in an effort to statistically evaluate a product or process against tolerances that are considered acceptable as determined by national standards customer requirements etc. This monitoring of product or process with an adequate sampling plan is done in an effort to provide 100 acceptable product to the customer. In an ideal world if inspection capability is 100 effective then the only way to assure 100 acceptable product is to inspect everything 100. Due to practical considerations of time and resources both manpower and financial 100 inspection will probably not occur as a standard method of operation. Sampling vs. 100 Testing Sampling is more cost effective than 100 testing. 100 testing is more risk effective than sampling. The balance requires knowing the product process and application. What can go wrong How consistently can the assembly procedure be controlled How critical or hazardous is the application The Zero Acceptance Number Sampling Plans by Nicholas L. Squeglia is a current effective sampling system and is recommended should sampling rather than 100 testing be selected. There are many areas or processes that may be sampled. These may vary from operation to operation but there are some constants that should probably apply no matter what the operation. A. Inspection of incoming material You cannot guarantee the quality of the outgoing product if the quality of incoming materials has not been verified. B. In process inspection This may be as simple as inspection of the first assembly produced. Or it may be quite complicated such as doing a complete dimensional audit on so many pieces per production run and plotting these results on Statistical Process Control SPC charts in order to track trends and potential problems. C. Final Inspection This may be relatively simple such as verifying piece counts before shipping to the customer or as complicated as checking specific criteria to ensure compliance with the customers requirements. Regardless of what is being sampled inspection characteristics the corresponding documentation and the personnel responsible for carrying for inspecting these characteristics must be defined. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.2 be defined regardless of what is being sampled. When establishing the frequency of sampling there are many factors that need to be considered. These include but are not limited to 1. Cost 2. Complexity of process 3. Application 4. Liability 5. Stability of procedure If a process is very stable as indicated by past performance the frequency of sampling can be decreased. There is no specific sampling plan that can be considered best suited to all applications. 10.3 Material Receiving Inspection Couplings 1. Upon receipt of a shipment of couplings the assembly fabricator should perform at minimum the following inspection steps 2. Compare the couplings received with the purchase order by making sure part numbers agree between order and packing slip. 3. Check the count between packing slip and actual quantity received. 4. Check the product in the package to make sure it agrees with the part number on the package. Supplier catalogs are a good reference. 5. When possible leave the couplings in the original container with the original date code. If a coupling problem arises later all the couplings of that size and date code can be separated out for 100 inspection purposes. 6. At least one coupling from every box should be inspected for dimensions defective plating concentricity snap rings attached to the swivels any damage from shipping. Hose Upon the receipt of a shipment of hose the assembly fabricator should perform at a minimum the following inspection steps 1. Check product numbers on the packing list with numbers on the packages of the actual merchandise. 2. Check total footage against the packing slip making sure they agree. 3. Check the product making sure it agrees with the label on the packaging. 4. Check the hose inside diameter outside diameter and reinforcement and verify against the manufacturers product information. 5. All hose should be visibly inspected for damage due to shipping kinks loose cover bulges ballooning cuts crush and tears. A certificate of conformance may be requested with the hose couplings and attachments. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 3 10.4 Hose Assembly Dimensional Inspection if applicable a Length - Measure the length of a coupled assembly laid out on a flat surface. Unless otherwise shown on the fabrication order work order hose assembly length includes the couplings. b Crimped Outside Diameter With a micrometer or caliper measure the diameter of the crimped ferrule in the center between two opposite die faces. c Coupling Orientation - Coupling orientation should be as specified on customer blueprints or fabrication order work order. 10.5 Storage Labeling Environment Time Proper storage will maximize hose shelf life. All hose should be stored in such a manner to protect them from degrading factors such as humidity temperature extremes ozone sunlight direct light from fluorescent or mercury lamps oils solvents corrosive liquids insects rodents and any other degrading atmosphere. Care should be taken when stacking hose as its weight can crush hose at the bottom of the stack. The stack could also become unstable creating a safety hazard. The ideal storage temperature for rubber hose is 50F to 70F with the maximum of 100F. Care should be taken to keep rubber hoses from being stored next to heat sources. Rubber hose should not be stored near electrical equipment that generates ozone. Exposure to high concentrations of ozone will cause damage to the hose. Store components in a cool dry area. If stored below freezing pre-warming may be required prior to handling testing and placing into service. Components should be stored in original date-coded containers. Steps should be made to rotate inventory on a first-in first-out basis to insure that the products are exposed to the shortest shelf time possible. After service hose assemblies should be flushed out and drained. Ideally stored hoses should be dry and kept off the ground in a straight line out of direct sunlight. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.4 This page intentionally left blank Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 1 Section 11 Assembly Identification Cleaning and Packaging 11.1 Purpose This section is intended to establish methods and content of applying hose assembly identification markings and identify minimum cleaning and packaging requirements. 11.2 Hose Assembly Markings Customers may require specific markings be applied to the hose assemblies for identification purposes labeling and marking requirements should be communicated by the end user. These may include but are not limited to 1. Fabrication date 2. Part numbers 3. Assembly description 4. Etc. For composite hose the following information should be included 1. The manufacturers name trademark or other identification 2. The hose serial number or manufacturers lotI.D. number. 3. The nominal bore size 4. The month and year of hose assembly 5. The maximum working pressure. Example MannameCH123Aug97150psi Note Excluded from this document are acceptable marking methods for chlorine hose. Refer to Pamphlet 6 from the Chlorine Institute Pamphlet 6 edition 15 Appendix A Section 9 Method of Marking The marking of hose assemblies may be achieved in two ways 1. Information pre-stamped in legible characters on metal tag or band affixed to the assembly by approved durable method. 2. Information in legible characters stamped directly onto the ferrule braid sleeve fitting or printed heat shrink. 3. Branding may be achieved with colored stripes on the hose embossed brands stenciling printing labels etc. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.2 11.3 Cleaning General Each assembly shall be supplied to the customer free of water debris metal shavings dirt or any foreign material that may cause problems to the application. Air may be blown through the assembly to remove some of the loose particles. Some customers have stringent cleanliness requirements that may require fluid flushing or projectile cleaning of the assembly. End connection openings should be sealed or capped to maintain cleanliness and protect external threads. Note when an assembly is being used for oxygen service special cleaning is typically required. Consult the provider for requirements. Contamination in hose assemblies starts with the storage methods. Hose in storage that is left uncapped will have dust dirt bugs and even small animals inside. In addition there is a certain amount of chaff bits of rubber wire etc from the cutting process. Cleaning hose and tube assemblies is vital to the life of the system and generally done by using compressed air. In most cases this is not adequate and special cleaning fluids projectiles and even pressure cleaning can be used. It is the responsibility of the system designer or ultimate customer to specify the ISO code cleanliness level requirements. All assemblies must be capped or plugged. Unless a specific cleanliness level has been specified either by the customer or by an agency standard the assembly shall be blown with clean dry compressed air and capped before delivery. Caution always wear eye protection when using compressed air. Hydraulic Hose Cleanliness Considerations Modern Hydraulics is defined as the use of confined liquid to transmit power multiply force or produce motion. Clean hydraulic fluid is an integral part of a hydraulic system and contaminated fluid will reduce the service life of hydraulic systems. Therefore hose cleanliness is an important part of the fabrication of a hydraulic hose assembly. If contamination is left in the hose after the cutting and crimping procedure it is very likely that these particles will work their way into the hydraulic system and cause premature wear and tear or even catastrophic failure. Customer requirements and the specific application will dictate the required cleanliness level. Finished hose assemblies should be capped immediately to maintain the specified cleanliness level until the assembly is installed. The primary source of contamination in a hose assembly is a result of the cutting process with either a metal blade or abrasive wheel. Therefore it is recommended that the hose be cleaned immediately after cutting and always before stem insertion. There are 3 main reasons for cleaning the hose after the cutting process and before stem insertion and they are as follows. 1. Heat from the cutting process causes both rubber and metal particles to become very hot. If they are allowed to cool they cans stick or adhere to the tube thus becoming much more difficult to remove. 2. If contaminants are trapped between the O.D. of the stem and the I.D. of the tube they could act as an eventual leak path for hydraulic fluid when the system is under pressure. 3. Stem insertion is much more difficult when trying to push stems over or past the internal contamination. A clean tube is usually smooth and slippery in nature which means stem lubrication may not be necessary. Stem insertion should be done as cleanly as possible. If lubricants are necessary they should be kept clean and never stored in an open container such as a coffee can. Atmospheric contamination in the shop air will enter the open container and contaminate it. Never dunk the stem or hose into a lubricant as this will add contamination back into the cleaned piece of hose. Apply clean lubricants sparingly to the O.D. of the stem only. During the crimping process there is stem deformation to insure the proper coupling retention. This process causes metal and plating flash to occur inside of the stem. The hose assembly should go Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 3 through a final cleaning process. Immediately cap or plug each end of the hose assembly. This will insure that the hose remains clean and external threads on the fittings will be protected. The cleaning process insures that the all the contamination generated during shop assembly has been removed. Other sources of contamination include dust moisture and any airborne particles that can enter a completed hose assembly. Customer requirements and the specific application will dictate the required cleanliness level. There are 3 methods of specifying cleanliness. 4. Gravimetric analysis reference ISO 4405 ISO 4407 specifies a method to determine fluid contamination by filtering a volume of fluid under vacuum through 1 or 2 filter membranes. 5. Particle counting reference ISO 4406 ISO 4406 specifies a code of 3 scale numbers to measure the particle level in a fluid sample. The scale numbers are as follows The first scale number represents the number of particles equal or larger to 4 microns per milliliter of fluid. The second scale number represents the number of particles equal or larger to 6 microns per milliliter of fluid. The third scale number represents the number of particles equal or larger to 14 microns per milliliter of fluid. The scale code is represented for example as 181612. The lower the scale code number the cleaner the fluid. Table 1 illustrates particle counts to scale numbers. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.4 Table 1 Allocation of scale numbers Number of particles per millilitre Scale Number More than Up to and including 2 500 000 28 1 300 000 2 500 000 28 640 000 1 300 000 27 320 000 640 000 26 160 000 320 000 25 80 000 160 000 24 40 000 80 000 23 20 000 40 000 22 10 000 20 000 21 5 000 10 000 20 2 500 5 000 19 1 300 2 500 18 640 1 300 17 320 640 16 160 320 15 80 160 14 40 80 13 20 40 12 10 20 11 5 10 10 2.5 5 9 1.3 2.5 8 0.64 1.3 7 0.32 0.64 6 0.16 0.32 5 0.08 0.16 4 0.04 0.08 3 0.02 0.04 2 0.01 0.02 1 0.00 0.01 0 NOTE Reproducibility below scale number 8 is affected by the actual number of particles counted in the fluid sample. Raw counts should be more than 20 particles. I When the raw data in one of the size ranges results in a particle count of fewer than 20 particles the scale number for that size range shall be labeled with the symbol . 6. Maximum particle size reference ISO 4407 ISO 4407 specifies methods to determine contamination levels in a hydraulic system by counting the particles trapped on a membrane filter using an optical microscope. Particles to 2 microns can be counted using this method. The primary source of contamination in a hose assembly is a result of cutting the hose with both metal and abrasive blades. Therefore it is recommended that the hose be cleaned immediately after cutting and again after the assembly because the secondary source of contamination is the fittings. This insures that the all the contamination generated during shop assembly has been removed. Other sources of contamination include dust moisture and any airborne particles that can enter a completed hose assembly. Immediately after cleaning the hose assembly it is strongly recommended to cap or seal each end of the assembly to maintain the cleanliness level attained until the assembly is installed. Customer requirements and the specific application will dictate the required cleanliness level. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 5 Composite Hose Cleanliness Considerations It is important that any media be thoroughly drained prior to cleaning to avoid chemical or exothermic reactions when the hose is returned into service. A. Typically composite hose assemblies are cleaned by flushing thoroughly with clean water. B. Other media which can be used depending on the media that has been passing through the hose include hot water sea water detergents and common solvents at ambient temperature. If sea water is used the hose must be well drained after cleaning to minimize corrosion. C. WARNING Due to the inherent nature of the hose internally any form of mechanical method of cleaning such as pigging should not be used under any circumstances. D. Also due to the fact that the hose is constructed using plastics which tend to weaken at elevated temperatures care must be taken when cleaning with hot water so as not to exceed the maximum working temperature of the hose. If steam is to be used contact the manufacturer for any recommended practices. E. Compressed air may be used but the hose must be open-ended. F. During any cleaning operation the assembly must be electrically grounded to avoid build up of static charge. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.6 11.4 Packaging Hose assemblies shall be packaged in such a manner to insure that external abuse during shipping and handling does not damage the hose or fittings. Hose shall be packed in a clean and dry state. Containers boxes banding and pallets shall be of sufficient size and strength to withstand handling and transit without failure. When packaged hose assemblies should not be coiled tighter than the specified minimum bend radius. Check customer information for any specific labeling or packaging requirements. Packaging Options check with the manufacturer for recommendations Coiled o Protective wrap palletized o in crates o on reels o poly-bagged in bales Straight o Slat packing o Plastic tubes o Metal rack dedicated truck o Poly-bagged o Skids Slat Packing Packaging and Handling Considerations for Large Diameter Hose and Assemblies Handling in transit and during installation needs to be considered in order to reduce or eliminate potential damage. Care should be taken not to kink the hose damage the hose cover or stress it in ways it wasnt designed to handle. Any questions should be referred to the manufacturer. Some considerations include Do not drag the hose over docks or decks or sharp abrasive surfaces Never lift long length or large bore hose from the middle of its length with the ends hanging down Support the hose with wide slings or saddles to limit the curvature of the hose. In order to increase the service life of the hose NAHAD recommends that proper support be given to the hose during lifting the use of chains rope or cable should be avoided. Do not kink hose or run over it with equipment For additional information see the ARPM manuals for hose maintenance testing and inspection. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 1 Section 12 Installation and Handling 12.1 General The purpose of this section is to increase awareness on the proper installation and handling of hose assemblies and to alert fabricators installers and end-users to the safety hazards in the field. Hoses and hose assemblies are used interchangeably in this document. Hoses are used to convey fluids gases and other media. Hose constructions are available in a variety of materials and styles depending on the intended application. All hose has a finite life and there are a number of factors which will reduce its life. The design and use of systems which contain hoses require consideration of factors related to specific application requirements. 12.2 Safety Environmental Considerations Below are some potential conditions that can lead to personal injury and property damage. This list is not inclusive. Consider reasonable and feasible means including those described in this section to reduce the risk of injuries or property damage. Employers with hose assemblies in fluid systems are encouraged to provide training including the information in this document for maintenance personnel and other employees working with and around hoses under pressure. Media Permeation Hoses should always be used in well-ventilated areas. Certain media will permeate through hoses that can displace breathable air in confined spaces. Consult the manufacturer if in question. Fluid Injections Fine streams of pressurized fluid can penetrate skin and enter a human body. Fluid injection wounds may cause severe tissue damage and loss of limb. Consider the use of guards and shields to reduce the risk of fluid injections. If a fluid injection occurs contact a doctor or medical facility at once. Do not delay or treat as a simple cut. Fluid injections are serious injuries and prompt medical treatment is essential. Be sure the doctor knows how to treat this type of injury. Avoid all contact with escaping fluids. Treat all leaks as though they are pressurized and hot or caustic enough to burn skin. Whipping Hose If a pressurized hose or hose fitting comes apart the loose hose end can flail or whip with great force and fittings can be thrown off a high speed. This is particularly true in compressible gas or fluid systems. If the risk of hose whipping exists consider the use of guards and restraints. Fire and Explosions from Conveyed Fluids All hydraulic fluids including many designated as Fire Resistant are flammable will burn when exposed to the proper conditions. Fluids under pressure which escape from system containment may develop a mist or fine spray that can explode upon contact with a source of ignition e.g. open flames sparks and hot manifolds. These explosions can be very severe and could cause extensive property damage serious injury or Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.2 death. Care should be taken to eliminate all possible ignition sources from contact with escaping fluids fluid spray or mist resulting from hydraulic system failures. Select and route hoses to minimize the risk of combustion. Fire and Explosions from Static-Electric Discharge Fluid passing through hose can generate static electricity resulting in static-electric discharge. This may create sparks that can ignite system fluids or gases in the surrounding atmosphere. Use hose rated for static conductivity or a proper grounding device. Consult manufacturer for proper hose and coupling selection. Burns from Conveyed Fluids Fluid media conveyed in certain applications may reach temperatures that can burn human skin. If there is risk of burns from escaping fluid consider guards and shields to prevent injury particularly in areas normally occupied by operators. Electrical Shock Electrocution could occur when a hose assembly conducts electricity to a person. Most hoses are conductive. Many have metal fittings. Even nonconductive hoses can be conduits for electricity if they carry conductive fluids. Certain applications require hose to be nonconductive to prevent electrical current flow. Other applications require the hose to be sufficiently conductive to drain off static electricity. Hose and fittings must be chosen with these needs in mind. Consult manufacturer with any questions. Metal hoses are conductive always use proper grounding to minimize the risk of electrical discharge. Caution when routing hydraulic hose near an electrical source cannot be avoided nonconductive hoses should be considered. SAE J517-100R7 and 100R8 hoses with orange covers marked nonconductive are available for applications requiring nonconductive hose. Fluid Controlled Mechanisms Mechanisms controlled by fluids in hoses can become hazardous if a hose fails. For example when a hose bursts objects supported by the fluid pressure may fall. If mechanisms are controlled by fluid power use hose with design characteristics sufficient to minimize the potential risks of property damage or injury. Air and Gaseous Applications Consult manufacturer for proper hose and coupling selection. The covers of hose assemblies that are to be used to convey air and other gaseous materials must be pin perforated. CAUTION Exercise care not to perforate beyond the cover. These perforations allow gas that has permeated through the inner tube of the hose to escape into the atmosphere. This prevents gases from accumulating and blistering the hose. Hand-held Operated Tools Extreme care is necessary when connecting hand-held or portable powered tools to a power source with a hose assembly. A. Always use a strain reliever at both ends of the hose assembly to prevent excessive bending kinking and stress at the coupling to hose interface. B. Never use the hose assembly as a means to carry pull lift or transport the tool or power unit. C. Exposed hose near the operator should be covered with a fluid deflection apparatus such as nylon sleeving for protection against injection injuries should a hose rupture occur. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 3 D. Operators should be protected with the proper safety equipment such as face masks leather gloves and safety clothing as dictated by the job fluid and tools being used. E. If the connecting hose assembly could be subjected to external forces that may inflict damage an appropriate guard should be used. 12.3 Hose Routing When planning the hose routing use the following practices for optimum performance and more consistent and predictable service life. Caution When determining the overall lengths for the final routed length of an assembly it must be noted that hose lengths in these assemblies can by design grow in length 2 or shrink in length -4 If this is not accounted for severe damage can occur to the hose assembly. Routing at less than minimum bend radius will reduce the service life of the hose andor cause premature hose failure. Use the static or dynamic minimum bend radius according to service conditions. Sharp bends at the hose to fitting juncture should be avoided Hose assemblies subject to movement while operating should be installed in such a way that flexing occurs in the same plane. Hose assemblies shall not be installed or operated in a twisted or torqued condition. Swivel fittings or a lay line may be used to aid in torque-free installation. Also flanged hose assemblies should ideally have one end secured with a floating flange. Flange to flange bolt hole alignment is critical for proper installation. INCORRECT CORRECT Figure 12.1 When planning the hose routing use the following practices for optimum performance and more consistent and predictable service life. 4 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. Figure 12.2 Right Wrong Right Wrong Do Not Kink Hose Use the Correct Length Adjust Piping to Avoid Kinking Do Not Axially Compress Hose Keep Hose in One Plane to Avoid Torsion Avoid Contact with Other Items Do Not Torque Hose Do Not Apply Wrench to Hose or Braid Sleeve Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 5 Routing at less than minimum bend radius will reduce the service life of the hose. Use the static or dynamic minimum bend radius according to service conditions. Sharp bends at the hose to fitting juncture should be avoided. Bending radius should not begin closer than one hose diameter to the ferrule. Typical bend radius is measured from the inside but confirm with the manufacturer . INCORRECT CORRECT Figure 12.3 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.6 12.4 Hose Installation and Replacement The following practices shall be used when installing hose assemblies in new systems or replacing hose assemblies in existing systems. Pre-Installation Inspection Before installing hose assemblies the following shall be examined A. Hose length and routing should be compliant with original design. B. Correct style size length and visible non-conformity of assembly should be confirmed. C. Check fitting seats and threads for burrs nicks or other damage. D. Kinked crushed flattened abraided deformed or twisted hose should be discarded. E. Check for correct fitting alignment or orientation. F. Hose should be visually inspected for cleanliness and any contaminants removed. Handling During Installation Handle hose with care during installation bending beyond the minimum bend radius will reduce hose life. Sharp bends at the hose to fitting juncture should be avoided. Selecting the proper handling equipment slings cradles hose saddles and spreader bars is critical. Chains or wire ropes should never be used during installation to support the hose. Slings cradles spreader bars or other equipment can be used. Hoses of large enough girth may require cranes or other appropriate material handling equipment but forklift forks should never be inserted inside the hose. The hose should never be lifted moved or maneuvered from the inside. Please see the following page for additional handling Dos and Donts. Hoses must be correctly supported during use. These supports should be arranged so that the hoses are never bent beyond the minimum bend radius. Hoses should never be supported along their live length by a single rope. Slings saddles or some other means of proper support must be used. The support must be wide enough to spread the load sufficiently so that the hose is not deformed in the area of support. Incorrect installation can unduly stress hose assemblies leading to a shortened working life or premature failure. A. Flanged hose assemblies should ideally have one end secured with a floating flange. B. Hose assemblies must not be twisted either on installation or in use. C. Hose assemblies subject to movement while operating should be installed in such a way that flexing occurs in the same plane. D. When installing hose assemblies careful attention should be paid to minimum bend radii specifications. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 7 Composite Hose Transfer Hose Handling Guidelines While in Service Dos A. Support the hose within 3 to 4 feet of flange connections always maintaining horizontal plane. B. Support the hose using recommended hose supports throughout the balance of the length. C. Cushion the hose against sharp edges dock edge ships rail etc. D. Cushion the hose when the application demands use of reciprocating machinery. It is recommended that all points of contact be cushioned to avoid potential damage due to the pulsating effect of reciprocating machinery. See Figure 10.3.3 Donts A. Do not use the hose unsupported B. Do not support the hose with a single rope. C. Do not allow the hose to hang unsupported between ship and quay. See Figure 12.3.3 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.8 Figure 12.4 Composite Hose Transfer Hose Handling Guide Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 9 Securement and Protection Necessary restraints and protective devises shall be installed. Such devices shall not create additional stress or wear points. System Checkouts In some liquid systems it may be necessary to eliminate all entrapped air after completing the installation. Follow the test equipment manufactures instructions to test the system for possible malfunctions and leaks. To avoid injury during system checkouts do not touch any part of the hose assembly when checking for leaks and stay out of potentially hazardous areas while testing hose systems. See Safety Considerations above. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.10 12.5 Maintenance Inspection A hose and fitting maintenance program can reduce equipment down time and maintain peak operating performance. Inspection Frequency The nature and severity of the application past history and manufacturers recommendations shall be evaluated to determine the frequency of the visual inspections and functional tests. However in the absence of this information we recommend a visual inspection be conducted before each shift or at least once a day. For more critical applications hoses should be inspected and pressure tested in house or by a third party whenever a defect is suspected or at a minimum of annually. To avoid injury during system checkouts do not touch any part of the hose assembly when checking for leaks and stay out of potentially hazardous areas while testing hose systems. See Safety Considerations in Section 12.2 If required verify test date and pressure are in conformity with statutory requirements for the application. Inspections should include Visual inspection Pressure testing o New hoses and hoses for re-certification should be pressure tested at 1.5 times maximum allowable working pressure for a minimum of 5 minutes consult manufacturer for specific requirements. Note the maximum allowable working pressure for a hose assembly is dictated by the component of the assembly hose fitting etc. with the LOWEST pressure rating. o Hose assemblies shall be inspected and tested immediately after the hose is subjected to abnormal abuse such as severe end pull flattening or crushing or sharp kinking. Any hose that has been recoupled shall be proof tested and inspected before being placed in service. Inspection Results Documentation Visual Inspections When inspecting hoses in service attention should be paid to Removable protective covers o Any cuts gouges or tears in the cover which do not expose the reinforcement should be repaired before the hose is returned to service. If the reinforcement is exposed retire the hose from service. o Covers may show surface cracking or crazing due to prolonged exposure to sunlight or to ozone. Such deterioration which does not expose reinforcing material is not cause for retirement. Carcass o Look for any indication of kinking or broken reinforcement as evidenced by any permanent distortion longitudinal ridges or bulges. Crushed or kinked spots where the outside diameter of the hose is reduced by 20 or more of the normal outside diameter shall require that the hose be retired from any service. Hose containing kinked or crushed spots where the outside diameter is reduced less than 20 may be used if the hose passes the hydrostatic tests. Fittings o All metals are subject to attack by various chemicals. Check with the manufacturer to make sure that suitable end fittings appropriate to both the hose and the chemical being handled are being used. o Exposed surfaces of couplings flanges and nipples shall be examined for cracks or excessive corrosion. Either condition shall cause the hose to be retired from service. Any evidence of coupling or nipple slippage on the hose is cause for removing the hose from service. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 11 The hose and fittings shall be visually inspected for A. Leaks at the hose fittings or in the hose. B. Damaged abraded or corroded braid or broken braid wires. C. Cracked damaged deformed or badly corroded fittings. D. Other signs of significant deterioration such as blisters. E. Compromised reinforcement where the wires are exposed and show signs such as unwrapped broken or corroded. F. Damaged or missing hose clamps guards or shields. G. Dents twists or kinks H. Abrasion or corrosion of the hose outer wire I. Damage or displacement of end fittings andor deformity of end fittings. J. Fitting thread and seat condition K. Evidence of leakage from end fittings or elsewhere in the body of the hose. L. Condition and seating of gaskets as applicable M. If applicable verify test date and pressure are in conformity with statutory requirements for the application. If any of these conditions exist the hose assemblies shall be evaluated for replacement. The surrounding area shall be visually inspected for A. Leaking ports. B. Excessive dirt and debris around hose. C. System fluid. D. Level type contamination condition and air entrapment or blockage. If any of these conditions are found appropriate action shall be taken. E. Hose assembly rubbing or making contact with adjacent machinery or piping. Failure Modes and Analysis Improper application Beginning with the most common cause of hose failures Improper Application compare the hose specifications with the requirements of the application. Pay particular attention to the following areas 1. The maximum operating pressure of the hose. 2. The recommended temperature range of the hose. 3. Whether the hose is rated for vacuum service. 4. The fluid compatibility of the hose. Check all of these areas against the requirements of the application. If they dont match up you need to select another hose. If your problem is particularly difficult you can call on the services of the manufacturer to assist in the proper selection. Improper assembly and installation The second major cause of premature hose failure is improper assembly and installation procedures. This can involve anything from using the wrong fitting on a hose to poor routing of the assembly. Manufacturers provide excellent training material that you can use to combat this problem. A little time spent in training can pay big dividends in reduced downtime. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.12 External damage External damage can range from abrasion and corrosion to hose that is crushed by a lift truck. These are problems that can normally be solved simply once the cause is identified. The hose can be rerouted or clamped or a fire sleeve or abrasion guard can be used. In the case of corrosion the answer may be as simple as changing to a hose with a more corrosion resistant cover or re- routing the hose to avoid the corrosive element. Faulty equipment Frequent or premature hose failure can be the symptom of a malfunction in your equipment. This is a factor that should be considered since prompt corrective action can sometimes avoid serious and costly equipment breakdown. Faulty hose Occasionally a failure problem will lie in the hose itself. The most likely cause of a faulty rubber hose is old age. Check the lay line on the hose to determine the date of manufacture. 1Q08 means first quarter 2008. The hose may have exceeded its recommended shelf life. Until you have exhausted all the other possibilities dont jump to the conclusion that the problem lies in the manufacture of the hose. Given effective quality control methods the odds of a faulty batch of hose being released for sale are extremely small. So make sure that you havent overlooked some other problem area. Physical Examination A physical examination of the failed hose can often offer a clue to the cause of the failure. Following are 22 symptoms to look for along with the conditions that could cause them 1. Symptom The hose tube is very hard and has cracked. Cause Heat has a tendency to leach the plasticizers out of the tube. This is a material that gives the hose its flexibility or plasticity. Aerated oil causes oxidation to occur in the tube. This reaction of oxygen on a rubber product will cause it to harden. Any combination of oxygen and heat will greatly accelerate the hardening of the hose tube. Cavitation occurring inside the tube would have the same effect. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 13 2. Symptom The hose is cracked both externally and internally but the elastomeric materials are soft and flexible at room temperature. Cause The probable reason is intense cold ambient conditions while the hose was flexed. Generally most hoses are rated to 40F 40C. Some specialty hoses are rated at 57F 49C. PTFE hose are normally rated to 100F 73C. 3. Symptom The hose has burst and examination of the wire reinforcement after stripping back the cover reveals random broken wires the entire length of the hose. Cause This would indicate a high frequency pressure impulse condition. SAE impulse test requirements for double wire braid reinforcement are 200000 cycles at 133 of recommended working pressure. The SAE impulse test requirements for a four spiral wrapped reinforcement 100R12 are 500000 cycles at 133 maximum operating and at 250F 121C. If the extrapolated impulses in a system amount to over a million in a relatively short time a spiral- reinforced hose would be the better choice. 4. Symptom The hose has burst but there is no indication of multiple broken wires the entire length of the hose. The hose may have burst in more than one place. Cause This would indicate that the pressure has exceeded the minimum burst strength of the hose. Either a stronger hose is needed or the hydraulic circuit has a malfunction which is causing unusually high-pressure conditions. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.14 5. Symptom Hose has burst. An examination indicates the wire braid is rusted and the cover has been cut abraded or deteriorated badly. Cause The primary function of the cover is to protect the reinforcement. Elements that may destroy or remove the hose covers are 1. Abrasion 2. Cutting 3. Battery Acid 4. Steam Cleaners 5. Chemical Cleaning Solutions 6. Muriatic Acid for cement clean-up 7. Salt Water 8. Heat 9. Extreme Cold 10. Ozone Once the cover protection is gone the wire reinforcement is susceptible to attack from moisture or other corrosive matter. 6. Symptom Hose has burst on the outside bend and appears to be elliptical in the bent section. In the case of a pump supply line the pump is noisy and very hot. The exhaust line on the pump is hard and brittle. Cause Violation of the minimum bend radius is most likely the problem in both cases. Check the minimum bend radius and make sure that the application is within specifications. In the case of the pump supply line partial collapse of the hose is causing the pump to cavitate creating both noise and heat. This is a most serious situation and will result in catastrophic pump failure if not corrected. 7. Symptom Hose appears to be flattened out in one or two areas and appears to be kinked. It has burst in this area and also appears to be twisted. Cause Torque on a hydraulic control hose will tear loose the reinforcement layers and allow the hose to burst through the enlarged gaps between the braided plaits of wire strands. Use swivel fittings or joints to be sure there is no twisting force on a hydraulic hose. 8. Symptom Hose tube has broken loose from the reinforcement and piled up at the end of the hose. In some cases it may protrude from the end of the hose fitting. Cause The probable cause is high vacuum or the wrong hose for vacuum service. No vacuum is recommended for double wire braid 4 and 6-spiral wire hose unless some sort of internal coil support is used. Even though a hose is rated for vacuum service if it is kinked flattened out or bent too sharply this type of failure may occur. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 15 9. Symptom Hose has burst about six to eight inches away from the end fitting. The wire braid is rusted. There are no cuts or abrasions of the outer cover. Cause Improper assembly of the hose end fitting allowing moisture to enter around the edge of the fitting socket. The moisture will wick through the reinforcement. The heat generated by the system will drive it out around the fitting area but six to eight inches away it will be entrapped between the inner lining and outer cover causing corrosion of the wire reinforcement. 10. Symptom There are blisters in the cover of the hose. If one pricks the blisters oil will be found in them. Cause A minute pinhole in the hose tube is allowing the high-pressure oil to seep between it and the cover. Eventually it will form a blister wherever the cover adhesion is weakest. In the case of a screw together reusable fitting insufficient lubrication of the hose and fitting can cause this condition because the dry tube will adhere to the rotating nipple and tear enough to allow seepage. Faulty hose can also cause this condition. 11. Symptom Blistering of the hose cover where a gaseous fluid is being used. Cause The high-pressure gas is effusing through the hose tube gathering under the cover and eventually forming a blister wherever the adhesion is weakest. Specially constructed hoses are available for high-pressure gaseous applications. The manufacturer can advise which is the proper hose to use in these cases. 12. Symptom Fitting blew off of the end of the hose. Cause It may be that the wrong fitting has been put on the hose. Recheck manufacturers specifications and part numbers. In the case of a crimped fitting the wrong machine setting may have been used resulting in over or under crimping. The socket of a screw together fitting for multiple wire-braided hose may be worn beyond its tolerance. The swaging dies in a swaged hose assembly may be worn beyond the manufacturers tolerances. The fitting may have been applied improperly to the hose. Check manufacturers instructions. The hose may have been installed without leaving enough slack to compensate for the possible 4 shortening that may occur when the hose is pressurized. This will impose a great force on the fitting. The hose itself may be out of tolerance. 13. Symptom The tube of the hose is badly deteriorated with evidences of extreme swelling. In some cases the hose tube may be partially washed out. Cause Indications are that the hose tube is not compatible with the agent being carried. Even though the agent is normally compatible the addition of heat can be the catalyst that can cause Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.16 inner liner deterioration. Consult the hose manufacturer for a compatibility list or present them with a sample of the fluid being conducted by the hose for analysis. Make sure that the operating temperatures both internal and external do not exceed recommendations. 14. Symptom Hose has burst. The hose cover is badly deteriorated and the surface of the rubber is crazed. Cause This could be simply old age. The crazed appearance is the effect of weathering and ozone over a period of time. Try to determine the age of the hose. Some manufacturers print or emboss the cure date on the outside of the hose. As an example 1Q08 would mean that the hose was manufactured during the first quarter January February or March of 2008. 15. Symptom Hose is leaking at the fitting because of a crack in the metal tube adjacent to the braze on a split flange head. Cause Because the crack is adjacent to the braze and not in the braze this is a stress failure brought on by a hose that is trying to shorten under pressure and has insufficient slack in it to do so. Typically lengthening the hose assembly or changing the routing to relieve the forces on the fitting cures these problems. 16. Symptom A spiral-reinforced hose has burst and literally split open with the wire exploded out and badly entangled. Cause The hose is too short to accommodate the change in length occurring while it is pressurized. 17. Symptom Hose is badly flattened out in the burst area. The tube is very hard down stream of the burst but appears normal up stream of the burst. Cause The hose has been kinked either by bending it too sharply or by squeezing it in some way so that a major restriction was created. As the velocity of the fluid increases through the restriction the pressure decreases to the vaporization point of the fluid being conveyed. This is commonly called cavitation and causes heat and rapid oxidation to take place which hardens the tube of the hose down stream of the restriction. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 17 18. Symptom Hose has not burst but it is leaking profusely. A bisection of the hose reveals that the tube has been gouged through to the wire braid for a distance of approximately two inches. Cause This failure would indicate that erosion of the hose tube has taken place. A high velocity needle like fluid stream being emitted from an orifice and impinging at a single point on the hose tube will hydraulically remove a section of it. Be sure that the hose is not bent close to a port that is orificed. In some cases where high velocities are encountered particles in the fluid can cause considerable erosion in bent sections of the hose assembly. 19. Symptom The hose fitting has been pulled out of the hose. The hose has been considerably stretched out in length. This may not be a high-pressure application. Cause Insufficient support of the hose. It is very important to support long lengths of hose especially if they are vertical. The weight of the hose along with the weight of the fluid inside the hose in these cases is being imposed on the hose fitting. This force can be transmitted to a wire rope or chain by clamping the hose to it much like the utilities support bundles of wire from pole to pole. Be sure to leave sufficient slack in the hose between clamps to make up for the possible 4 shortening that could take place when the hose is pressurized. 20. Symptom The hose has not burst but it is leaking profusely. An examination of the bisected hose reveals that the tube has burst inwardly. Cause This type of failure is caused by explosive decompression commonly referred to as hose tube blow down. It is usually associated with very low viscosity fluids such as air nitrogen freon and other gases. Under high pressure conditions the gases will effuse into the pores of the hose tube charging them up like miniature accumulators. If the pressure is very suddenly reduced to zero the entrapped gases literally explode out of the tube often tearing holes in it. 21. Symptom PTFE hose assembly has collapsed internally in one or more places. Cause One of the most common causes for this is improper handling of the PTFE assembly. PTFE does not have the same flexibility as rubber and when it is bent sharply it simply collapses. This type of collapse is localized in one area and is radial. When the PTFE tube is folded longitudinally in one or more places this could be the result of heat which softens the hose tube along with vacuum conditions inside of it. Because of the additional tension of the wire braid reinforcement inherent with this type of hose there is always a radial tension on the tube trying to push it in. Rapid cycling from a very hot agent in the hose to a very cold agent in the hose can produce the same type of failure. Manufacturers offer an internal support coil that will eliminate this problem. 22. Symptom A PTFE hose assembly has developed a pinhole leak or several pinhole leaks. Cause This situation occurs when a petroleum base fluid with a low viscosity is flowing at a high velocity. This condition can generate high voltage due to static electricity. The high voltage is seeking a ground connection and the only ground connection available is the braided stainless steel reinforcement. This causes an electric arc which penetrates through the PTFE tube as it travels to the reinforcement. Specially constructed PTFE tubes are available that have enough carbon black in them so as to be conductive. They will drain off the static electricity and preclude this problem. Functional Tests Functional tests shall be conducted to determine if systems with hose are leak-free and operating properly. Such tests should be conducted in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations. 18 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. This page left intentionally blank. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 1 Section 13 Definitions The following Terms as utilized in the hose industry include some definitions from The Hose Handbook published by the Rubber Manufacturers Association. abrasion external damage to a hose assembly caused by its being rubbed on a foreign object a wearing away by friction. abrasion resistance the ability of the hose to withstand abrasion. Internal the ability of the hose assembly to withstand failure caused by media passing through the hose. External the ability of the hose assembly to withstand abrasion caused by foreign objects rubbing against the cover. abrasion tester a machine for determining the quantity of material worn away by friction under specified conditions. ABS acrylonitrile butadiene styrene a common rigid plastic used for injection molding for components such as fittings absorption regarding hose the process of taking in fluid. Hose materials are often compared with regard to relative rates and total amounts of absorption as they pertain to specific fluids. accelerated life test a method designed to approximate in a short time the deteriorating effects obtained under normal service conditions. acid resistant having the ability to withstand the action of identified acids within specified limits of concentration and temperature. adapter adaptor 1 fittings of various sizes and materials used to change an end fitting from one type to another type or one size to another. i.e. a male JIC to male pipe adapter is often attached to a female JIC to create a male end union fitting 2 the grooved portion of a cam groove coupling. adhesion the strength of bond between two adjoining surfaces i.e. between cured rubber surfaces or between a cured rubber surface and a non-rubber surface. adhesion failure 1 the separation of two bonded surfaces at an interface by a force less than specified in a test method 2 the separation of two adjoining surfaces due to service conditions. adhesive a material which when applied will cause two surfaces to adhere. aerostatic testing see pneumatic testing. afterglow in fire resistance testing the red glow persisting after extinction of the flame. air flow the volume of air that can flow through a duct in a given time period see CFM air oven aging a means of accelerating a change in the physical properties of rubber compounds by exposing them to the action of air at an elevated temperature at atmospheric pressure. air under water testing see pneumatic testing. air velocity the speed at which air passes through a duct. Algaflon registered trademark of Ausimont USA. See PTFE. ambient temperature the temperature of the atmosphere or medium surrounding an object under consideration. ambientatmospheric conditions The surrounding conditions such as temperature pressure and corrosion to which a hose assembly is exposed. amplitude of vibrations andor lateral movement the distance of reciprocating motion of a hose assembly laterally. Half this deflection occurs on each side of the normal hose centerline. anchor a restraint applied to eliminate motion and resist forces. angular displacement displacement of two parts defined by an angle. annular refers to the convolutions on a hose that are a series of complete circles or rings located at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the hose sometimes referred to as bellows. anodize anodized an electrolytic process used to generate controlled oxidation for protective or cosmetic coatings in a variety of colors on metal primarily used with aluminum. ANSI American National Standards Institute. anti-static product designed to reduce the build-up of static electricity in the application not measurable with a standard ohm meter 10 8 or higher ohms see static conductive. API American Petroleum Institute application working pressure unique to customers application. See pressure working. application the service conditions that determine how a hose assembly will be used. Aramid fibers a class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers in which the chain molecules are highly oriented along the fiber axis so the strength of the chemical bond can be exploited. armor a protective cover slid over and affixed to a hose assembly used to prevent over bending or Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.2 for the purpose of protecting hose from severe external environmental conditions such as hot materials abrasion or traffic. ARPM Association for Rubber Products Manufacturers was RMA ASME B31.1 The ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineer Standards B31.1 B31.3 Power and Process Piping Package prescribes the requirements for components design fabrication assembly erection examination inspection and testing of process and power piping. assembly a general term referring to any hose coupled with end fittings of any style attached to one or both ends. ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials. ASTM E162E662 refers to the spread of the flamesmoke if the product ignites ASTM E162-06 Standard Test Method for Surface Flammability of Materials Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source Flame Spread ASTM E662-06 Standard Test Method for Specific Optical Density of Smoke Generated by Solid Materials Smoke Generation ASTM E84-08a Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials ASTM E84 refers to smoke attachment the method of securing an end fitting to a hose e.g. banding crimping swaging or screw-together-2 piece or 3 piece-style-reusable fittings. attachment weld method of attaching a metal fitting to the cap weld of a metal hose. autoclave an apparatus using superheated high pressure steam for sterilization vulcanization and other processes. axial movement compression or elongation along the longitudinal axis. backing a soft rubber layer between a hose tube andor cover and carcass to provide adhesion. band 1 a metal ring that is welded shrunk or cast on the outer surface of a hose nipple or fitting 2 a thin strip of metal used as a non-bolted clamp. See hose clamp. barb the portion of a fitting coupling that is inserted into the hose usually comprised of two or more radial serrations or ridges designed to form a redundant seal between the hose and fitting. barbed and ferrule fitting a two-piece hose fitting comprised of a barbed insert nipple normally with peripheral ridges or backward-slanted barbs for inserting into a hose and a ferrule usually crimped or swaged. basket weave a braid pattern in which the plaits of wire alternately cross over and under two strands two over-two under. bead another mechanical feature designed to facilitate a leak free interface between a hose or duct cuff unlike a barb they provide significantly lower resistance to removal and are easier to reuse. Not for high pressure applications without a secondary clamp. beamed braid braid construction in which the wires in a carrier are parallel. bench marks marks of known separation applied to a specimen used to measure strain elongation of specimen. bench test a modified service test in which the service conditions are approximated in the laboratory. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 3 bend radius the radius of a bent section of hose measured to the innermost surface R1 of the curved portion. Some manufacturers may measure to the centerline R2 of the curved portion. bend radius minimum the smallest radius at which a hose can be used without kinking and while maintaining a circular cross section along the entire hose. bend radius dynamic the smallest radius at which a hose can be used without kinking while constant or continuous flexing occurs. bend radius static the smallest radius at which a hose can be used without kinking while bent or flexed into a fixed position. bending force an amount of stress required to induce bending around a specified radius and hence a measure of stiffness. bevel seat fitting see fitting Bevel Seat. beverly shear hand or pneumatically operated table mounted metal cutting shear used to cut fluoropolymer hose. bias angle the angle at which the reinforcement either fabric or cord is applied to the hose relative to the horizontal axis. bias lap the area where plies of bias cut reinforcement overlap. billet a solid piece of material from which a fitting is manufactured. bleeding surface exudation. See bloom. blister a raised area on the surface or a separation between layers usually creating a void or air- filled space in a vulcanized article. bloom a discoloration or change in appearance of the surface of a rubber product caused by the migration of a liquid or solid to the surface e.g. sulfur bloom wax bloom. Not to be confused with dust on the surface from external sources. blow molding process of making corrugated duct using positive pressure in a continuous fashion. blow out force the force generated from the internal pressure attempting to push the fitting from the hose. body wire normally a round or flat wire helix embedded in the hose wall to increase strength or to resist collapse. bolt hole circle a circle on the flange face around which the center of the bolt holes are distributed. bore 1 an internal cylindrical passageway as of a tube hose or pipe 2 the internal diameter of a tube hose or pipe. bowl 1 the exterior shell of an expansion ring type coupling 2 the larger internal diameter of the internal portion of a ferrule. braid the woven portion of a hose used as reinforcement to increase pressure rating and add hoop strength. Various materials such as polyester cotton or metal wire are used. A hose may have one or more braids outside or between layers of hose material. braid angle the angle developed at the intersection of a braid strand and a line parallel to the axis of a hose. braid coverage the relative amount of braid material covering a hose expressed as a percent. braid makeup description of braid i.e. 32-12-.015 T321 SS where 32 is the number of carriers 12 is the number of wires on each carrier .015 is the wire diameter in inches and T321 SS is the material. Type 321 Stainless Steel. braid sleeveringferrule a ring made from tube or metal strip placed over the ends of a braided hose to contain the braid wires for attachment of fitting and ferrule and to immobilize heat affected corrugations. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.4 braid wear motion between the braid and corrugated hose which normally causes wear on the outside diameter of the corrugation and the inside diameter of the braid. braid window see interstice braided braid a braid where the strands of wire on each carrier of the braiding machine are braided together and then braided in normal fashion. braided ply a layer of braided reinforcement. braid-over-attachment metal hose attachment method where the braid is pulled over a fitting which has been welded to the inner core and welded directly to the fitting along with a braid sleeve. braid-over-braid multiple plies of braid having no separating layers. brand a mark or symbol identifying or describing a product andor manufacturer that is embossed inlaid or printed. brass a family of copperzinc alloys. brazing a process of joining metals using a non-ferrous filler metal having a melting point that is lower than the parent metals to be joined typically over 800F. breaker layer See backing bridge clamp a worm gear clamp capable of bridging over the wire helix in order to create a tight seal must define whether helix is left or right handed. bronze an alloy of copper tin and zinc. buffing sizing grinding a surface to obtain dimensional conformance or surface uniformity. bunch braid braid applied to hose in bundles rather than flat strands plaits usually done to achieve high pressure versus hose weight. burst a rupture caused by internal pressure the destructive release of hose pressure. burst pressure the pressure at which rupture occurs. butt weld process in which the edges or ends of the metal sections are butted together and joined by welding. butt weld splicing a method of joining two pieces of corrugated metal hose innercore together to make one piece. C of C or COC certificate of conformance or certificate of compliance a document typically signed and dated pertaining to a particular lot or purchase order of items which describes any standards specifications tests materials andor performance attributes to which the referenced items have met or will meet. calender a three-roll or four-roll piece of equipment used to produce elastomer plies for a hose at the thickness and width required also used to skim elastomer onto reinforcing cord or fabric also used to friction coat flood reinforcing fabrics with elastomer. cam groove see fittingcoupling - Cam Groove. capped end a hose end covered to protect its internal elements usually not pressure-bearing. CARB California Air Resources Board carcass the fabric cord andor metal reinforcing section of a hose as distinguished from the hose tube or cover. casing see armor. cement unvulcanized raw or compounded rubber in a suitable solvent used as an adhesive or sealant. cement cover a braided cover hose without a rubber cover using a liquid adhesive to keep the yarns in place. cemented end a hose end sealed with the application of a liquid coating. certification see C of C CFIA Canadian Food Inspection Agency CFM cubic feet per minute CGA Can refer to Compressed Gas Association or Canadian Gas Association chafe sleeve an outer sleeve providing resistance to chafing and external resistance to damage to braided hoses available in wide variety of materials to meet the application requirements e.g. chafe sleeves include slip-on heat shrinkable integrally extruded. chalking the formation of a powdery surface condition due to disintegration of surface binder or elastomer by weathering or other destructive environments. checking the short shallow cracks on the surface of a rubber product resulting from damaging action of environmental conditions. chemical compatibility the relative degree to which a material may contact another without corrosion degradation or adverse change of properties. chemical resistance the ability of a particular polymer rubber compound or metal to exhibit minimal physical andor chemical property changes when in contact with one or more chemicals for a specified Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 5 length of time at specified concentrations pressure and temperature. clamp see hose clamp. cloth impression see fabric impression. coefficiency of flow When calculating the measure of the loss of air flow through a duct due to length bends or any restriction the coefficiency of flow pertains to the resistance of the duct to pass the volume of air flowing through it. Generally measured in a per foot basis. coefficient of friction a relative measure of the surface lubricity. cohesive failure A failure of bonded items or the adhesive near but not at the surface interface where the adhesive was applied i.e. the adhesive interface was stronger than the bonded items or the adhesive itself. An example of cohesive failure would be office tape to paper where the adhesive tears off the outermost layer of paper upon removal. Cohesive failures are often a sign of exceeding the capabilities of the materials in practice particularly when the failure occurs in one of the bonded items rather than the adhesive itself. cold flex see low temperature flexibility. cold flexibility relative ease of bending while being exposed to specified low temperature. cold flow continued deformation under stress. See creep. collar 1 the portion of a fitting that is compressed by swaging or crimping to seal the hose onto the fitting barbs and create a permanent attachment also called a ferrule. With reusable fittings the lock and seal are accomplished mechanically by the collar without swaging or crimping 2 a raised portion on the hose shank which functions as a connection for a ferrule or other locking device or functions as a hose stop. combustible liquid a combustible liquid is one having a flash point at or above 100F 37.8C. composite hose non-vulcanized hose that consists of the following An internal wire helix A multi-ply wall of thermoplastic films and reinforcing fabrics in proportions that give the required physical properties and provide a complete seal. Note The film content may be built of tubular films. A cover consisting of fabric with an abrasion resistant polymeric coating An external helix wire. compound the mixture of rubber or plastic and other materials which are combined to give the desired properties when used in the manufacture of a product. compression fitting see fittingcoupling - Compression compression ratio a measurement shown in percentages reflecting axial compressibility of a duct compression set the deformation which remains in rubber after it has been subjected to and released from a specific compressive stress for a definite period of time at a prescribed temperature. Compression set measurements are for evaluating creep and stress relaxation properties of rubber. concentricity the uniformity of hose wall thickness as measured in a plane normal to the axis of the hose. conditioning the exposure of a specimen under specified conditions e.g. temperature humidity for a specified period of time before testing. conductive the ability to transfer electrical potential configuration the combination of fittings on a particular assembly. continuity the electrical connection of a hose assembly between fittings. control a product of known characteristics which is included in a series of tests to provide a basis for evaluation of other products. controlled flexing occurs when the hose is being flexed regularly as in the case of connections to moving components e.g. platen presses thermal growth in pipe work. convoluted description of hose or innercore having annular or helical ridges formed to enhance flexibility. convolutioncorrugation the annular or helical flexing member in corrugated or strip wound hosecorrugation. convolution count the number of ridges or corrugations per inch of a hose. copolymer a blend of two polymers. core the inner portion of a hose usually referring to the material in contact with the medium. corrosion the process of material degradation by chemical or electrochemical means. corrosion resistance ability of metal components to resist oxidation. corrugated cover a ribbed or grooved exterior. corrugated hose hose with a carcass fluted radially or helically to enhance its flexibility or reduce its weight. corrugation description of a duct having annular ridges formed to enhance flexibility. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.6 coupler the female portion of the cam groove connection with the cam arms. coupling a frequently used alternative term for fitting. cover wear the loss of material during use due to abrasion cutting or gouging. cover the outer component usually intended to protect the carcass of a product. CPE ASTM designation for chlorinated polyethylene a rubber elastomer. CPMA Concrete Pumping Manufacturers Association CR Chloroprene Rubber ASTM designation for neoprene a rubber elastomer. CRES refers to corrosion-resistant steel or stainless steel cracking a sharp break or fissure in the surface generally caused by strain and environmental conditions. creep the deformation in material under stress which occurs with lapse of time after the immediate deformation. crimp diameter the distance across opposite flats after crimping the external diameter of the collar ferrule. crimpcrimping a fitting attachment method utilizing a number of fingers or dies mounted in a radial configuration. The dies close perpendicular to the hose and fitting axis compressing the collar ferrule or sleeve around the hose. crimped style a mechanical lock hose construction whereby the external metal helix acts as a filler and securely crimps the overlapping folds of fabric. No adhesives or glues are required and the style is engineered for higher temperatures and acoustic applications crush proof the ability to rebound to 75 of its original ID when crushed all the way closing off the ID no structural damage such as cracking the helix should be encountered crush resistance the force required to crush a hose to 50 of its original diameter this typically refers to wire supported hose which will not regain its original diameter. CSM ASTM designation for chlorosulfonated polyethylene a rubber elastomer. cuff soft wall wireless injection molded or built-in end configurations cure the act of vulcanization. See vulcanization. cut off factor the hose length to be subtracted from the overall assembly length that allows for the hose coupling end connection extension beyond the end of the hose. cut resistant having that characteristic of withstanding the cutting action of sharp object. cycle-motion movement from normal to extreme position and return. date code any combination of numbers letters symbols or other methods used by a manufacturer to identify the time of manufacture of a product. deburr to remove ragged edges from the inside diameter of a hose end an important fabrication step for assembling hose of fluoropolymer in order to insure a good seal. deduct length the amount of fitting length deducted from a hose to result in the desired finished assembly length. Also see set back and cut off factor. design factor a ratio used to establish the working pressure of the hose based on the burst strength of the hose. design pressure see application working pressure and pressure working. developed length see overall length. diamond weave braid pattern in which the strands alternately cross over one and under one of the Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 7 strands one over-one under also known as plain weave. die a tool used to swage or crimp a fitting onto a hose. Swage dies usually consist of two halves machined to a predetermined diameter designed for a specific hose type and size. A crimp die set is typically six to eight fingers designed for infinite diameter settings within a range or preset to a specific diameter for a given hose type and size. dielectric strength the relative measure of a materials ability to resist conducting an electrical charge. DIN Deutsches Institut fr Normung DIN the German Institute for Standardization is the acknowledged national standards body that represents German interests in European and international standards organizations. displacement the amount of motion applied to a hose defined as inches for parallel offset and degrees for angular misalignment. dog-leg assembly two hose assemblies joined by a common elbow. DOT Department of Transportation. dry-rot loss of plasticizer flexibility over time often resulting in cracks or splits in the material duplex assembly an assembly consisting of two hose assemblies-one inside the other and connected at the ends also known as jacketed assemblies. durometer an instrument for measuring the hardness of rubber and plastic compounds. durometer hardness a numerical value which indicates the resistance to indentation of the blunt indentor of the durometer. dye penetrant inspectiontest non-destructive inspection method for detecting surface defects. dynamic bend radius see bend radius dynamic. eccentric wall a wall of varying thickness. eccentricity the condition resulting from the inside and outside diameters not having a common center. See eccentric wall. ECTFE ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene. effective inside diameter minimum inside diameter of a duct effective thrust area-hose cross-sectional area described by the mean diameter of the hose. effusion the escape usually of gases through a material. See permeation. EI Energy Institute elastic limit the limiting extent to which a body may be deformed and yet return to its original shape after removal of the deforming force. elasticintermittent flexure The smallest radius that a given hose can be bent to without permanent deformation to the metal in its flexing members convolutions or corrugations. elastomer any one of a group of polymeric materials usually designated thermoset such as natural rubber or thermoplastic which will soften with application of heat. electrically continuous assembly refers to the electrical conductivity between coupling ends. To get an electrically continuous assembly you need to have the helix or static wires terminated to the couplings it is measured in Ohms typically less than 100 ohms. Note an electrically continuous hose is not necessarily a static dissipating hose electrically discontinuous assembly refers to the electrical conductivity between coupling ends. To get an electrically discontinuous assembly the wire helix or static wire MUST NOT be terminated to the couplings and the rubber component should have a high electrical resistance it is measured in thousands of Ohms electrical resistance typically 25000 Ohms electrostatic discharge the sudden discharge of static electricity from an area of buildup to a grounding point known to cause leak paths. elongation the increase in length expressed numerically as a percentage of the initial length. EN a document that has been adopted by one of the three recognized European Standardization Organizations CEN CENELEC or ETSI. An EN is available in principle in the three official languages of CEN English French and German. encapsulated fitting see fittingcoupling-Encapsulated fittings. endurance test a service or laboratory test conducted to product failure usually under normal use conditions. enlarged end an end having a bore diameter greater than that of the main body of the hose in order to accommodate a larger fitting. EPDM ASTM designation for Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer an elastomer. EVA Ethylene vinyl acetate exothermic releasing heat. extrudeextrudedextrusion forced through the shaping die of an extruder extrusion may have a Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.8 solid or hollow cross section. fabric impression impression formed on the rubber surface during vulcanization by contact with fabric jacket or wrapper. fabricator the producer of hose assemblies. fatigue the progressive weakening or deterioration of a material occurring with a repetitious or continuous application of stress reducing strength and leading to failure. FDA United States Food and Drug Administration. FEP ASTM designation for fluorinated ethylene propylene. ferrule a metal cylinder placed over a hose end to affix the fitting to the hose. See braid sleeve interlocking ferrule and sleeve. Ferrule fire sleeve slip-on or integrally extruded sheath used to retard the effects of fire in certain applications most often made with silicone andor ceramic fiber. fittingcoupling a device attached to the end of the hose to facilitate connection. The following is only a partial list of types of fittings available Banjo Fitting - a through bolted designed featuring a hollow circle or donut attached to one end of the fitting barb so that the inner diameter is along the hose axis. Butt Weld Fittings - a hose fitting designed to be permanently welded to a connecting member such as another pipe or a butt weld flange. Cam Groove Fittings - a type of fitting that allows connection and disconnection by means of arms or cams on the female fitting. The seal is accomplished by means of a gasket available in various materials. These fittings are frequently used on product transfer hose assemblies. Compression Fitting - a fitting style that seals on a mating tube by compressing an internal ferrule against the tube O.D.. Encapsulated Fittings- a metal fitting of various styles usually encased in a thermoplastic or fluoroplastic material by means of molding or coating. Most often done for sanitary purposes or to eliminate corrosion. Field Attachable Fitting - a fitting designed to be attached to hose without crimping or swaging. This fitting is not always a Reusable type fitting. Flange Retainer Fittings - a hose fitting flared to a 90 surface designed to hold a circular rotating flange such as a slip-on or lap joint style flange. Flange Style Fittings - pipe flanges and flanged fitting standards are listed under ANSI B16.5. Flanges are rated for pressure and listed as American Class 150 300 400 600 900 1500 or 2500. Pressure-Temperature ratings can be obtained by consulting the ANSI specification or ASME B16.5 American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Designs vary by neck and face style or other dimensional changes based on use. Various finishes or grooves may be applied to the face for sealing on a gasket or o-ring. Bolt holes and other dimensions are per the ANSI standard. Slip-on Flange - a flange designed to slip over a flange retainer and float freely in place for bolt alignment. Similar to a lap joint flange except with a very small radius on the face side of the inside diameter to mate with a machined flange retainer. May have a flat or raised face. Lap Joint Flange - a flange designed to float freely on the flange retainer for bolt alignment. Made with a flat face and having a large radius on the I.D. to mate with a flared pipe style flange retainer. Threaded Flange - a flange the inside diameter of which is threaded to attach to a male pipe fitting. A leak proof seal made with thread sealant usually does not allow for bolt hole alignment. Inverted Flare Fitting - a fitting consisting of a male or female nut trapped on a tube by flaring the end of the tube material to either 37 or 45. JIC Fittings - joint Industrial Council no longer in existence. An engineering group that established an industry standard fitting design incorporating a 37 mating surface male and female styles. These standards now governed by SAE. Lined Fitting - any fitting of which the wetted surface or entire fitting is covered with a protective material. The covering process may be by spray coating molding or by inserting hose liner through the I.D. of fitting and anchoring. O-ring Fittings - a fitting that seals by means of an elastomeric ring of a specified material. Pipe Thread Fittings - Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 9 o NPT- National Pipe Taper. Pipe thread per ANSI B1.20.1 o NPTF- National Pipe Tapered for Fuels. Same as above except dry-seal per ANSI B1.20.3 o NPSH- National Pipe Straight Hose per ANSI B1.20.7 o NPSM- National Pipe Straight Mechanical. Straight thread per ANSI B1.20.1 o NPSL- National Pipe Straight Loosefit per ANSI B1.20.1 o BSPP BSPT- British Standard Pipe Parallel British Standard Pipe Taper. BS21. Quick Connect Fitting or quick disconnect - a fitting designed to quickly connect and disconnect. These fittings come in many styles and types. Reusable Fitting - a fitting designed to be attached and unattached to a hose allowing all or most of the fitting to be reused. Sanitary Fittings - a fitting whose seal is accomplished by means of a round gasket in a groove on the face of the fitting. The design eliminates the need for a male and female since the fitting mates to itself. A re-attachable clamp is also used for coupling. Bevel Seat - a type of sanitary fitting incorporating a 45 beveled sealing surface. Used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Split Flange Fitting - a fitting consisting of a flange retainer and a flange of two halves. This design allows the flanges to be installed after the retainer has been attached to the hose making the flange reusable. SAE Code 61 and 62. Tube Fitting - a hose fitting of which the mating end conforms to a tube diameter. The mate or male end of a compression fitting. 2-Bolt Flange Fitting - an elliptical flange with two bolt holes. Typically used in steam applications such as laundry and tire presses. flame retardant Material added to a compound to resist burning flame spreadpropagation rate at which a flame will proceed along a duct flammable gasesliquidmedia a flammable gas including liquefied gas is one having a closed cup flash point below 100F 37.8C and a vapor pressure greater than 25 psi. 174.2 KPa flat spots flat areas on the surface of cured hose caused by deformation during vulcanization. flex cracking a surface cracking induced by repeated bending and straightening. flex life the relative ability of an article to withstand bending stresses. flex life test a laboratory method used to determine the life of a rubber product when subjected to dynamic bending stresses. flexing occasional when the hose is only required to flex occasionally such as manual handling flexing constant when the hose is required to flex continuously usually on moving machinery flow rate a volume of media being conveyed in a given time period. fluid a gas or liquid medium. fluid Temperature The fluid temperature is the temperature of fluid being conveyed inside of the hose during operation. fluid velocity the speed of fluid through a cross section expressed in length divided by time. fluorocarbon an organic compound containing fluorine directly bonded to carbon. The ability of the carbon atom to form a large variety of structural chains gives rise to many fluorocarbons and fluorocarbon derivatives. fluoropolymer a high molecular weight long chain chemical containing fluorine as a major element most common hose types are PTFE PFA and FEP. free length the lineal measurement of hose between fittings or couplings. frequency the rate of vibration or flexure in a given time period. galvanic corrosion corrosion that occurs on the less noble of two dissimilar metals in direct contact with each other in an electrolyte such as water sodium chloride in solution sulfuric acid etc. GPM gallons per minute. guide for piping a device that supports a pipe radially in all directions but directs movement. Halar Solvay Solexis registered trademark. See ECTFE. hand built hose a hose made by hand on a mandrel reinforced by textile or wire or combination of both also referred to as Custom Made hose. hardness resistance to indentation. See durometer hardness. Hastelloy registered trademark of Haynes International Inc. Refers to corrosion-resistant metal alloy. heat resistance the property or ability to resist the deteriorating effects of elevated temperatures. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.10 heat sealed see strip wound. heat-shrink sleeving tubular thermoplastic sleeve used for chafe protection or identification. The sleeve is slipped over the hose and shrunk down by the application of heat to fit tightly on the hose. helical wire armorspring guard an abrasion resistance device. helical used to describe a type of corrugated hose having one continuous convolution resembling a screw thread. helix a shape formed by spiraling a wire or other reinforcement around the cylindrical body of a hose typically used in suction hose. hertz unit of frequency defined by the International System of Units as the number of cycles per second of a periodic phenomenon. Symbol Hz. Hg mercury inches of mercury measurement of vacuum higbee the thread of a hose coupling the outermost convolution of which has been removed to such an extent that a full cross section of the thread is exposed this exposed end being beveled to reduce cross threading. homopolymer A polymer comprised of a single monomer in a polymerized chain e.g. polypropylene PVC hoop strength the relative measure of a hoses resistance to collapse of the diameter perpendicular to the hose axis. hose a flexible conduit consisting of a tube reinforcement and usually an outer cover. hose assembly see assembly. hose clamp a device used to hold a hose onto a fitting. HVAC heating ventilation air conditioning hydrostatic testing the use of a pressurized liquid usually water to test a hose or hose assembly for leakage twisting andor hose change-in-length. Hypalon a DuPont registered trademark. See CSM. Hytrel a DuPont registered trademark. IAPMO International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials I.D. the abbreviation for inside diameter. identification yarn a yarn of single or multiple colors usually embedded in the hose wall used to identify the manufacturer. impression a design formed during vulcanization in the surface of a hose by a method of transfer such as fabric impression or molded impression. impulse service an application parameter characterized by continuous cyclical pressure changes from low to high. impulse an application of force in a manner to produce sudden strain or motion such as hydraulic pressure applied in a hose. inches of mercury inHg measure of air pressure or vacuum inches of water inH2O measure of air pressure or vacuum indentation 1 the extent of deformation by the indentor point of any one of a number of standard hardness testing instruments 2 a recess in the surface of a hose. innercore see Core. insert optional term for nipple. See nipple. inside diameter measurement of the duct from interior wall to interior wall interlocked hose formed from profiled strip and wound into flexible metal tubing with no subsequent welding brazing or soldering may be made pressure-tight by winding in strands of packing. interlocking clamp a clamp which engages the fitting in a manner which prevents the clamp from sliding off the fitting typically a bolt or U-bolt style with interlocking fingers which engage an interlock ring on the fitting. interlocking ferrule a ferrule which physically attaches to the fitting preventing the ferrule from sliding off the fitting. interstice a small opening such as between fibers in a cord or threads in a woven or braided fabric. IPT iron pipe threads a reference to NPT or NPTF. ISO International Organization for Standardization. jacket a seamless tubular braided or woven ply generally on the outside of a hose. jacketed assembly see duplex assembly JIC see fittingcoupling-JIC. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 11 kinking a temporary or permanent distortion of the hose induced by bending beyond the minimum bend radius. Kynar Arkema registered trademark. See PVDF. lap seam a seam made by placing the edge of one piece of material extending flat over the edge of the second piece of material. lay 1 the direction of advance of any point in a strand for one complete turn 2 the amount of advance of any point in a strand for one complete turn. See pitch. layer a single thickness of rubber or fabric between adjacent parts. leaker 1 a crack or hole in the tube which allows fluids to escape 2 a hose assembly which allows fluids to escape at the fittings or couplings. life test a laboratory procedure used to determine the resistance of a hose to a specific set of destructive forces or conditions. See accelerated life test. light resistance the ability to retard the deleterious action of light. lined bolt holes the bolt holes which have been given a protective coating to cover the internal structure. liner flexible sleeve used to line the inside diameter of hose when conveying a high velocity media also prevents erosion. live length see free length. LJF lap joint flange see fittingcoupling - Lap Joint Flange long shank a shank length greater than the nominal diameter typically two diameters in length which allows more than a single clamp. loop installation the assembly is installed in a loop or U shape and is most often used when frequent andor large amounts of motion are involved. low temperature flexibility the ability of a hose to be flexed bent or bowed at low temperatures without loss of serviceability. LPG LP Gas the abbreviation for liquefied petroleum gas. mandrel 1 a form generally of elongated round section used for size and to support hose during fabrications andor vulcanization. It may be rigid or flexible 2 a tapered expanding device fixed in diameter which is pulled through a shank of a fitting thus expanding the diameter to exert force on the hose between the shank and ferrule. mandrel built a hose fabricated andor vulcanized on a mandrel. mandrel flexible a long round smooth rod capable of being coiled in a small diameter. It is used for support during the manufacture of certain types of hose. The mandrel is made of rubber or plastic material and may have a core of flexible wire to prevent stretching. mandrel rigid a non-flexible cylindrical form on which a hose may be manufactured. manufactured length length of duct as produced prior to packing manufacturers identification a code symbol used on or in some hose to indicate the manufacturer. mass flow rate the mass of fluid per unit of time passing through a given cross-section of a flow passage in a given direction. material handling hose hose that is used to transport bulk materials typical abrasive materials include dry cement crushed rock screenings limestone grain etc. in dry slurry wet or air suspension. Typical large bore material handling hoses are Sand Suction Suction Discharge SD Dredge Discharge Material Handling etc. Such applications are found in Mine Mills Quarries Sea Ports etc. MAWP see pressure maximum allowable working pressure. maximum intermittent ambient temperature Hose constructions which use a rubber inner tube andor cover can have significant change in properties when exposed to extreme heat or cold. This may require some hoses to be rated to a lower operating pressure when exposed to such conditions. maximum temperature The maximum temperature is the highest temperature to which the fluid or environment may reach. This temperature is typically short in duration and occurs under extreme operating conditions. The hose selected for an application should be rated at or above the maximum ambient and maximum fluid temperature. mean diameter the midpoint between the inside diameter and the outside diameter of a corrugatedconvoluted hose. Also used in the calculation of braid strength. mechanical fittingreusable fitting a fitting attached to a hose which can be disassembled and used again. media medium the substances being conveyed through a system. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.12 mender a fitting or device used to join two sections of hose. metal hose thin wall metal tubing formed into flexible hose with helical or annular ridges and grooves often braided with stainless steel to increase the operating pressure capability. With fittings welded on assemblies are used in applications outside temperature range of rubber thermoplastic and fluoroplastic. minimum temperature The minimum temperature is the lowest temperature to which the hose assembly will be exposed. For a hydraulic system this is based on the minimum ambient temperature. A hose should be rated at or below the minimum ambient temperature to which the assembly may be exposed. misalignment a condition where two parts do not meet true. Monel registered trademark of Special Metals Corporation. monomer A basic structural molecule that can link with other monomers into a polymer chain to form unique materials with unique characteristics and properties e.g. vinyl chloride various base hydrocarbons. NAHAD the abbreviation for the Association for Hose and Accessories Distribution. necking down a localized decrease in the cross-sectional area of a hose resulting from tension. negative pressure vacuum Neoprene a registered trademark of DuPont. NFPA National Fluid Power Association NFPA National Fire Protection Association nipple the internal member or portion of a hose fitting. NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology nitrile rubber NBBuna-N a family of acrylonitrile elastomers used extensively for industrial hose. nominal a size indicator for reference only. nomograph a chart used to compare hose size to flow rate to recommended velocity. non-conductive the inability to transfer an electrical charge. Non-conductive hoses normally are recommended in applications where the electrical charge is transferred from the OUTSIDE ENVIRONMENT to the hose. Air hoses used around electrical furnaces and multipurpose hoses used in proximity to high voltage power lines should have non-conductive ratings as prescribed by the respective industry. In essence the hose acts as an insulator protecting the user from EXTERNAL electrical sources. Non-conductive hoses generally are manufactured WITHOUT a metal helix or bonding wire. An industry standard for non-conductive hose follows the Alcoa specification for potroom air hose which requires a resistance of ONE MEGAOHM PER INCH PER LENGTH OF HOSE. non-interlocking ferrule see sleeve. nozzle end an end of hose in which both the inside and outside diameters are reduced. NPTNPTF abbreviation for national pipe threads. See fittingcoupling - Pipe Thread Fittings. NSF National Sanitation Foundation nylon a family of polyamide materials. OAL see overall length O.D. the abbreviation for outside diameter. OEOEM original equipment manufacturer. off-center see eccentricity. offset the perpendicular distance between fitting axes when motion of the assembly occurs and fittings remain parallel. offset-lateral parallel the distance that the ends of a hose assembly are displaced in relation to each other as the result of connecting two misaligned terminations in a system or intermittent flexure required in a hose application. oil resistance the ability of the materials to withstand exposure to oil. oil swell the change in volume of a rubber article resulting from contact with oil. open steam cure a method of vulcanizing in which steam comes in direct contact with the product being cured. operating conditions the pressure temperature motion and environment to which a hose assembly is subjected. operating pressure see working pressure optimum cure the state of vulcanization at which a desired rubber compound combination is attained orientation the displacement angle of two elbow type couplings in a hose assembly measured as an off-set value. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 13 orientation index the ratio of longitudinal to transverse strength in plastic tube extrusions. o-ring fitting see fittingcoupling O-Ring. OS D hose the abbreviation for oil suction and discharge hose. outgassing the release of chemicals from the material of the duct over time outside diameter measurement of the duct from exterior wall to exterior wall overall length OAL the total length of a hose assembly which consists of the free hose length plus the length of the couplings need to clearly define whether the basis is overall seat x seat or end of fitting to end of fitting. see STAMPED section Size Measurement of Hose Assembly Measurement of Hose Assembly having an End Connection with a Seating Face Measurement of Hose Assembly having an Elbow Fitting oxidation the reaction of oxygen on a material usually evidenced by a change in the appearance or feel of the surface or by a change in physical properties. ozone cracking the surface cracks checks or crazing caused by exposure to an atmosphere containing ozone. ozone resistance the ability to withstand the deteriorating effects of ozone generally cracking. PC Polycarbonate a rigid plastic material with excellent impact strength and optically clarity penetration weld the percentage of wall thickness of the two parts to be joined that is fused into the weld pool in making a joint. performance test see service test permanent fitting the type of fitting which once installed may not be removed for re-use. permeation the process of migration of a substance into and through another usually the Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.14 movement of a gas into and through a hose material the rate of permeation is specific to the substance temperature pressure and the material being permeated. PET Polyethylene terephthalate also commonly known as polyester PFA Perflouroalkoxy a fluorocarbon material used for tubes Pharmacopeia Class VI a standard for sanitary fittings designating the form fit function and finish. The testing of elastomers plastics polymetric materials and their extracts as described in the US Pharmacopia XXII General Chapter 88 designed for evaluating biocompatibility of plastics materials. This in vivo testing consists of three tests systemic interacutaneous and implantation. The materials and their extracts are then classified according to the test results as meeting Plastics Class I Class VI. pick the distance across a group of braid wires from a single carrier measured along the axis of the hose. pig a mechanical projectile used for cleaning hose. pin pricked perforations through the cover of a hose to vent permeating gases. pipe spacer a section of pipe used to facilitate the connection of a fitting to a hose. pitch 1 the distance from one point on a helix to the corresponding point on the next turn of the helix measured parallel to the axis 2 the distance between the two peaks of adjacent corrugation or convolution. pitch count typically measured in turns per inch tpi pitted tube surface depressions on the inner tube of a hose. plain ends fitting ends without threads groove or a bevel typically used for welding as in a flange. plaits an individual group of reinforcing braid wiresstrands that fill one carrier. plating a material usually metal applied to another metal by electroplating for the purpose of reducing corrosion typically a more noble metal such a zinc is applied to steel. ply an individual layer in hose construction usually a braid or wrap. pneumatic testing the use of compressed gas to test a hose or hose assembly for leakage twisting andor hose change-in-length. NOTE Use of high pressure gas is extremely hazardous. Polyflon trademark a registered trademark of Daikin USA. See PTFE. polymer a macromolecular material formed by the chemical combination of monomers having either the same or different chemical compositions. Polypropylene PP also known as polypropene is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications it is rugged and unusually resistant to many chemical solvents bases and acids. Polyurethane PU An organic polymer with a wide range of stiffness hardness viscosities and densities ranging from flexible foams to rigid plastics to wood and floor finishes see TPU post-sinter the technique of re-heating PTFE innercore to process temperature in order to stabilize permeability and reduce orientation index. preform the compressed cylinder of PTFE resin that is used to extrude into raw tubing. Also called a billet. pre-production inspection or test the examination of samples from a trial run of hose to determine adherence to a given specification for approval to produce. preset the process of pressurizing a hose to set the braid and minimize length change in final product. pressure force unit area. For purposes of this document refers to PSIG pounds per square inch gauge. pressure drop the measure of pressure reduction or loss over a specific length of hose. pressure burst the pressure at which rupture occurs. See burst. pressure deformation the pressure at which the convolutions of a metal hose become permanently deformed. pressure gauge relative pressure between inside and outside of an assembly. pressure maximum allowable working the maximum pressure at which a hose or hose assembly is designed to be used. pressure operating see pressure working. pressure proof a onetime test pressure performed by the factory on every new hose prior to shipment specific to fire hose and mill hose. The proof test pressure shall not be less than two times the specified service test pressure pressure proof test a non-destructive pressure test applied to hose assemblies. pressure pulsating a rapid change in pressure above and below the normal base pressure usually associated with reciprocating type pumps. pressure rated working see pressure maximum allowable working. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 15 pressure service see working pressure. pressure set the conditioning pressure to align and balance braid. pressure shockspike the peak value of a sudden increase of pressure in a hydraulic or pneumatic system producing a shock wave. pressure working the maximum pressure to which a hose will be subjected including the momentary surges in pressure which can occur during service. Abbreviated as WP. printed brand see brand. profile used in reference to the contour rolled into strip during the process of manufacturing strip wound hose or the finished shape of a corrugationconvolution. proof pressure see test pressure propane see LPG LP Gas. psi pounds per square inch. PTFE polytetrafluoroethylene a high molecular weight fluoroplastic polymer with carbon atoms shielded by fluorie atoms having very strong inter-atomic bonds giving it chemical inertness. pull off force the force required to pull the hose from its attachment not generated by the internal pressure. pulled-down tube see loose tube delamination or tube separation. pulsation the rapid cyclic fluctuations in pressure PVC ASTM designation for polyvinyl chloride. A low cost thermoplastic material typically used in the manufacture of industrial hoses. PVDF ASTM designation for polyvinylidene fluoride. quality conformance inspection or test the examination of samples from a production run of hose to determine adherence to given specifications for acceptance of that production. RAC Rubber Association of Canada. random motion the uncontrolled motion of a metal hose such as occurs in manual handling. reinforcement the strengthening members consisting of either fabric cord andor metal of a hose. See ply. relaxed length length of stretched out duct after compression packing reusable fittingcoupling see fittingcoupling reusable. RMA The Rubber Manufacturers Association Inc. ROHS Reduction of Hazardous Substances standard The RoHS acronym references the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive 200295EC. It is a directive of the European Union which took effect on 1 July 2006. It prohibits the use of six banned substances lead mercury cadmium hexavalent chromium poly-brominated biphenyls PBB or polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDE in the manufacture of Electronics and Electrical Equipment. May be required for products shipped to Europe or otherwise specified by the customer. Ref www.rohs.eu. rough bore a hose whose interior is not smooth usually manufactured with a corrugated construction. SAE Society of Automotive Engineers. safety factor see design factor. sampling a process of selecting a portion of a quantity for testing or inspection. Santoprene a registered trademark of Exxon Mobil. SBR ASTM designation for Styrene-butadiene a rubber elastomer. scale the oxide in a hose assembly brought about by surface conditions or welding. self-extinguishing property of material to extinguish a flame once started serrations bumps barbs corrugations or other features that increase the holding power of the device. service temperature see working temperature. service test a test in which the product is used under actual service conditions. service test pressure a hydrostatic test usually for fire and mill hose rated at 10 greater than the operating pressure at which the hose is expected to be used branded on the hose at the conclusion of the test. set back see cut off factor. shank that portion of a fitting which is inserted into the bore of a hose. See nipple. shelfstorage life the period of time prior to use during which a product retains its intended performance capability. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.16 shell see ferrule. shock load a stress created by a sudden force. short shank shank length approximately equal to the nominal diameter but long enough to allow a single clamp at minimum. simulated service test see bench test. skive the removal of a short length of cover andor tube to permit the attachment of a fitting directly over the hose reinforcement. sleeve 1 a metal cylinder which is not physically attached to the fitting for the purpose of forcing the hose into the serrations of the fitting. 2 see jacket. Sleeve smoke generation a measure of the quantity and content of smoke when the material is burning smooth bore a term used to describe the type of innercore in a hose other than convoluted. smooth transition attachment special fabrication technique used for metal hose. socket the external member or portion of a hose fitting commonly used in describing screw- together reusable fittings. soft cuff a duct end in which the rigid reinforcement of the body usually wire is omitted soft end a hose end in which the rigid reinforcement of the body usually wire is omitted. specification a document setting forth pertinent details of a product. spikes see surge spiral a method of applying reinforcement helically in which there is not interlacing between individual strands of the reinforcement. spiral angle the angle developed by the intersection of the helical strand and a line parallel to the axis of a hose. See braid angle. splice a method of joining two sections of hose. splicer a fitting or device used to join two sections of hose. spring guard a helically wound component applied internally or externally to a hose assembly used for strain relief abrasion resistance collapse resistance. square cut a straight cut perpendicular to the hose axis squirm a form of failure where the hose is deformed into an S or U bend as the result of excessive internal pressure being applied to unbraided corrugated hose while its ends are restrained or in a braided corrugated hose which has been axially compressed. standard a document or an object for physical comparison for defining product characteristics products or processes prepared by a consensus of a properly constituted group of those substantially affected and having the qualifications to prepare the standard for use. static bend radius the centerline radius to which a hose is bent in a stationary installation. static bonding use of a grounded conductive material on the ID of a hose between fittings to eliminate static electrical charges. static conductive having the capability of furnishing a path for a flow of static electricity. static discharge see electrostatic discharge. static dissipating hose also referred to as semi-conductive hose Static dissipating hose refers to the electrical properties of the rubber materials making up the hose usually the tube andor cover material it is measured in M-Ohms million Ohms. It is used in applications where the conveyed material can generate static electricity build-up. Such hoses will dissipate static electricity through the rubber material to the hose ends provided the correct coupling type is used. Note Non-black and many black rubber compounds will not dissipate static electricity. Only black compounds formulated with high carbon black content will dissipate static electricity. static installations when the flexible hose is used to connect pipe-work out of alignment and remain in a static position static wire wire incorporated in a hose to conduct static electricity. stem see nipple. stress corrosion a form of corrosion in metal accelerated by loading. stretch hose duct that is self-retracting that can be stretched to a multiple of its original length stretch ratio percentage of stretch allowed rated for a certain load strip wound see interlocked hose. surge spike a rapid and transient rise in pressure. swage the method of fitting attachment that incorporates a set of die halves designed to progressively reduce the collar or ferrule diameter to the required finish dimension by mechanically forcing the fitting into the mating die. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 17 swelling an increase in volume or linear dimension of a specimen immersed in liquid or exposed to a vapor. taber a type of abrasion tester used to evaluate abrasion resistance of materials tape wrapped convoluted a type of flexible hose incorporating layers of tape to form helical ridges and grooves. tapered end a reduction built in on one or both ends of a rubber hose to simulate a nozzle. tear resistance the property of a rubber tube or cover of a hose to resist tearing forces. Teflon trademark a registered trademark of E.I. DuPont. See PTFE FEP and PFA. tensile strength a measurement of a materials ability to resist tearing the maximum tensile stress applied while stretching a specimen to rupture. TFE polytetrafluoroethylene. See PTFE thermoplastic A polymer that softens and becomes a liquid at elevated temperatures. Thermoplastic Polyurethane TPU Polyurethanes that are formulated to be processed via melt extrusion for profile extrusions and injection molding typically considered highly abrasive resistant and flexible for ducting can refer to both polyether based or polyester based material. thermoset polymer that irreversibly cures at elevated temperatures vulcanizes. thread a helical or spiral ridge on a nut or screw tig weldGTAW the gas tungsten arc welding process sometimes refered to a shielded arc or heliarc tolerance The upper and lower limits between which a dimension must be held the permissible limit of variation in a physical dimension. TPE Thermoplastic elastomer also commonly referred to a thermoplastic rubber TPR. A class of materials that demonstrate both plastic and elastomeric properties than can be extruded and injection molded. TPI turns per inch of helix see pitch count TPR Thermoplastic rubber TPU Thermoplastic polyurethane TPV Thermoplastic vulcanizate a compound where a rubber component vulcanizes during the melt extrusion process becoming partially thermoset to give rubber-like properties. traveling loop Class A Loop an application wherein the radius remains constant and one end of the hose ends parallel to the other end. traveling loop Class A Loop a condition wherein a hose is installed in a U shaped configuration and the ends move perpendicular to each other so as to enlarge or decrease the width of the loop. tube the innermost continuous all-rubber or plastic element of a hose. tube fitting see fittingcoupling-Tube. tubing a non-reinforced homogeneous conduit generally of circular cross-section. twist 1 the turns about the axis per unit of length of a fiber roving yarn cord etc. Twist is usually expressed as turns per inch 2 the turn about the axis of a hose subjected to internal pressure the direction defined as Z or S. unsintered material that has not undergone primary heat processing. Post sintered material that has undergone primary heat processing. UL Underwriters Laboratories UL181 Specifies requirements that apply to materials for the fabrication of air duct and air connector systems for use in accordance with the Standards of the National Fire Protection Association for the Installation of Air-Conditioning and Ventilating Systems NFPA No. 90A and the Installation of Warn Air Heating and Air-Conditioning Systems NFPA No 90B. The 181 Standard for Factory-Made Air Ducts and Air Connector defines two categories of flexible ducts. The UL listed Air Duct must pass all of the tests in the UL 181 Standard. Air Ducts are labeled with a square or rectangular shaped label showing their respective listing. There is no limitation on the length of runs when using UL Listed Air Ducts. Class 1 Air Ducts. The UL Listed Air Connector must pass only a limited number of the UL 181 tests and is labeled with a round shaped label which states for installation in lengths not over 14 feet. Class 0 air ducts and air connectors have surface burning characteristics of zero. Class 1 air ducts have a flame spread index of not over 25 without evidence of continued progressive combustion and a smoke-developed index of not over 50. UL94 The UL94 standard is a test specification for evaluating flammability of plastic materials used in devices and appliances All tests are performed on a uniform test specimen of the component Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.18 materials of a specified thickness usually 3.0mm when rated by the raw materials manufacturer. Application of these standards at the product level must consider application wall thickness and component materials to determine acceptability at the finished product level. Note contact your UL representative for further clarification. UL94HBHORIZONTAL BURN Horizontal flammability UL94 HB The material or product under test positioned in a horizontal orientation has a burning rate of Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 1 Section 14 Appendices Appendix A Pressure Conversion Chart psi Atms inches H2O inches Hg mm Hg Torr mbar Bar Pa Nm2 kPa MPa 1 0.0681 27.71 2.036 51.715 68.95 0.0689 6895 6.895 0.0069 14.7 1 407.2 29.92 760 1013 1.013 101325 101.3 0.1013 0.0361 0.00246 1 0.0735 1.866 2.488 0.00249 248.8 0.249 0.00025 0.4912 0.03342 13.61 1 25.4 33.86 0.0339 3386 3.386 0.00339 0.01934 0.001316 0.536 0.0394 1 1.333 0.001333 133.3 0.1333 0.000133 0.0145 0.000987 0.4012 0.0295 0.75 1 0.001 100 0.1 0.0001 14.504 0.987 401.9 29.53 750 1000 1 100000 100 0.1 0.000145 0.00001 0.00402 0.000295 0.0075 0.01 0.00001 1 0.001 0.000001 0.14504 0.00987 401.9 0.295 7.50 10 0.01 1000 1 0.001 145.04 9.869 401.9 295.3 7500 10000 10 1000000 1000 1 To use this chart 1. Locate the column with the units you want to convert from. 2. Move DOWN that column until you locate the 1. 3. Move HORIZONTALLY to the column with the units you want to convert to. 4. MULITIPLY the number in the box by the amount you are changing from to get the converted value. Length 1 cm 0.3937 in 10 mm 0.01 m 1 m 3.2808 ft 1000 m 100 cm 1 in 2.540 cm 25.40 mm 1 ft 30.48 cm 0.3048 m Volume 1 L 0.0353 ft3 1 L 0.2642 gal 1 L 61.025 in3 1 L 0.001 m3 1 ft3 28.3286 L 1 Gal 0.1336 ft3 Pressure 1 psi 0.0681 atm 1 psi 27.71 in H2O 1 psi 703.8 mm H2O 1 psi 2.036 in Hg 1 psi 51.715 mm Hg torr 1 psi 68.95 mbar 1 psi 0.0689 bar 1 psi 6895 Pa nm2 1psi 6.895 kPa 1 psi 0.0069 MPa Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.2 Pressure Conversions Metrication is slow to be realized in the United States its importance however cannot be denied. Learning to convert from one form to another can be accomplished by calculation or memory. Frequent use of metric measurements is the best solution. Use the following as a starting point for conversions. 1. one bar 14.5 psi 2. one kilopascal kPa .145 psi 3. one Megapascal MPa 145 psi If we divide 1 by .145 it equals 6.90 thus 1psi 6.90 kPa. Or we can use charts see below. An alternative to using the conversion factors is to calculate between chart pressures see chart below. Simply break the numbers into known chart listings. Examples Convert 3760 psi to the equivalent pressure in bar and MPa 3000 psi 206.9 bar 3000 psi 20.7 MPa 700 psi 48.3 bar 700 psi 4.8 MPa 60 psi 4.1 bar 60 psi .41 MPa 3760 psi 259.3 bar 3760 psi 25.91 MPa Note the relationship between Bar and MPa is 101 Metric Conversion Charts English to Metric Equivalents Metric to English inches x 25.4 millimeters mm millimeter x .03937 inch in inches x 2.54 Centimeters cm centimeters x .3937 inch in feet x .3048 meters m meters x 3.281 feet ft yard x .9144 meters m meters x 1.0936 yard yd psi x .0689 bar bar x 14.5 psi psi .145 kPa kPa x .145 psi psi x .0069 Megapascals MPa Megapascal x 145.0 psi psi x .703 Kilogram force per sq. centimeter Kgfcm2 Kilogram force per sq. cm x 14.22 psi pound force x 4.448 Newtons Newtons x .2248 pounds force lbf pound-inch x .113 Newton-meters N-m Newton-meter x 8.850 pound-incheslb-in pound-foot x 1.356 Newton-meters N-m Newton-meter x .737 pound-feet lb-ft Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 3 Note A special thanks to Dixon Valve Coupling for the charts on the following pages. kilopascals megapascals bar pounds per square inch kPa MPa Bar psi 100 0.1 1 14.5 200 0.2 2 29.0 300 0.3 3 43.5 400 0.4 4 58.0 500 0.5 5 72.5 600 0.6 6 87.0 700 0.7 7 101.5 800 0.8 8 116.0 900 0.9 9 130.5 1000 1.0 10 145.0 2000 2.0 20 290.1 3000 3.0 30 435.1 4000 4.0 40 580.2 5000 5.0 50 752.2 6000 6.0 60 870.2 7000 7.0 70 1015.3 8000 8.0 80 1160.3 9000 9.0 90 1305.3 10000 10.0 100 1450.0 20000 20.0 200 2901.0 30000 30.0 300 4351.0 40000 40.0 400 5802.0 50000 50.0 500 7252.0 60000 60.0 600 8702.0 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.4 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 5 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.6 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 7 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.8 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 9 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.10 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 11 Appendix B Additional Conversion Charts Length Conversion Constants Metric to U.S. Millimeters x .039370 inches Meters x 39.370 inches Meters x 3.2808 feet Meters x 1.09361 yards Kilometers x 3280.8 feet Kilometers x .62137 Statute Miles Kilometers x .53959 Nautical Miles Weight Conversion Constants Metric to U.S. Grams x 981 dynes Grams x 15.432 grains Grams x .03527 ounces Avd. Grams x .033818 fluid ounces water Kilograms x 35.27 ounces Avd. Kilograms x 2.20462 pounds Avd. Metric Tons 1000 Kg. x 1.10231 Net Ton 2000 lbs. Metric Tons 1000 Kg. x .98421 Gross Ton 2240 lbs. Area Conversion Constants Metric to U.S. Square Millimeters x .00155 square inches Square Centimeters x .155 square inches Square Meters x 10.76387 square feet Square Meters x 1.19599 square yards Hectares x 2.47104 acres Square Kilometers x 247.104 acres Square Kilometers x .3861 square miles U.S. to Metric Inches x 25.4001 millimeters Inches x .0254 meters Feet x .30480 meters Yards x .91440 meters Feet x .0003048 kilometers Statute Miles x 1.60935 kilometers Nautical Miles x 1.85325 kilometers U.S. to Metric Dynes x .0010193 grams Grains x .0648 grams Ounces Avd. x 28.35 grams Fluid Ounces Water x 29.57 grams Ounces Avd. x .02835 kilograms Pounds Avd. x .45359 kilograms Net Ton 2000 lbs. x .90719 Metric Tons 1000 Kg. Gross Ton 2240 Ibs. x 1.101605 Metric Tons 1000 Kg. U.S. to Metric Square Inches x 645.163 square millimeters Square Inches x 6.45163 square centimeters Square Feet x .0929 square meters Square Yards x .83613 square meters Acres x .40469 hectares Acres x .0040469 square kilometers Square Miles x 2.5899 square kilometers Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.12 Appendix C Hose Materials Rubber To provide a wide range of physical properties for specific service needs elastomers are mixed with various chemicals. There are many compounding ingredients and compounding methods available to the hose manufacturer and many types can be blended in almost unlimited combinations to obtain the most desirable properties for the application. The reader is cautioned that the General Properties described are just that properties which have been found to be generally applicable in the experience of persons familiar with rubber chemistry. However the reader should always follow the manufacturers recommendation as to the use of any particular rubber composition especially with respect to the resistance of the rubber composition to the materials it is intended to carry or protect against. Failure to do so may result in possible damage to property andor serious bodily injury. Rubbers Used In Hose ASTM Designation D1418 Common Name Composition General Properties ABR Acrylics Acrylate-butadiene Excellent for high temperature oil and air resistance. Poor cold flow and low temperature resistance. Not recommended for water service. AEM Ethylene acrylic Ethylene methyl acryl- ate copolymer Excellent high temperature ozone and oil resistance AU Urethane Polyester Excellent abrasion tear and solvent resistance good aging. Poor high temperature properties. BIIR Bromobutyl Brominated isobutylene-isoprene Same general properties as Butyl see IIR below BR Polybutadiene Butadiene Excellent low temperature and abrasion properties. High resilience. CIIR Chlorobutyl Chlorinated isobutylene-isoprene Same general properties as Butyl see IIR below CM Chlorinated polyethylene Chlorinated polyethylene Good long term resistance to UV and weathering. Good oil and chemical resistance. Excellent flame resistance. Good low temperature impact resistance. CO Epichlorohydrin Rubber Polychloromethyl oxirane Excellent oil and ozone resistance. Good flame resistance and low permeability to gases. Fair low temperature properties. CR Neoprene Polychloroprene Good weathering resistance flame retarding. Moderate resistance to petroleum based fluids. Good physical properties. CSM Hypalon Chlorosulfonyl- Polyethylene Excellent ozone weathering and acid resistance. Good abrasion and heat resistance. Good resistance to petroleum based fluids. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 13 EAM Ethylene vinyl acetate Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer Excellent high temperature and ozone resistance. Good resistance to petroleum based fluids as vinyl acetate content increases. ECO Epichlorohydrin copolymer Ethylene oxide and chloromethyloxirane Excellent oil and ozone resistance. Fair flame and low permeability to gases. Good low temperature properties. EPDM Ethylene Propylene Rubber Ethylene-propylene diene-terpolymer Excellent ozone chemical and aging characteristics. Good heat resistance. Poor resistance to petroleum based fluids. EPM Ethylene Propylene Rubber Ethylene-propylene copolymer Excellent ozone chemical and aging characteristics. Good heat resistance. Poor resistance to petroleum based fluids. EU Urethane Polyether Excellent abrasion tear and solvent resistance. Good aging. Poor high temperature properties. FKM Fluoroelastomer Fluorocarbon rubber Excellent high temperature resistance particularly in air or oil. Very good chemical resistance. HNBR Hydrogenated nitrile Hydrogenated acrylonitrile- butadiene Excellent high temperature and oil resistance. IIR Butyl Isobutylene-isoprene Very good weathering resistance. Low permeability to air. Good physical properties. Poor resistance to petroleum based fluids. IR Polyisoprene Polyisoprene- synthetic Same properties as natural rubber see NR below MQ Silicone Dimethylpolysiloxane Excellent high and low temperature resistance. Fair physical properties. NBR Nitrile Acrylonitrile- butadiene Excellent resistance to petroleum based fluids. Moderate resistance to aromatics. Good physical properties. NR Natural Rubber Polyisoprene natural Excellent physical properties including abrasion and low temperature resistance. Poor resistance to petroleum based fluids. SBR SBR Styrene-butadiene Good physical properties including abrasion resistance. Poor resistance to petroleum based fluids. T Thiokol Organic polysulfide Outstanding solvent resistance and weathering resistance. Other properties are poor. XLPE Cross-linked polyethylene Polyethylene and cross linking agent Excellent chemical resistance with good heat and electric properties XNBR Carboxylated nitrile Carboxylated acrylonitrile- butadiene Excellent oil and abrasion resistance. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.14 Plastics Used in Hose ASTM Designation D1600 Common Name Composition General Properties PA Nylon Polyamide Good abrasion chemical and fatigue resistance. Good long term resistance to high temperature. Low gas permeation and low coefficient of friction PE Polyethylene Polyethylene Excellent dielectric properties. Excellent resistance to water acids alkalis and solvents. Good abrasion and weathering resistance. UHMWPE Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene Excellent resistance to a broad range of chemicals excellent abrasion resistance. PVC PVC Polyvinyl chloride Good weathering moisture and flame resistance. General resistance to alkalis and weak acids. Good abrasion resistance. Polyester Thermoplastic polyester resin Good flex fatigue and low temperature properties. High resistance to deformation. Good resistance to abrasion chemicals hydraulic fluids and aromatic fuels. Thermoplastic Rubber Thermoplastic polyolefins and block copolymers of styrene and butadiene Good weather and aging resistance. Good for water and dilute acids and bases. PTFE Fluoropolymer Fluorocarbon resin Excellent high temperature properties and chemical resistance. Fabrics Overview Textile fabrics used as reinforcement in hose construction provide the strength to achieve the desired resistance to internal pressure or to provide resistance to collapse or both. The properties of a fabric depend on the construction and the material from which the yarn is made and on the type of weave used. One common hose fabric is woven from warp yarns which run lengthwise and fill yarns which run cross-wise. Usually they are woven at right angles to each other. The most common weave is known as plain weave where the warp and fill yarns cross each other alternatively. Other weaves used though to a lesser degree are twill basket weave and leno. Leno weave is used mainly where the fabric must be distorted in the hose as in certain types of curved hose. Leno also provides a means for better adhesion than other patterns. Woven Cord is a special type of hose reinforcement. The warp cords are strong while the fill yarn is very fine and merely holds the cords in position. This is often called tire cord because this type of construction is commonly used in reinforcing tires. Woven cord provides strength in one direction only. When woven cord is used a minimum of two layers are applied in alternate directions. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 15 To adhere to the tube and cover of the hose the fabric must be rubberized. The fabric is either frictioned or coated with a thin layer of rubber. Before rubberizing some fabrics are treated with liquid adhesive. Fibers Used in Hose Common Name Composition General Properties Aramid Meta-Aramid Exceptional heat resistance with low shrinkage. Aramid Para-Aramid Exceptional strength with low elongation. High heat resistance. Cotton Natural cellulose Natural vegetable fiber used in hose. Gains strength with increased moisture content. Requires protection against chemical and fungal activity. Glass Glass Very high strength compared to other fibers. Low elongation mainly used in high temperature applications. Nylon Polyamide High strength and elongation with good resistance to abrasion fatigue and impact. Low moisture absorption and excellent moisture stability. High resistance to fungal activity. Polyester Polyester High strength good resistance to abrasion fatigue and impact. Low moisture absorption and excellent moisture stability. High resistance to fungal activity. PVA Polyvinyl alcohol High strength low shrinkage and good chemical resistance. Rayon Regenerated cellulose Similar to cotton in chemical and fungal resistance. Moisture absorption higher than cotton. Dry strength is substantially greater than cotton. Strength is reduced with increased moisture content but retains a wet strength level above cotton. Yarns Yarns are used in hose for reinforcement of the tube material to provide the strength to achieve the desired resistance to internal pressure or to provide resistance to collapse or both. The basic yarn properties required for hose reinforcement are adequate strength acceptable heat resistance dynamic fatigue resistance and satisfactory processability for the various methods of reinforcing hose. Other special properties such as stiffness adhesion conductivity etc. may be developed depending upon the specific hose application. Yarn is available in two basic forms staple sometimes referred to as spun yarn and filament. Staple Staple yarn is made by twisting bundles of short fibers to form a continuous yarn. The staple obtains its strength from the binding effect of the twist imparted to the individual fibers. The base staple yarn is called singles. It is made from fiber bundles twisted together in one direction to form a singles strand. If two or more single yarns are twisted together usually in a direction opposite that of the singles yarn the result is a plied yarn. Two or more plied yarns may be twisted to form a cable cord. The strength elongation and thickness of yarn are a function of the twist level and the number of fibers in the bundle. Staple yarns may be made from natural or synthetic fibers or a blend of the two. The cotton count system is normally used to designate staple yarn size. The number of hanks in one pound is the yarn number. A cotton hank is 840 yards. Therefore a 2s staple yarn contains approximately 1680 yards in one pound. The cotton count system is an inverse measure of the linear density of the yarn i.e. as the yarn number increases the yarn size is decreased. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.16 Filament Yarns Filament yarn is produced by extruding synthetic material through a spinnerette containing hundreds of orifices. The mono-filaments from each of the orifices are brought together to form a multifilament yarn. Filament yarns have higher tenacity strength per unit of weight grams per denier in the range of 2 to 3 times that of staple yarn on the same material type and size. Yarn size is normally designated using the denier system weight in grams of 9000 meters of yarn. The TEX system the weight in grams of 1000 meters of yarn is also widely used. Both are direct yarn measurements i.e. as the number increases the yarn size increases. Wires Reinforcing wire is used in a wide variety of hydraulic and industrial hose primarily where textiles alone do not satisfy the special engineering requirements or the service conditions for which the hose is designed. Steel wire Steel wire has strength high modulus for dimensional stability fatigue resistance and low cost and is the major reinforcement used in high pressure hose and in most suction hose. Steel wire High Tensile Low Carbon Small diameter high tensile steel wire is most commonly used for reinforcement in braided or spiral-wound hose for high pressure and high temperature applications. The wire normally used ranges in size from 0.008 inch to 0.037 inch 0.20 mm to 0.94 mm in diameter. Flat Wire Braid This consists of an odd number of steel wires interwoven to produce a flexible reinforcement. It is used in specialized types of hose either by itself or in combinations with other shapes of steel wire. Flat braids of standard sizes are composed of 9 13 17 or 21 strands of wire in an over two under two plain braid pattern. Wire Cable Wire cable consists of multiple strands of round wire. It provides high bursting strength without undue loss of flexibility or crush resistance. Sizes range from 0.047 inch to 0.25 inch 1.19 mm to 6.4 mm in diameter and are made from high tensile carbon steel wire. Round Wire Round is the most commonly used wire shape in hose fabrication. It ranges in size from 0.013 inch to 0.875 inch 0.79 mm to 22.2 mm in diameter. Round wire is generally made of high tensile carbon steel. Rectangular Wire Rectangular wire is most commonly used as a helical reinforcement on the interior of rough bore suction hoses to prevent collapse. It is sometimes used in the body of the hose. Occasionally this type of wire is also used as an external helix embedded in and flush with the rubber cover to provide protection against cutting and abrasion and to increase crush resistance. Rectangular wire is generally steel although aluminum may also be used. Half-round Wire Half-round steel wire is used mainly as a protective spiral armor on the exterior of a hose. It is wound with the flat side against the hose cover to provide maximum surface contact. It is available in stainless steel or steel with tin-coated or galvanized finishes. Wire finishes Wire finishes for steel wire can be either one of two types 1 brass drawn finish or 2 coated finish. The most commonly used finish in the hose industry is brass drawn finish or galvanized coated finish. Other finishes include bronze liquor and tin. Helical round wires used as helical wound in the body of a hose may have a drawn copper finish or may be unfinished bright. Rectangular steel wires used in the bore of a hose usually have a galvanized finish. Alloy and Non-Ferrous Wires Under certain service conditions carbon steel wire is not suitable. An alloy wire is used instead. One of the most commonly used is stainless steel which offers Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 17 exceptional resistance to corrosion and heat. Where light weight is essential alloys of aluminum are used. Static Wires Static wires and other conductive materials are used in hose to prevent static electricity buildup. Wires can be made from many metals including copper steel Monel aluminum and tin-coated copper. Static wires may be solid stranded or braided. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.18 Appendix D Nomographic Flow Chart Maximum pressure line velocity suggestions may vary. Please consult your hose manufacturer for specific recommendations. Chart not to scale Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 19 Appendix E Coupling Thread Configurations Note Special thanks to Dixon Valve Coupling for the following information. Identifying Threads It is important to identify the threads required before ordering couplings. Identifying threads can sometimes be the most difficult and frustrating part of coupling selection. However without the right combination of threads you may not provide a functional or safe connection. The diameters threads per inch TPI and thread pitch etc. are necessary to completely identify a thread. Ring Plug and GONOGO gauges are required to accurately gauge or identify threads. In the field in the absence of these gauges thread leaf gauges can be used to identify the Threads Per Inch TPI and the thread pitch. On threads you have determined to be straight threads a caliper can be used to measure the Outside Diameter of the Male ODM or the Inside Diameter of the Female IDF. A caliper can also be used to take measurements of tapered thread diameters. However these are more difficult to define because of the taper. Fortunately there are few tapered threads to deal with and these can usually be identified from the nominal ODM and the TPI. However identifying the thread may not fully identify what is needed in a mating fitting. The application is the primary limiting factor on the thread type used. When attempting to choose a fitting it is always advisable to first identify the thread to which it must connect. This may entail checking with a fitting or equipment manufacturer. The fire hose thread specifications for some local municipal fire equipment and hydrants may vary according to local specifications. These can generally be most easily identified by contacting the local fire department responsible for the hydrant. The most common thread used on fire equipment is National Standard Thread NST also known as National Hose thread NH. When it is not possible to identify the thread 1. Determine the number of threads per inch by measuring the distance from peak of thread to peak of thread across the largest number of whole threads. Then divide the number of threads by the measurement This will provide the TPI. 2. Check to see if the thread is straight or tapered. a Straight Threads Measure the Outside Diameter of the Male ODM or the Inside Diameter of the Female IDF from peak of thread to peak of thread. b Tapered Threads Measure the Outside Diameter of the Male ODM at the large end and the small end or the Inside Diameter of the Female IDF at the large end and the small end from peak of thread to peak of thread. Then measure the Outside Diameter OD of the unthreaded pipe. Once the application and these two pieces of information have been determined the thread can generally be determined. When in doubt contact the factory. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.20 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 21 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.22 Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 23 Appendix F Hydraulic Audit List Product Information Inspection and Audit Data PROCESS INSPECTION CHARACTERISTIC METHOD SPEC TOL ACTUAL MEASURED Incoming Couplings Packing List Labels Content Visual GoNo Go Corrosion Visual GoNo Go Appearance Visual GoNo Go Damaged Threads Visual GoNo Go Swivels Rotate Hands GoNo Go O-Ring Location Condition Visual GoNo Go Incoming Hose Packing List Labels Content Visual GoNo Go Cover Dirt or Damage Visual GoNo Go Internal Dirt or Damage Visual GoNo Go Uniform Wall Thickness Visual GoNo Go Hose ID Plug Gage - 0.030 Number of Braids Visual - 0 Hose Cut Length Tape - 1 Square Protractor - 5 Cut Appearance Visual Clean Cut Skive or Buff Wire Color Visual Not Blue Reinforcement Layer Visual Undisturbed SkiveBuff Length Tape - 0.030 SkiveBuff OD Caliper - 0.020 Crimp Stem Insertion Depth JigMark GoNo Go Correct Die Visual GoNo Go Crimp OD Caliper - 0.010 Orientation Protractor - 2 SleeveGuard Fastened Appearance Visual GoNo Go Final Inspection Length Tape - 0.13 Verify Assembly was Cleaned Visual GoNo Go Caps Visual GoNo Go Swivels Rotate Visual GoNo Go Labels and Marking Visual GoNo Go CUSTOMER PRODUCT NO QUANTITY PO NUMBER COUPLING A HOSE TYPE COUPLING B SLEEVEGUARD Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.24 Appendix G Relevant ARPM was RMA Publications To purchase copies of ARPM hose publications as listed below go to httpwww.arpminc.compublications-menu. Publication No. Specifications Provides complete information on the construction application and testing of the respective hose type IP-7 Specifications for Rubber Welding Hose IP-8 Specifications for Rubber Hose for Oil Suction and Discharge IP-14 Specifications for Anhydrous Ammonia Hose IP-11 Hose Technical Bulletins Provides Summary requirements for the maintenance testing and inspection of the respective hose type IP-11-1 Steam Hose IP-11-2 Anhydrous Ammonia Hose IP-11-4 Oil Suction and Discharge Hose IP-11-5 Welding Hose IP-11-7 Chemical Hose IP-11-8 Petroleum Service Station Gasoline Dispensing Hose and Hose Assemblies Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 25 Appendix H References ANSI American National Standards Institute Attn Customer Service 25 West 43rd Street New York NY 10036 Phone 212 642-4900 Fax 212 398-0023 E-mail infoansi.org Internet httpwww.ansi.org ARPM Association for Rubber Products Manufacturers 7321 Shadeland Station Way Suite 285 Indianapolis IN 46256 Phone 317-863-4072 Internet httpwww.aarminc.org ASME American Society for Mechanical Engineers 22 Law Drive Box 2900 Fairfield NJ 07007-2900 Phone 800 843-2763 973 882-1167 Fax 973 882-1717 973 882-5155 E-mail infocentralasme.org Internet httpwww.asme.org ASQ American Society for Quality 600 North Plankinton Avenue Milwaukee WI 53203 Phone 800 248-1946 Fax 414 272-1734 E-mail helpasq.org Internet httpwww.asq.org ASTM International 100 Barr Harbor Drive West Conshohocken PA 19428-2959 Phone 610 832-9585 Fax 610 832-9555 E-mail serviceastm.org Internet httpwww.astm.org CFIA Canadian Food Inspection Agency Phone 1-800-442-2342 Email cfiamasterinspection.gc.ca httpwww.inspection.gc.caenglishtoce.sht ml CSB Chemical Safety Board 2175 K Street NW Suite 400 Washington DC 20037 Phone 202 261-7600 Fax 202 261-7650 Internet httpwww.csb.gov Compass Publications 7731 Lookout Drive La Jolla CA 92037 Phone 858 551-9240 Fax 858 551-9340 Internet httpwww.compasspublications.com Document Center Inc. 111 Industrial Road Suite 9 Belmont CA 94002 Phone 650 591-7600 Fax 650 591-7617 E-mail mailtoinfodocument-center.com Internet httpwww.document-center.com EI Energy Institute 61 New Cavendish Street London W1G 7AR UK Phone 44 0 20 7467 7100 Fax 44 0 20 7255 1472 Email infoenergyinst.org Internet httpswww.energyinst.orghome Global Engineering Documents 15 Inverness Way East Englewood CO 80112 Phone 800 854-7179 303 397-7956 Fax 303 397-2740 Email globalihs.com Internet httpwww.ihs.com Government Printing Office 732 North Capitol St. NW Washington DC 20401 Phone 202 512-0000 Email webteamgpo.gov Internet httpwww.gpo.gov Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.26 International Fluid Power Association IFPS P.O. Box 1420 Cherry Hill NJ 08034 Ph 856-489-8983 Fax 856-424-9248 Internet httpwww.ifps.org NAHAD The Association for Hose and Accessories Distribution 105 Eastern Ave. Suite 104 Annapolis MD 21403-3300 Toll Free 1-800-624-2227 Phone 410 940-6350 Fax 410 263-1659 E-mail nahadnahad.org Internet httpwww.nahad.org NFPA National Fire Protection Association 1 Batterymarch Park Quincy Massachusetts USA 02169-7471 Tel 1 617 770-3000 Internet www.nfpa.org RMA Rubber Manufacturers Association co The Mail Room P.O. Box 3147 Medina OH 44258-3147 Phone 800 325-5095 330 723-2978 Fax 330 725-0576 E-mail informa.org Internet httpwww.rma.org SAE Society of Automotive Engineers 400 Commonwealth Drive Warrendale PA 15096-0001 Phone 877 606-7323 Fax 724 776-0790 Email customerservicesae.org Internet httpwww.sae.org UL Underwriters Laboratory 2600 N.W. Lake Rd. Camas WA 98607-8542 Telephone 1.877.UL.HELPS 1.877.854.3577 Fax 1.360.817.6278 E-mail cec.usus.ul.com Internet httpwww.ul.com USP United States Pharmacopia 12601 Twinbrook Parkway Rockville Maryland 20852-1790 USA Tel 1-800-227-8772 1-301-881-0666 Internet httpwww.usp.org Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 27 Appendix I Industrial Hose Coupling and Attachment Chart Notes 1. See hose and fittings manufacturers for specific pressure rating suggestions. The pressure rating for the assembly should always be equal to the lowest pressure-rated component. It is suggested that the hose couplings and attachment methods used in the assembly meet or exceed the working pressure of the hose. In cases where this is not followed it is suggested that a tag be used identifying the actual working pressure of the hose assembly based on the lowest pressure rating of the various components. 2. Please note that assembly testing should be used to verify expected pressure ratings. Variations in assembly component materials or fabrication techniques will impact the resultant pressure ratings for the finished assembly. 3. When using Preformed Clamps use the correct type and number of bands or clamps as recommended by the manufacturer andor as many preformed clamps on the assembly as the design and length of the shank will allow. Working pressure may also depend on band width thickness and material. This rating is also dependent on the type of hose barb design used with the clamp or bands used. 4. The use of Band Buckle should typically offer a slightly higher assembly working pressure depending on band width thickness material and number of bands. Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.28 Hose Fitting Attachment Air Multi-Purpose Ground Joint Interlocking Clamp Air Multi-Purpose Ground Joint Interlocking Clamp Air Multi-Purpose High Pressure Crimp High Pressure Crimp Ferrule Air Multi-Purpose Machined Long Pinch Clamp Air Multi-Purpose Machined Long Preformed Clamp Air Multi-Purpose Machined Medium Crimp Sleeve Air Multi-Purpose Machined Medium Pinch Clamp Air Multi-Purpose Machined Medium Preformed Clamp Air Multi-Purpose Machined Short Light Duty Crimp Ferrule Air Multi-Purpose Machined Short Pinch Clamp Air Multi-Purpose Machined Short Preformed Clamp Air Multi-Purpose Machined Short Reusable Air Multi-Purpose Universal Crimp Sleeve Air Multi-Purpose Universal Crimp Swage Ferrule Air Multi-Purpose Universal Interlocking Clamp Air Multi-Purpose Universal Preformed Clamp Hose Fitting Attachment Asphalt Hot Tar Ground Joint Interlocking Clamp Asphalt Hot Tar High Pressure Crimp High Pressure Crimp Ferrule Asphalt Hot Tar Internal Expansion - Steel Internal Expand Steel Hose Fitting Attachment Chemical Plastic Cam Groove Crimp Sleeve Chemical Plastic Cam Groove CrimpSwage Ferrule Chemical Plastic Cam Groove Preformed Clamp Chemical Plastic Combination Nipple Crimp Sleeve Chemical Plastic Combination Nipple Preformed Clamp Chemical Plastic High Pressure Crimp CrimpSwage Ferrule Chemical Plastic Interlocking Crimp CrimpSwage Ferrule Chemical Plastic Machined Long Preformed Clamp Hose Fitting Attachment Chemical Rubber Cam Groove Crimp Sleeve Chemical Rubber Cam Groove CrimpSwage Ferrule Chemical Rubber Cam Groove Preformed Clamp Chemical Rubber Combination Nipple Crimp Sleeve Chemical Rubber Combination Nipple Preformed Clamp Chemical Rubber High Pressure Crimp CrimpSwage Ferrule Chemical Rubber Interlocking Crimp CrimpSwage Ferrule Chemical Rubber Internal Expansion - Steel Internal Expand Ferrule Chemical Rubber Machined Long Preformed Clamp Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 29 Hose Fitting Attachment Fire Booster Reusable Fire Reusable Ferrule Fire Booster Fire Hose Fitting Internal Expansion Hose Fitting Attachment Food Handling Sanitary Internal Expand Ferrule Food Handling Sanitary External Crimp Food Handling Cam Groove Crimp Sleeve Food Handling Cam Groove CrimpSwage Ferrule Food Handling Cam Groove Preformed Clamp Food Handling Combination Nipple Crimp Sleeve Food Handling Combination Nipple Preformed Clamp Food Handling Interlocking Crimp CrimpSwage Ferrule Food Handling Internal Expansion - Steel Internal Expand Ferrule Hose Fitting Attachment Layflat Cam Groove Crimp Sleeve Layflat Cam Groove Preformed Clamp Layflat Cast Crimp Sleeve Layflat Cast Preformed Clamp Layflat Combination Nipple Crimp Sleeve Layflat Combination Nipple Preformed Clamp Layflat Machined Long Preformed Clamp Hose Fitting Attachment Material Handling Cam Groove Crimp Sleeve Material Handling Cam Groove CrimpSwage Ferrule Material Handling Cam Groove Preformed Clamp Material Handling Combination Nipple Crimp Sleeve Material Handling Combination Nipple Preformed Clamp Material Handling Crimp Swage Heavy Ferrule Material Handling Interlocking Crimp CrimpSwage Ferrule Material Handling Internal Expansion - Steel Internal Expand Ferrule Material Handling Machined Long Preformed Clamp Hose Fitting Attachment High Pressure Cement Crimp Swage Heavy Ferrule High Pressure Cement Ground Joint Interlocking Clamp High Pressure Cement Internal Expansion Internal Expand Ferrule Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.30 Hose Fitting Attachment Petroleum - Fuel Oil Internal Expansion Brass Internal Expand Ferrule Hose Fitting Attachment Petroleum Drop Cam Groove Crimp Sleeve Petroleum Drop Cam Groove Crimp Swage Ferrule Petroleum Drop Cam Groove Preformed Clamp Hose Fitting Attachment Vapor Recovery Cam Groove Crimp Sleeve Vapor Recovery Cam Groove Crimp Swage Ferrule Vapor Recovery Cam Groove Preformed Clamp Hose Fitting Attachment Petroleum Discharge Cam Groove Crimp Sleeve Petroleum Discharge Cam Groove Crimp Swage Ferrule Petroleum Discharge Cam Groove Preformed Clamp Petroleum Discharge Combination Nipple Crimp Sleeve Petroleum Discharge Combination Nipple Preformed Clamp Petroleum Discharge Crimp Swage Heavy Ferrule Petroleum Discharge High Pressure Crimp High Pressure Crimp Ferrule Petroleum Discharge Interlocking Crimp Crimp Swage Ferrule Petroleum Discharge Internal Expansion-Brass Internal Expand Ferrule Petroleum Discharge Internal Expansion-Steel Internal Expand Ferrule Petroleum Discharge Machined Long Preformed Clamp Hose Fitting Attachment Petroleum Suction Cam Groove Crimp Sleeve Petroleum Suction Cam Groove CrimpSwage Ferrule Petroleum Suction Cam Groove Preformed Clamp Petroleum Suction Combination Nipple Crimp Sleeve Petroleum Suction Combination Nipple Preformed Clamp Petroleum Suction CrimpSwage Heavy Ferrule Petroleum Suction High Pressure Crimp High Pressure Crimp Ferrule Petroleum Suction Interlocking Crimp CrimpSwage Ferrule Petroleum Suction Internal Expansion-Brass Internal Expand Ferrule Petroleum Suction Internal Expansion -Steel Internal Expand Ferrule Petroleum Suction Machined Long Preformed Clamp Hose Fitting Attachment Push On Push On Hose Fitting Attachment Sand Blast Sand Blast Hose Fitting Attachment Steam Ground Joint Interlocking Clamp Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. 31 Hose Fitting Attachment Water - General Purpose Cam Groove Crimp Sleeve Water - General Purpose Cam Groove Crimp Swage Ferrule Water - General Purpose Cam Groove Preformed Clamp Water - General Purpose Cast Crimp Sleeve Water - General Purpose Cast Preformed Clamp Water - General Purpose Combination Nipple Crimp Sleeve Water - General Purpose Combination Nipple Preformed Clamp Water - General Purpose Crimp Swage Heavy Ferrule Water - General Purpose Fire Hose Fitting Internal Expansion Water - General Purpose Ground Joint Crimp Swage Ferrule Water - General Purpose Ground Joint Interlocking Clamp Water - General Purpose High Pressure Crimp High Pressure Crimp Ferrule Water - General Purpose Interlocking Crimp Crimp Swage Ferrule Water - General Purpose Internal Expansion-Brass Internal Expand Ferrule Water - General Purpose Machined Long Preformed Clamp Water - General Purpose Machined Medium Pinch Clamp Water - General Purpose Machined Medium Preformed Clamp Water - General Purpose Machined Short Light Duty Crimp Ferrule Water - General Purpose Machined Short Pinch Clamp Water - General Purpose Machined Short Preformed Clamp Water - General Purpose Universal Crimp Sleeve Water - General Purpose Universal Crimp Swage Ferrule Water - General Purpose Universal Interlocking Clamp Water - General Purpose Universal Preformed Clamp Hose Fitting Attachment Water - Suction Rubber Cam Groove Crimp Sleeve Water - Suction Rubber Cam Groove Crimp Swage Ferrule Water - Suction Rubber Cam Groove Preformed Clamp Water - Suction Rubber Cast Crimp Sleeve Water - Suction Rubber Cast Preformed Clamp Water - Suction Rubber Combination Nipple Crimp Sleeve Water - Suction Rubber Combination Nipple Preformed Clamp Water - Suction Rubber Interlocking Crimp Crimp Swage Ferrule Water - Suction Rubber Internal Expansion- Brass Internal Expand Ferrule Hose Fitting Attachment Water - Suction Plastic Cam Groove Crimp Sleeve Water - Suction Plastic Cam Groove Crimp Swage Ferrule Water - Suction Plastic Cam Groove Preformed Clamp Water - Suction Plastic Cast Crimp Sleeve Water - Suction Plastic Cast Preformed Clamp Water - Suction Plastic Combination Nipple Crimp Sleeve Water - Suction Plastic Combination Nipple Preformed Clamp Water - Suction Plastic Interlocking Crimp Crimp Swage Ferrule Copyright 2015 by NAHAD - the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc.32 Hose Fitting Attachment Water-Pressure Washer High Pressure Crimp High Pressure Crimp Ferrule Hose Fitting Attachment Water - Sewer Cleaning High Pressure Crimp Swage High Pressure Ferrule Hose Fitting Attachment Water - Washdown Machined Long Preformed Clamp Water - Washdown Machined Medium Crimp Sleeve Water - Washdown Machined Medium Preformed Clamp