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HANDBOOK For the Design and Specification of Safe Hose Assemblies Version 1.0 October 2012 A 70 PAGE SAMPLER OF THE COMPLETE 302 PAGE HANDBOOK Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD2 This page intentionally left blank Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 3 Table of Contents Section 1 Scope Use of This Document....................... 7 1.1 Scope ..........................................................................................................7 1.2 Important Notice About This Document.......................................................8 1.3 How to Use This Document..........................................................................9 1.4 Thanks and Recognition............................................................................10 1.5 History of Changes....................................................................................10 Section 2 Application Requirements STAMPED....... 11 2.1 Purpose......................................................................................................11 2.2 General ......................................................................................................11 2.3 Directions...................................................................................................11 2.4 Critical and Custom Applications...............................................................16 Section 3 - Hose Assembly General Information............ 17 3.1 Scope.........................................................................................................17 3.2 Hose Constructions ...................................................................................17 3.3 Hose Characteristics .................................................................................19 3.4 Hose Routing .............................................................................................20 Section 4 Corrugated Metal Hose................................... 23 4.1 General .....................................................................................................23 4.2 STAMPED .................................................................................................24 4.3 Hose Construction......................................................................................24 4.4 Pressure Rating .........................................................................................24 4.5 Corrugated Metal Hose Assembly Dimensions...........................................24 4.6 Corrugated Metal Hose Fittings..................................................................24 4.7 Corrugated Metal Hose Attachments and Common Accessories................24 4.8 Attachment Methods ..................................................................................24 4.9 Testing Procedures for Corrugated Metal Hose..........................................24 Section 5 - Industrial Hose ................................................. 25 5.1 General ......................................................................................................25 5.2 STAMPED .................................................................................................27 5.3 Industrial Hose Assembly Component Selection and Pressure Ratings Chart................................................................................................................27 5.4 Hose Data Sheets .....................................................................................29 5.5 Industrial Hose Fittings...............................................................................31 5.6 Industrial Hose Attachments......................................................................32 5.7 Testing Procedures for Industrial Hose .....................................................32 5.8 Custom-Made Hose ...................................................................................33 Section 6 - Composite Hose............................................... 37 6.1 General .....................................................................................................37 6.2 STAMPED.................................................................................................37 6.3 Hose Materials and Construction ..............................................................37 6.4 Composite Adapter Fittings .......................................................................37 6.5 Testing Procedures for Composite Hose...................................................37 6.6 Installation and Usage for Composite Hose ..............................................37 Section 7 - Hydraulic Hose................................................. 39 Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD4 7.1 Introduction to Hydraulics..........................................................................39 7.2 STAMPED.................................................................................................40 7.3 Hose and Hose Selection..........................................................................40 7.4 Coupling Selection ....................................................................................43 7.5 Hose Assemblies Length Orientation Measurement Testing ..............44 7.6 Accessories and Equipment......................................................................44 7.7 Hydraulic Hose Cleanliness Considerations..............................................44 Section 8 Fluoropolymer Hose .......................................... 45 8.1 General .....................................................................................................45 8.2 STAMPED.................................................................................................46 8.3 Measurements for Fluoropolymer Hose Assemblies...................................46 8.4 Coupling Terminal End Thread Identification ..........................................46 8.5 Performance Characteristics .....................................................................47 8.6 Hose Assembly Length Determination For Various Movements.................48 8.7 Hose Routing Fluoropolymer Hose..........................................................48 8.8 Assembly Methods.....................................................................................48 8.9 Testing Procedures for Fluoropolymer Hose.............................................48 Section 9 Testing Procedures......................................... 49 9.1 Purpose......................................................................................................49 9.2 Testing Procedures for Corrugated Metal Hose ........................................49 9.3 Testing Procedures for Industrial Hose .....................................................50 9.4 Testing Procedures for Composite Hose...................................................50 9.5 Testing Procedures for Hydraulic Hose.....................................................50 9.6 Testing Procedures for Fluoropolymer Hose.............................................50 9.7 Calibrations ................................................................................................50 9.8 Test Documentation...................................................................................50 9.9 Other Documentation .................................................................................50 Section 10 Quality Plan ................................................... 51 10.1 Purpose....................................................................................................51 10.2 Sampling Plan ..........................................................................................51 10.3 Material Receiving Inspection...................................................................52 10.4 Hose Assembly Dimensional Inspection if applicable ...........................52 10.5 Storage Labeling Environment Time....................................................52 Section 11 Assembly Identification Cleaning and Packaging ............................................................................ 53 11.1 Purpose....................................................................................................53 11.2 Hose Assembly Markings.........................................................................53 11.3 Cleaning...................................................................................................54 11.4 Packaging ................................................................................................55 Section 12 Installation and Handling............................. 57 12.1 General ....................................................................................................57 12.2 Safety Environmental Considerations....................................................57 12.3 Hose Routing ...........................................................................................58 12.4 Hose Installation and Replacement..........................................................58 12.5 Maintenance Inspection ...........................................................................59 Section 14 Appendices.................................................... 61 Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 5 Appendix A Pressure Conversion Chart.......................................................61 Appendix B Additional Conversion Charts....................................................63 Appendix C Hose Materials ..........................................................................64 Appendix D Nomographic Flow Chart...........................................................65 Appendix E Coupling Thread Configurations................................................65 Appendix F Hydraulic Audit List....................................................................66 Appendix G Relevant ARPM was RMA Publications ..................................67 Appendix H References................................................................................68 Appendix I Industrial Hose Pressure Ratings Chart ......................................70 Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD6 This page intentionally left blank Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 7 Section 1 Scope Use of This Document 1.1 Scope The NAHAD Hose Safety Institute Handbook for the Design and Specification of Safe Hose Assemblies is intended to complement existing industry specifications standards and government regulations. This document is for the voluntary use of industry and end users as an aid in the selection and recognition of suitable hose assemblies including those using industrial hydraulic composite corrugated metal and fluoropolymer hose. This document provides general guidelines and is not intended to provide all information or requirements for the design engineering assembly and testing of hose assemblies or for compliance with applicable laws standards and regulations. Always refer to and follow the suppliers instructions and warnings. This document is not intended to prohibit either supplier or customer from specifying additional or different requirements for hose couplings or hose assemblies if necessary to satisfy the specific application. It is the responsibility of the fabricator and user to separately qualify these applications and their unique requirements necessary to ensure performance capability. This document assumes that all equipment used in the fabrication of the hose assembly has been properly maintained and calibrated on a regular basis. There are specific applications that require additional design engineering fabrication testing installation and maintenance considerations over and above the requirements set forth in these Hose Assembly Guidelines. This includes applications where custom design engineering fabrication testing installation and maintenance are specified or required. Please see Section 2.4 and Appendix G of this document for further information. This document is subject to revision. Users should obtain the latest version. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD8 1.2 Important Notice About This Document NAHAD including its members officers directors volunteers staff and those participating in its activities disclaims liability for any personal injury property or other damage of any nature whatsoever directly or indirectly resulting from the publication use of or reliance on this document or for compliance with the provisions herein. NAHAD makes no guaranty or warranty as to the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein. Hose hose fittings and hose couplings come in various sizes and designs. Although there are standards published by manufacturers and independent standards and testing organizations such as ANSI ASTM UL SAE ARPM which relate to hoses and hose fittings there are no generally recognized standards or guidelines for hose assemblies. NAHAD The Association for Hose and Accessories Distribution has published these Guidelines in order to create a reference work that compiles information of value to NAHAD members manufacturers and customers in developing hose assemblies that meet specific individual needs. To the extent that a hose assembly has unique characteristics or specific requirements it must be custom designed engineered and tested. The Guidelines incorporate pressure recommendations corrosion recommendations and temperature recommendations published by hose and coupling manufacturers and others. NAHAD has not independently tested or verified these recommendations and specifically disclaims all liability direct or indirect for these recommendations. In making this document available NAHAD is not undertaking to render professional or other services for or on behalf of any person or entity. Anyone using this document should rely on their own judgment or as appropriate seek the advice of a competent professional in determining the exercise of reasonable care in any given circumstances. Any certification or other statement of compliance with the requirements of this document shall not be attributable to NAHAD and is solely the responsibility of the certifier or the person making the statement. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 9 1.3 How to Use This Document The following are the recommended procedures on how to use the NAHAD Hose Assembly Specification Guidelines Description Section Number 1 This document recognizes that all hose assemblies are made up of at least two to three components the hose end connections and method of attachment. The method of attachment and end connection varies depending on the hose selected. The end usercustomercustomer servicesales person should use STAMPED to gather all the required application information to proceed with an assembly selection. Section 2 STAMPED 2 For Industrial Hose assemblies proceed to the Component Selection Pressure Ratings Chart in Appendix I. Use the chart to select the appropriate hose end connections and method of attachment recommended. Note Hose assembly pressure ratings vary by hose fitting and attachment combinations and are always rated at the lesser of the hose fittings and attachment method used. The Chart represents a guide to the assembly working pressure that can be expected from the combination of hose fittings and attachment methods assuming the recommended assembly fabrication guidelines have been followed and the components meet typical industry standards. Increased assembly pressure ratings may be achieved using higher performance components available from NAHAD Hose Safety Institute manufacturer members. For assembly pressure ratings higher than those listed in this chart please consult a NAHAD Hose Safety Institute Distributor. Note special tests may be required. Section 5 Hose Assembly Component Selection Pressure Ratings Chart 3 More detailed information on hose couplings attachments etc. for all hose groups can be found in Sections 4-8 Hose Assembly Components and Data Sheets. Sections 4-8 Hose Assembly Components and Data Sheets 4 Once the assembly is selected additional information on fabrication processes can be found in the NAHAD Hose Assembly Fabrication Guide which includes recommended assembly procedures limitations and warnings. The rest of this document includes related information on assembly testing quality plan shipping handling safety issues etc. Sections 9 - 12 Assembly testing quality plan shipping handling labeling etc. The ARPM requires that hose working pressures include a safety factor commensurate with their intended application. Most hoses are required to meet a 4x safety factor except the following Water hose rated under 150 PSI requires a 3x safety factor Steam hose requires a 10x safety factor and hose conveying gas in a liquid state requires a 5x safety factor. For example a 150 PSI-rated air hose has a 4x safety factor and must be successfully tested to a minimum of 600 PSI. Never exceed the working pressure of the lowest rated component in the hose system. Maximum working pressure includes the highest pressure the system will experience such as spikes surges and water hammer effects. For example If a system consists of a hose rated to 150 PSI and the couplings are rated to 500 PSI the system should never be used in excess of 150 PSI. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD10 1.4 Thanks and Recognition NAHAD wishes to acknowledge the contributions of many organizations which have made this document possible. In particular the International Fluid Power Society IFPS has made significant contributions to Section 7 Hydraulic Hose many portions of their Connector and Conductor Study Manual rev. 4111 were used by permission in whole or in part. 1.5 History of Changes 1995 NAHAD commits to take on the multi-year challenge of creating a comprehensive set of performance recommendations for the Specification Design and Fabrication of Industrial Hydraulic Fluoropolymer Corrugated Metal and Composite hose assemblies. Scores of volunteer member engineers are recruited to serve on five different technical teams to draft what will become NAHADs Hose Assembly Guidelines. The comprehensive 420-page document is produced and presented to the membership at the 2000 Convention in Monterey CA. 2003 The NAHAD Board appoints a new Standards Committee to re-craft the Guidelines to be more useful for members and end-users. 2005 Version 1 Hose Assembly Specification Guides are created for Corrugated Metal Industrial Composite Hydraulic and Fluoropolymer Hose assemblies. These are made available for purchase and use with customers for supporting internal training and for providing guidance for related hose assembly technical and business processes. 2008-9 Custom Hose Guide added 2008 Ducting Guide added 2009 2010-12 NAHAD creates the Hose Safety Institute to formalize the work of driving safety quality and reliability of hose assemblies. The Hose Assembly Guidelines are updated and republished as this document the Hose Safety Institute Handbook. Changes Materials updated and all 7 Specification manuals plus Design Guides for industrial hydraulic composite fluoropolymer and corrugated metal hoses integrated in one master document. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 11 Section 2 Application Requirements STAMPED 2.1 Purpose The purpose of this section is to provide a simple to use guide to assist in determining the correct hose coupling and attachment method that will satisfy the customers needs. Please note that Section 2.4 addresses Critical Applications which may require special attention. 2.2 General If the governing standard for a hose assembly is unknown further application detail must be identified. An effective way to identify application factors that need reviewing prior to defining the proper specifications of a hose assembly is to remember the simple acronym STAMPED. 2.3 Directions Using the form 1. Inform the customer you will be using an application format called STAMPED. 2. Ask your customer the pertinent questions outlined on the form in sequence. 3. After completing the form ask your customer to confirm their answers as you repeat them in sequence. 4. Provide the completed format to your assembly area or order entry as required. The following list of special considerations may help to clarify application parameters 1. Abrasion 2. Additional protections need for guards or covers 3. Electrical conductivity 4. Environment 5. Fitting orientation flange alignment 6. Flammability 7. Flow rate 8. Fluid velocity for metal hose very high velocities may require the use of a liner 9. Movement type distance frequency 10. Ozone 11. Permeation vapor conveying hose 12. Routing tight bend radius physical space limitations 13. Salt water 14. Static electricity 15. Ultraviolet light 16. Vibration frequency rate Hz amplitude G load 17. Special marking or branding requirements Control Parameters Information should include Drawing or print if applicable and proper revision of drawing or print. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD12 Agency standards applicable. Test requirements customer. Documentation requirements customer. Special branding requirement and cover color. Information of past performance of present hose in place. Special cleaning procedure in use. Contract Parameters Information should include Quantity Delivery schedule Cleaning requirements Packaging requirements Other items per manufacturer guidelines Length Tolerances see individual hose group chapters See STAMPED Form on next page Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 13 Customer Information Company _________________________ Fax ______________________ Contact __________________________ E-mail_____________________ Address __________________________ P.O._____________________ Phone ___________________________ Terms ____________________ Size I.D. O.D. Overall Length Tolerance Temperature Materials Conveyed Environmental Temperature Min. Max Min Max o Fo C o Fo C o Fo C o Fo C Application Type Material Media Material Conveyed Internal Media External Environment Pressure Max Working Pressure Spikes Vacuum PSIkPa PSIkPa Inches of HgkPa Ends End Style Material Size ThreadsBolts Hole Alignment Orientation Attachment Methods Capped 1 Y N 2 Y N Delivery Quantity Required Date Required Package Type Pick Up Date Ship Via Testing Required Y N Type Certification Required Y N Type see glossary for specific definitions Special Requirements Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD14 The STAMPED acronym stands for the 7 major information areas required to provide a quality hose assembly for the customer as follows S stands for SIZE I.D. and length any O.D. constraints overall length should be specified to include fittings tolerances need to be specified if special requirements exist I.D. O.D. and overall length of the assembly To determine the replacement hose I.D. read the layline printing on the side of the original hose. If the original hose layline is painted over or worn off the original hose must be cut and inside diameter measured for size. The inside diameter of the hose must be adequate to keep pressure loss to a minimum maintain adequate flow and avoid damage to the hose due to heat generation or excessive turbulence. The hose should be sized according to the nomographic chart in appendix D. Length tolerances should be considered for all types of hose assemblies. See individual hose sections for specifics. Flow Rate Fluid Velocity - The flow rate of the system in conjunction with the inside diameter of the hose will dictate the fluid velocity through the hose. Typical fluid velocities can be seen in the nomographic chart in Appendix D. Please consult your hose supplier for specific recommended velocity ranges. Please note that suction line recommendations are different than pressure lines. T stands for TEMPERATURE of the material conveyed and environmental conditions Are there factors such as heat sources in the environment in which the hose will be used Continuous average and minimum and maximum temperatures have to be specified for both the environment and material conveyed Note if flame resistance or flammability will be an issue Sub-zero exposure Care must be taken when routing near hot manifolds and in extreme cases a heat shield may be advisable. Other things to consider maximum intermittent ambient temperature fluid temperature ambient temperature and maximum temperature. A stands for the APPLICATION the conditions of use Configurationrouting add a sketch or drawing if applicable o is the hose hanging laying horizontally supported unsupported orientation and aspect of the hose o what else is attached to the hose any external load on the hose o bend radius requirements flexibility o elongation considerations with working pressure Quantify anticipated movement and geometry of use requirements Intermittent or continuous service Indoor and outdoor use Unusual mechanical loads Excessive abrasion Electrical conductivity requirements Equipment type External conditions abrasion oil specify type solvents specify type acid specify type and concentration ozone salt water Hose now in use o Type of hose o Service life being obtained and description of failure or source of customer dissatisfaction Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 15 strength and frequency of impulsing or pressure spikes non-flexing applications static flexing applications dynamic vacuum requirements Can also refer to Alloy when working with Metal Hose M stands for the MATERIAL or MEDIA being conveyed type and concentration Are there special requirements for this hose tube o Any special specifications or agency requirements that need to be considered e.g. FDA API o Will the material be continuously flowing or sit in the hose for long periods of time specify Media velocity flow rate Chemical nameconcentration MSDS Solids description and size Fluid Compatibility - Some applications require specialized oils or chemicals to be conveyed through the system. Hose selection must assure compatibility of the hose tube. In addition to the hose materials all other components which make up the hose assembly hose ends o-rings etc must also be compatible with fluid being used. Depending on the fluid your hose supplier may lower the maximum temperature or pressure rating of the assembly. When selecting any hose assembly always consult your hose suppliers recommendations. Can also refer to Motion when working with Metal Hose P stands for the PRESSURE to which the assembly will be exposed System pressure including pressure spikes. Hose assembly working pressures must be equal to or greater than the system pressure. Pressure spikes greater than the maximum working pressure will shorten hose life and must be taken into consideration. Temperature implications Vacuum considerations Maximum Operating Pressure - This is the maximum pressure that the system should be exposed to in normal operating conditions. For hydraulic hose assemblies this pressure should be dictated by the relief setting of the system. Both the hose and hose end should not be rated to a pressure less than the maximum operating pressure of the system. Pressure Spikes - When a hydraulic system is subjected to a large load in a short period of time the system pressure can overshoot the relief setting and exceed the maximum operating pressure. Frequent pressure spikes can reduce the life of hydraulic hose assemblies. In general spiral hose constructions are better suited to high impulse applications which involve flexing and large pressure spikes. However there are specialized braided hoses available from various manufacturers. Please consult your hose supplier if there are multiple constructions which meet your application needs. E stands for ENDS style type orientation attachment methods etc. Uncoupled or coupled hose hose with built-in fittings Specify end style see charts and pictures in Section 5 Materials and dimensions steel stainless etc. Conductivity requirements D stands for DELIVERY Specific to customer requirements Testing requirements o certification requirements e.g. Coast Guard any special packaging requirements Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD16 any special shipping requirements tagging requirements can also refer to Determined Overall Length when working with Metal Hose 2.4 Critical and Custom Applications There are specific applications that require additional design fabrication installation and maintenance considerations over and above the requirements set forth in these Hose Assembly Guidelines. This includes applications where custom design engineering fabrication testing installation and maintenance are specified or required. Please see Appendix G of this document for additional information. The following is a non-inclusive list. 2.4.1 Chlorine For hose assemblies used to transport chlorine there are specific requirements set forth in the Chlorine Institute Pamphlet 6 edition 15 Piping Systems for Dry Chlorine Appendix A Section 9. Please note that Chlorine transfer hose CTH must be clearly and permanently marked as per Chlorine Institute Pamphlet 6 edition 15 Appendix A Section 9. These permanent markings e.g. stamping stenciling or coding should be utilized throughout the supply chain for purposes of continuous positive identification. 2.4.2 Anhydrous Ammonia reference ARPM publication no. IP 11-2 2.4.3 Aircraft Fueling see American Petroleum Institute 2.4.4 Welding Hose - reference ARPM publication no. IP 11-5 2.4.5 LP Gas - reference UL 21 and UL 569. 2.4.6 Water Blast Hose Water blast hoses are typically designed for very high pressure water applications. Typically used for paint removal unplugging and cleaning exchanger tubes off-shore deep water applications and water blasting. Burst pressures may vary by manufacturer. Applications entail very high internal pressures. Consult manufacturer for safety factors. 2.4.7 Airless Paint Spraying. Available in 1000-10000 psi. Contact hose manufacturer for more information. 2.4.8 Natural Gas - Natural Gas molecules will permeate through Rubber or PVC hose constructions and create potentially dangerous consequences. Contact hose manufacturer for information. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 17 Section 3 - Hose Assembly General Information 3.1 Scope The sections pertaining to hose assemblies have been compiled to provide authoritative information on hose end connections attachment methods and accessories selection. This information is intended to help those that are responsible for selecting the components. The user of this document is cautioned that the information contained herein is for general guidance only. The document reflects the most commonly used equipment and procedures to make assemblies. It does not reflect new developments or products developed for specific applications. The user is encouraged to contact a NAHAD Hose Safety Institute Distributor in order to obtain the latest information. Because there are many combinations of hose end connections and attachment methods the user should not assume that all combinations listed in the guide have been tested for acceptability. The information that is provided is based on an environment of 72F 22.2C. The reader is cautioned to contact a NAHAD Hose Safety Institute Distributor when dealing with temperature extremes. 3.2 Hose Constructions A hose is a reinforced flexible conduit used to move materials from one point to another or to transmit energy. It is flexible to accommodate motion alignment vibration thermal expansion and contraction portability ease of routing and ease of installation. Most hoses are made up of three elements 1 a tube 2 reinforcement and 3 an outer cover. Each of these components is usually adhered to the adjacent components by bonding agents or thin layers of specially compounded rubber. The basic materials in the manufacture of hose are rubber metal plastic fluoropolymer textile yarn textile fabric and metal or plastic wire helix and cable. These materials are used in their broadest sense and can consist of all compounds and combinations of the above. See Appendix C for a full listing of hose materials. Tube Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD18 The tube is the innermost element of the hose. For suitable service the tube must be resistant to the materials it is intended to convey. The characteristics of the material from which the tube is made and the thickness of the tube are based on the service for which the hose is designed. The basic tube materials are rubber metal plastic and fluoropolymer these materials are used in their broadest sense and can consist of all compounds and combinations of the above. See Appendix C for a full listing of hose materials. Reinforcement Reinforcement can be textile plastic or metal alone or in combination which can be built into the body of the hose to withstand internal pressures external forces or a combination of both. The type and amount of reinforcing material used depends on the method of manufacture and on the service requirements. For example a residential garden hose does not need the same level of reinforcement as required for high pressure hydraulic hose used in construction and off-shore applications. The basic reinforcement materials are braided or spiraled textiles metal or plastic helix braided or spiraled wire and cable. These materials are used in their broadest sense and can consist of all compounds and combinations of the above. See Appendix C for a full listing of hose materials. Cover The cover is the outer element and can be made of various materials its prime function is to protect the reinforcement from damage and the environment in which the hose will be used. Covers are designed for specific applications and can be made to be resistant to oils acids abrasion flexing sunlight ozone etc. The basic cover materials are rubber metal and plastic. The cover of a corrugated metal or fluoropolymer-lined hose by nature is a wire-braided reinforcement. Additional accessories can be applied to protect the reinforcing exterior. See Appendix C for a full listing of hose materials. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 19 3.3 Hose Characteristics 3.3.1 Flexibility and Bend Radius Flexibility and minimum bend radius are important factors in hose design and selection if it is known that the hose will be subjected to sharp curvatures in normal use. When bent at too sharp an angle hose may kink or flatten in the cross-section. The reinforcement may also be unduly stressed or distorted and the hose life compromised. The hose should be able to conform to the smallest anticipated bend radius without overstress. The minimum bend radius is generally specified by the manufacturer and is the radius to which the hose can be bent in service without damage or appreciably shortening its life. The radius is measured to the inside of the curvature. If the application entails dynamic bending the minimum bend radius may need to be larger consult with the manufacturer. Textile reinforced hoses have a tendency to kink as the bend radius is reduced. Generally for hose assemblies a helix wire is used when a hose must withstand severe bends without flattening or kinking. Some indication of relative hose flexibility can be determined from the manufacturers minimum bend radius recommendations. The bend radius does not necessarily reflect the force required to bend the hose to this radius which is a major factor in flexibility. Different hose constructions may require significantly different forces to attain the same minimum bend radius. Generally the preferred hose is the more flexible hose provided all other properties are essentially equivalent. There are exceptions to this as in sand blast hose where minimizing the bending in service increases hose life. 3.3.2 Suction and Vacuum Some applications require the hose to resist collapse in suction and vacuum service. Such hose is subjected to crushing forces because the atmospheric pressure outside the hose is greater than the internal pressure. The hose can collapse and restrict the flow unless the hose is constructed to resist these pressure differentials. The most common method of preventing hose collapse is to build a steel or plastic helical wire reinforcement into the hose body. The size and spacing of the wire reinforcement depends on the size of the hose and the expected pressure differential for the application. In suction applications approaching a full vacuum most of the carcass plies are applied over the wire reinforcement. The hose is constructed with high adhesion between the tube and the carcass to prevent tube separation. Suction hose must be specifically designed for the service for which it is used. Each element tube reinforcement size spacing and location of the helix must be carefully planned. While suction hose is generally used to convey liquids vacuum hose carries air under a partial vacuum. Vacuum hose is reinforced to resist collapse and maintain its shape under rough handling andor mechanical abuse. It does not require the heavy construction of suction hose because the dry materials generally conveyed are much lighter in weight than liquids and the vacuum is usually less than for normal suction service. See ducting section for additional detail. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD20 3.3.3 Electrical Characteristics of Hose Conductive Hose Static wires and conductive rubber components are used in hose to help prevent static electricity build-up and subsequent discharge as a spark. Electrical engineers differ in opinion on the effects of static electricity and the means of dissipating it. In handling gasoline and other petroleum-based liquids recognized national associations and companies have conflicting opinions on the need for conductive hoses. Until a consensus is reached among all associations laboratories and users and a standard practice is established it is essential that the user determine the need for static bonded hose based on a the intended use of the hose b instructions from the companys Safety Division c the insurer and d the laws of the States in which the hose will be used. Some types of hose include a body reinforcing wire. This wire can be used for electrical continuity provided that proper contact is made between it and the hose coupling. This can be done by extending the body wire to the ends of the hose or by attaching a light static wire to the outermost coils of the body wire. This lighter wire is led through the ends of the hose and attached to the couplings. In non-wire reinforced hose a static wire can be included in the hose body. The tendency has been toward a grounding connection completely separate from the hose or to have the tube or cover of the hose conducting. Examples would be sand blast hose with conducting tube or aircraft fueling hose with a conducting cover. An internal static wire could break or lose contact with the couplings and not be detected visually. This could occur from an unusual stress imposed on the hose. Non-Conductive Hose In some specific applications especially around high voltage electrical lines it is imperative for safety that the hose be non-conductive. Unless the hose is designed particularly to be non- conductive and is so branded one cannot conclude that it is non-conductive. Many black rubber compounds are inherently and inadvertently conductive. Non-conductive hose is usually made to a qualifying standard that requires it to be tested to verify the desired electrical properties. The hose is usually non-black in color and clearly branded to indicate it is designed for non-conductive applications. WARNING unless a hose is described specifically and clearly branded to be conducting or non- conducting it must be assumed that the electrical properties are uncontrolled. 3.4 Hose Routing When planning the hose routing use the following practices for optimum performance and more consistent and predictable service life. Routing at less than minimum bend radius will reduce the service life of the hose andor cause premature hose failure. Use the static or dynamic minimum bend radius according to service conditions. Sharp bends at the hose to fitting juncture should be avoided Hose assemblies subject to movement while operating should be installed in such a way that flexing occurs in the same plane. Hose assemblies shall not be installed or operated in a twisted or torqued condition. Swivel fittings or a lay line may be used to aid in torque-free installation. Also flanged hose assemblies should ideally have one end secured with a floating flange. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 21 Flange to flange bolt hole alignment is critical for proper installation. INCORRECT CORRECT Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD22 This page intentionally left blank Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 23 Section 4 Corrugated Metal Hose Section Contents 4.1 General Information 4.2 STAMPED 4.3 Hose Construction 4.4 Pressure Rating 4.5 Corrugated Metal Hose Assembly Dimensions 4.6 Corrugated Metal Hose Fittings 4.7 Corrugated Metal Hose Attachments Common Accessories 4.8 Attachment Methods 4.9 Testing 4.1 General Old Rule of thumb Use a metal hose when no other hose type will do. This was the rule in the past. Today we consider additional information before making the final decision on the proper hose to use If there is interest in improving safety increasing performance andor reducing potential for catastrophic failure consider metal hose. Metal hose is used for extreme temperature service from Hot Tar Asphalt to cryogenic service in the transfer of liquid nitrogen or oxygen when cleaned properly. If permeation is a concern i.e. Chlorine transfer metal hose does not allow gas to penetrate the hose wall thereby eliminating any problems. If compatibility is a concern i.e. hydrochloric acid or other aggressive chemicals having a large selection of metals available is the right solution so that appropriate materials can be selected for each application. Safety is always a major concern metal hose usually shows a sign of failure through small holes or cracks giving warning to remove the hose before a catastrophic event happens. Metal hose should also be considered if adaptability is a concern. Since ends are welded no special hose nipple has to be created to fit in a hose. Properly designed a metal hose can reduce vibration andor noise in a piping system making it more efficient with a longer working life. Additionally this makes for a quieter work environment for personnel reducing the chance of hearing loss. Metal hose can be adapted to just about any application today with a variety of styles covering flexibility pressure media and temperature and end fittings. Metal hose just may be your best solution. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD24 4.2 STAMPED 4.3 Hose Construction 4.4 Pressure Rating 4.5 Corrugated Metal Hose Assembly Dimensions 4.6 Corrugated Metal Hose Fittings 4.7 Corrugated Metal Hose Attachments and Common Accessories 4.8 Attachment Methods 4.9 Testing Procedures for Corrugated Metal Hose Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 25 Section 5 - Industrial Hose Section Contents 5.1 General Information 5.2 STAMPED 5.3 Assembly Component Selection Pressure Ratings Chart 5.4 Industrial Hose Data Sheets 5.5 Industrial Hose Fittings 5.6 Industrial Hose Attachments 5.7 Testing 5.8 Custom Made Hose 5.9 Ducting 5.1 General Industrial hose is normally constructed of rubber or plastic while being reinforced with textile fabric tire cord fabric andor braided or spiraled wire. Industrial hoses are designed for transfer of a wide range of materials in various specialty applications. In general some advantages of industrial hoses are increased hose flexibility the ability to produce long lengths large bore capabilities and the ability of industrial hose to coexist with a wide range of end fittings and attachment methods. Some typical applications for industrial hose are listed below air multipurpose hose water hose fire suppression hose cleaning service hose water suction and discharge hose Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD26 material handling hose specialty service hose food industry and transfer hose acid and chemical service hose petroleum service hose steam service hose aircraft refueling hose Industrial hoses are manufactured with a wide variety of rubber plastic or thermoplastic compounds due to the wide variety of conveyed materials solutions and applications. The particular compounds andor materials used for each industrial hose product depend on the specific application for each hose. See appendix C for a detailed description of hose materials. There are a number of factors that determine the appropriate materials used such as amount of oil resistance needed ARPM Class A B or C. amount of abrasion resistance needed amount of ozone andor weathering resistance needed amount of heat resistance needed amount of chemical or acid resistance needed type of service air liquid dry materials or steam service The two typical reinforcement methods of constructing industrial hose consist of braided or spiraled hose constructions. There are many factors that determine the reinforcement method. An example of a few factors that assist in determining the selected construction method are the elongation requirements amount of flexibility required vacuum resistance crush resistance or pressure requirements. Below is a brief description of each construction method braided hose construction hose reinforcement is attained by vertical or horizontal braiding of textile wire or other materials. Hoses may consist of a single braided layer to multiple braiding layers. Spiral or spiral-plied hose construction hose reinforcement is attained by spiral wrapping of textile wire or tire cord materials at specified angles. Multi-layer constructions are applied with each spiral layer in opposing directions. See Appendix C for a detailed description of reinforcement materials. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 27 5.2 STAMPED 5.3 Industrial Hose Assembly Component Selection and Pressure Ratings Chart Purpose The purpose of this section is to provide a simple chart of the most common industry recognized hose end connections and attachment method combinations that will satisfy the customers needs from the application information gathered from the STAMPED process including a targeted pressure rating for the finished assembly. Procedures on how to use This document recognizes that all hose assemblies are made up of at least two to three components. The hose end connections and attachment method are the three recognized components. The following are the procedures on how to use the component selection chart STEP 1. review STAMPED Section 2 and gather all the required application information to proceed with an assembly selection. STEP 2. Proceed to the Component Selection Chart which has the hose type fittings and attachments categories down the left columns of the chart. The most common hose sizes are across the top row of the selection chart going from left to the right. Select the appropriate hose fitting and attachment combination for achieving a target assembly pressure rating. If the cell is blank there is not a recognized combination of the components either a different combination should be selected or the NAHAD Hose Safety Institute distributor should be contacted for recommendations. Note These are typical industry combinations of hose end connections and attachment methods this chart is used as a guideline for best industry practices for hose assembly fabrication. For assemblies or components that are not listed it is strongly suggested to contact your local NAHAD Hose Safety Institute distributor for further information and recommendations. Pressure Ratings Hose assembly pressure ratings vary by hose fitting and attachment combinations and are always rated at the lesser of the hose fittings and attachment method used. The pressure ratings listed in the chart represent the typical assembly working pressure you can expect from the combination of hose fittings and attachment methods assuming the recommended assembly fabrication guidelines have been followed. Increased assembly pressure ratings may be achieved using higher performance components and fabrication techniques available from NAHAD Hose Safety Institute member manufacturers. For assembly pressure ratings higher than those listed in this chart please consult a NAHAD Hose Safety Institute Distributor. Note special tests may be required. Note pressure ratings in this chart assume that pressure ratings for individual components e.g. hose couplings have been verified either by the distributor or the relevant manufacturer. This chart also assumes proper assembly methods have been used and the Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD28 reader should refer to specific recommendations found within the hose and couplings sections. Establishing assembly pressure ratings Establishing pressure ratings is different than proof testing and is not to be confused with proof testing. Proof testing is a nondestructive test to confirm the assembly is safe at the working pressure the assembly is rated to. Proof testing confirms the assembly method as valid and may point out any deficiencies in the components or methods used to create the assembly. Proof testing is generally done at the distributor level but may be carried out by the end user or others as may be required. Burst testing is the only method for establishing an assembly working pressure at 70F. Any rating alteration due to operation at other temperatures is not considered in this procedure but must be addressed if the assembly is to be subjected to nonstandard temperature. Burst is a destructive test and in most cases the parts used for the test are not suitable for further testing or use. Burst testing is generally carried out at the manufacturer level but may be accomplished by distributors as well or others with the qualified personnel and equipment. The assembly to be burst tested shall be assembled by published procedures. These may be manufacturers procedures NAHAD procedures or procedures created by the individual conducting the test. These procedures as well as the components used in the assembly creation shall be documented. The actual test shall be conducted to ASTM D380 procedures for a straight burst test except in this case the whole assembly is under scrutiny instead of only the hose. The test conditions shall include the assembly room and media at 70F - 2. Failure in this case is defined as a burst of the hose a leak from any of the components or relative hose movement. The hose burst is the most obvious a leak can be more difficult to detect and the tester must be vigilant in the observation. Relative hose movement is the most difficult to determine. When using a sleeve or bands the end of the hose is not obstructed and can be easily determined. Some hose movement relative to the fitting is expected when using bands as the hose settles into the correct location this is especially true with shanks that have larger bumps and the band may not be fully effective if the band is not positioned perfectly. Even determining this perfect position can be difficult as hose behavior affects this. Similarly movement at a ferrule can be difficult and cannot be determined at the open end of the ferrule and must be determined by the end of the hose. As the hose elongates some of this elongation occurs under the ferrule as well so viewing the open end may show some of this elongation while the hose has not moved at the hose end. If slots do not exist in the ferrule other means of determining the end of the hose must be utilized. This can include making slots in the ferrules for viewing or perhaps using any holes that may exist in the ferrule for viewing. Another factor that may affect the observation is hose shear where some of the layers move relative to each other but those layers with the most retention remain stationary. Documentation of the effects during testing shall be maintained and photos of any portion including the results are recommended. The assembly maximum working pressure shall be based on the burst test conducted by dividing the burst results by the safety factor of the hose for the application but in no case shall it be less than 4 to 1 exception 3 to 1 for water hose assemblies up to 150 psi. Generally these results are rounded down to a more understood whole number. Temperature Derating Factors for Hose Assemblies Temperature directly affects maximum allowable working pressure. Most manufacturers rate maximum operating pressures at an ambient temperature of 70 degrees F. If a hose is to be considered for use in an application that exceeds this ambient temperature consult manufacturer for any pressure derating of the hose assembly. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 29 5.4 Hose Data Sheets Sample 5.4.1 AirMulti Purpose Hose General Uses There are typically three categories of air hose oil resistant see chart below non-oil resistant and non-conductive. The lower pressure hoses are generally used for applications such as air guns service stations industrial air lines in plants and many other air services. High pressure air hoses which are considered to be hoses with working pressures above 300 psi 2069 kPa are generally used in construction and mining where large volumes of air service are required. The non- conductive air hose is specifically made to meet one megohm resistance per inch when 1000 volts DC is applied. Typical Hose Constructions include Non-Oil Resistant Rubber Air Hose Medium Oil-Resistant Rubber Air Hose High Oil-Resistant Rubber Air Hose Non-Conductive Air Hose PVC Air Hose Polyurethane Air Hose Textile Braid Air Drill Hose Wire Braid Air Hose. Limitations Hoses that are non-oil resistant rubber should not be used in an oil environment. Consult hose manufacturer for material and compatibility recommendations. Physical Properties After Exposure to Oil Volume Change Max. Tensile Strength Retained Class A High Oil Resistance 25 80 Class B Medium Oil Resistance 65 50 Class C Limited Oil Resistance 100 40 Disclaimer It is recommended that the user test the hosefluid compatibility to their own standards. Since no industry standards exist for chemical resistance the Compass Chemical Resistance Guide for Elastomers is used whenever possible. www.compasspublications.com see Appendix H of this document for additional information. Note Chart used with permission from ARPM Hose Handbook. NAHAD and ARPM recommend the following minimum safety factors or design factors for newly manufactured hose Water hose up to 150 psi WP 31 Hoses for all other liquids solid materials suspended in liquids or air and water hose over 150 psi WP 41 Hoses for compressed air and other gasses 41 Hoses for liquid media that immediately changes into gas under standard atmospheric conditions 51 Steam hose 101 Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD30 Warnings Do not use non-oil resistant hoses in an oil environment. Non-conductive hoses should be used in high voltage areas. Use extreme caution with high pressure air applications andor high temperature applications. When utilizing the crimp method to fabricate high pressure air hose assemblies using a heavy ferrule manufacturer crimp specifications MUST be used further it is critical that assembly components hose ferrule and hose insert systems be explicitly intended for air applications be explicitly intended for use together and be provided by recognized HSI distributor andor manufacturer members. Safety cables also known as whip-checks should be used with high pressure air hose applications to minimize the risk of operator injury. Refer to Hose Assembly Component Selection Pressure Ratings Chart for fitting and attachment recommendations. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 31 5.5 Industrial Hose Fittings Sample 5.5.1 Cam and Groove Metallic Only Female Cam Groove Female Cam Groove Male Cam Groove with Locking Arms without Locking Arms General Uses Cam and Groove female couplers and male adapters are used as a means of quickly coupling small to large hose assemblies. They connect hose to hose or hose to a pipe system for the purpose of transferring liquids or dry bulk products. Connections are made by inserting the male into the female coupler and rotating ALL the cam arms into their locked positions. Cam and Groove couplings are available in both locking and non-locking cam arm designs. Sizes range from 12 inch to 12 inch nominal size. Limitations Care must be used to select a body material arm material and gasket material that is compatible with the material being transferred through the coupling. Various hose shank styles are available to accommodate different hose attachment methods and hose configurations. Care should be taken in hose shank selection to prevent damage to the hose tube while maintaining retention integrity. For maximum coupling retention an interlocking collar should be used. Cam and Groove fittings are interchangeable among manufacturers with the exception of inch 5 inch 8 inch10 inch or 12 inch which may not be interchangeable. Pressure ratings of cam and groove fittings vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. Be sure to select a Cam and Groove fitting that will meet the application requirements. Contact your NAHAD Hose Safety Institute Distributor or Manufacturer for more information on material and hose shank selection interchangeability and pressure rating capabilities. Warnings Cam and Groove couplings must never be used for compressed gas or steam service. When replacement of cam arms is necessary use only original manufacturers replacement arms. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD32 When using band style clamps cam and groove couplings are designed for evenly spaced clamps with buckles rotated 180 degrees from each other. 5.6 Industrial Hose Attachments Sample 5.6.1 CrimpSwage Ferrule General Uses Properly interlocked crimped stems and ferrules can provide greater fitting retention and improved resistance to higher pressures fitting blow-offs and leaks. Limitations Crimp stems and the ferrules have to properly interlock. Ferrule material thickness has a direct impact on assembly working pressure. The material of the ferrule must be compatible with all materials to which it may be exposed. This includes both the material being transferred as well as external materials. Proper equipment is required to crimp the ferrule onto the assembly. For maximum coupling retention the ferrule must lock into the hose shank locking collar. Warnings For proper component selection and crimping instructions refer to your NAHAD Hose Safety Institute Distributor. 5.7 Testing Procedures for Industrial Hose Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 33 5.8 Custom-Made Hose Custom Made hose is generally hose that is manufactured to meet the requirements of a specific application. Application of hose components tube reinforcementcover etc. is typically by hand. Applications requiring hose attributes that are not typically available with standard hose assembly components are usually considered custom. Application considerations requiring non-standard solutions include required bend radius chemical heat or abrasion resistance both interior and external end fittings working pressurevacuum bore size made to order length and built on ends. Many people refer to these applications as hand built hose. For the purposes of this document the terms hand built hose and custom made hose can be used interchangeably. Background Taken from the Hose Handbook published by the Rubber Manufacturers Association Inc. The term hand built hose applies to two general types of hose I.e. non-wire reinforced and wire reinforced which are made by hand on a steel mandrel. The mandrel is mounted on a series of double roller stands and one end of the mandrel is held in the jaws of a power driven chuck in order to rotate the mandrel during the making operations. Applications and Markets Application Considerations Application Requirements STAMPED Custom Hose Ends Built-In Nipples provide a secure connection and full flow unrestricted transition area. Available in threaded fixed or floating flanges grooved or plain end styles Hose I.D. Length Offering Hose I.D. Mfd. Length 2 to 16 Any length up to 100 ft. 17 to 48 Any length up to 60 ft. 49 to 60 Any length up to 50 ft. Retaining bands on the nipple are bonded to the hose for permanent attachment and maximum holding power 14 38 are the most common tube thickness for most applicationsthicker tubes available on request. Required tube thickness will depend on the severity of the application. Choose from a variety of tube and cover compounds to protect against oils chemicals abrasion and corrosive materials. Corrugated instructions available for enhanced flexibility and lighter weights. Multiple plies of tire cord with single or dual helix wires provide high working pressures and full vacuum capabilities Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD34 5.9 Ducting General All types of ducts are classified into two general groups by Positive or Negative Pressure. Positive Air Ducts tend to have wider pitch while Negative pressure Air Ducts typically need a narrow pitch to handle vacuum. General warning these are general guidelines please consult Section 3 STAMPED for more specific guidance. For application-specific uses please check with the manufacturer. Air Ducting General Uses Air ducts tend to be lighter in weight as they are designed to transport air. Their pitch will be determined by either a negative or positive air application. The products tend to have lighter weight fabric and helix. Lay flat duct is also used for positive pressure air handling. Some typical applications are Heating and Cooling Drying Dehumidifiying Cleaning Dust Covers Supply Connectors Air Filter Intake General purpose Limitations Not recommended for heavy particulate media. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 35 Sample Metal Ducting Metal Ducting flexible interlocked metal duct A single metal strip is formed to create a duct that can be used for dust fume and hot air ducting applications up to 750 F for Galvanized material and 1500 F for Stainless Steel. This type of ducting can be used in packed or unpacked configurations. Metal Ducting flexible gas-tight metal duct A single metal strip is corrugated and helically-wound to form a duct that can be used for air supply and fume exhaust ducting applications up to 600 F for Aluminum material and 1500 F for Stainless Steel. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD36 This page intentionally left blank Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 37 Section 6 - Composite Hose Section Contents 6.1 General Information 6.2 STAMPED 6.3 Composite Hose Materials and Construction 6.4 Composite Hose Fittings 6.5 Testing 6.6 Installation Usage for Composite Hose 6.1 General 6.2 STAMPED 6.3 Hose Materials and Construction 6.4 Composite Adapter Fittings 6.5 Testing Procedures for Composite Hose 6.6 Installation and Usage for Composite Hose Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD38 This page intentionally left blank. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 39 Section 7 - Hydraulic Hose Section Contents 7.1 Introduction to Hydraulics 7.2 STAMPED 7.3 Hydraulic Hose and Hose Selection 7.4 Coupling Selection 7.5 Hose Assemblies Length Orientation Measurement Testing 7.6 Accessories and Equipment 7.7 Cleanliness Considerations 7.1 Introduction to Hydraulics This NAHAD Guideline is intended to complement existing industry standards and federal regulations. This document recommends methods and requirements necessary for the selection of components fabrication and testing of hose assemblies and pertains to hydraulic hose and hydraulic hose assemblies. Hydraulics can be simply defined as the science of using fluid under pressure to do work. Hydraulic hose assemblies are flexible fluid power connectors used to convey and direct these fluids. Today hydraulics has progressed to where it is used in agriculture construction metal working marine forestry mining and practically any other industry you can name. It is extremely important that the specific instructions of the hose and coupling manufacturers be followed. The intermixing of hose and couplings from different manufacturers is not typically acceptable. Couplings are engineered to only work with approved hoses and vice-versa. Do not use hosecoupling combinations that are not approved by the manufacturer. If the hose and coupling are supplied by different manufacturers then both must approve of their use together. In no instance should the information printed in this section supersede a manufacturers instructions. Safety should be a paramount concern whenever working with a hydraulic system. The fluids conveyed are often at high temperatures and extremely high pressures which present unique dangers. Hydraulic fluid injuries are generally very sever and may come in several forms. Fluid injections wounds may occur any time there is a leak in a hydraulic system. Never check for leaks or damage to a hydraulic system by Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD40 feel the best case scenario with a fluid injection wound is months of painful treatment to recover additional risks include amputation and death. Due to the high temperatures any time a user is exposed to hydraulic fluids severe burns may result this exposure may be a result of an assembly failure or even oil released during maintenance. Additionally there is a danger of fire or explosion if a hose fails around a hot engine or exhaust manifold or if a static discharge takes place in a fluid spray. Unconstrained hoses may whip on pressurization or in the event of failure and are extremely dangerous. Additionally during the release of pressure on the hydraulic system improperly secured booms or other cylinder supported components may drop suddenly. A sometimes less recognized risk is that of electrical shock. Any equipment used to work around live electrical lines such as lifts etc should be equipped with hydraulic hoses rated as non-conductive. This is because most hydraulic hoses have wire reinforcement and are inherently conductive. Also even with non-conductive hoses are used it is important to recognized that hydraulic fluids may also act as conductors. 7.1.1 Basic Components of Hydraulic Systems 7.2 STAMPED 7.3 Hose and Hose Selection Many hydraulic hose types and constructions are available today regarding Pressure Lines Return Lines and Suction lines of a typical hydraulic circuit. The most common and popular hydraulic hoses are manufactured per ISO SAE EN standards summarized in Figures 7-a 7-b and 7-c. ISO International Standards Organization has become more recognized by the industry and manufacturers in recent years. ISO has incorporated general build and performance characteristics of SAE EN specifications to help eliminate confusion associated with hydraulic hose construction types and performance ratings. ISO has adopted SAEJ517 SAEJ517 Standard provides general dimensional and performance specification for the most common hoses used in hydraulic systems on mobile and stationary equipment. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 41 Basics of Hydraulic Hose Excerpt Hydraulics allow the transfer of energy through an incompressible fluid liquid this gives a very high power density. Hydraulic hose assembly is a conduit to transfer energy from port-to-port or point A to point B within a hydraulic circuit. Hydraulic hose assembly consists of a flexible hose with connectors Couplings Fittings andor Stems Ferrules at each end. Hydraulic hoses are constructed of three main components Tube Reinforcement and Cover. The inner most part of the hydraulic hose is the tube wrapped up by reinforcement which is encapsulated with a cover. . Tube The tube is the inner most lining of a hydraulic hose and comes into contact with the fluid being conveyed tube and fluid compatibility is most critical. As described above the inner part of a hose is the tube its function is to contain and convey the service fluid. Furthermore it also protects the outer elements of the hose from the possible aggression of the conveyed fluid. Additional caution must be exercised in hose selection for gaseous applications where permeation may occur. Permeation or effusion is seepage through the hose pores resulting in loss of fluid. This may occur when hose is used with fluids such as but not limited to liquid and gas fuels refrigerants helium fuel oil natural gas. The material of the tube is chosen among a great number of synthetic rubbers. The chemical composition of the compounds should be selected to meet the requirements of the application. Reinforcement The tube itself cannot withstand the pressure of the conveyed fluid in fact as mentioned above the design of the tube considers only its compatibility with the fluid to contain while the very wide range of pressures present in hydraulic applications must be analyzed otherwise. The reinforcement material is the MuscleStrength to resist internal or external pressures. The three basic types of reinforcement are Spiral Braid and Helical. Helical Reinforcement Spiral Reinforcement Braid Reinforcement Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD42 Hose Materials The characteristics shown below are for the normal or usual range of these specific stocks. Stocks can be changed somewhat through different compounding to meet the requirements of specialized applications. Tube and cover stocks may occasionally be upgraded to take advantage of improved materials and technology. Neoprene Poly- Choro- prene Type A Nitrile Acrylo- nitrile and Butadiene Type C Nylon Type Z Hypalon Chloro- sulfonated Poly- ethylene Type M EPDM Ethylene Propylene Diene Type P CPE Chlorin- ated Poly- ethylene Type J PTFE Poly- tetrafluoro- ethylene Type T Flame Resistance Very Good Poor Good Good Poor Good Good Petroleum Base Oils Good Excellent Good to Excellent Good Poor Very Good Excellent Diesel Fuel Fair to Good Good to Excellent Good to Excellent Good Poor Good Excellent Resistance to Gas Permeation Good Good Good To Excellent Good to Excellent Fair to Good Good Good to Excellent Weather Good to Excellent Poor Excellent Very Good Excellent Good Excellent Ozone Good to Excellent Poor for Tube Good For Cover Excellent Very Good Outstanding Good Excellent Heat Good Good Good Very Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Low Temperature Fair to Good Poor to Fair Excellent Poor Good to Excellent Good Excellent Water-Oil Emulsions Excellent Excellent Good to Excellent Good Poor Excellent Excellent WaterGlycol Emulsions Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Diesters Poor Poor Excellent Fair Excellent Very Good Excellent Phosphate Esters Fair For Cover Poor Excellent Fair Very Good Very Good Excellent Phosphate Ester Base Emulsions Fair For Cover Poor Excellent Fair Very Good Very Good Excellent Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 43 7.4 Coupling Selection A hose end coupling is the connector attached at the end of the hose that connects with a port adapter another coupling or attachment such as a quick disconnect. Therefore the coupling has two functional ends. These are the hose end or stem which connects onto the hose and the terminal end which connects the hose assembly to whatever it is that you are attaching the hose assembly to. Coupling selection refers to the choice of hose end coupling that attaches to the hose to form the hose assembly. Choosing the proper stem and ferrule depends on the specific hose and terminal end to be used in the assembly. Check the manufacturers recommendations to ensure proper hose assembly components and crimp specifications. NOTE Care must be taken to determine proper compatibility between the hose and fitting. Hose from one manufacturer is not usually compatible with couplings from another. Do not intermix hose and fittings from two manufacturers without approval from both manufacturers. It is imperative that the coupling selected is compatible and approved for use with the choice of hose. 7.4.1 Types of Couplings 7.4.2 Coupling Selection 7.4.3 Coupling Material 7.4.4 Coupling Sizing 7.4.5 Coupling Terminal End Thread Identification It is always important to measure the threads since there are so many threads similar in measurement and which may look very similar. The proliferation of threads on the world market today makes it easy to mismatch threads resulting in leakage and possible serious accident. Each manufacturer has his own shell and stem markings to match the different hose types. This marking system can be part numbers stamped on the product notches lines etc. For this reason it is recommended to consult the manufacturer if there is any question. Terminal EndHose End Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD44 Sample O Ring Boss The O-ring boss male will mate with an O-ring boss female only. The female is generally found on ports. The male has straight threads and an O-ring. The female has straight threads and a sealing face. The seal is made at the O-ring on the male and the sealing face on the female. Dash Size Nominal Size in. Thread Size Female Thread I.D. in. Male Thread O.D. in. -2 316 38-24 2164 38 -4 14 716-20 2564 716 -5 516 12-20 2964 12 -6 38 916-18 12 916 -8 12 34-16 1116 34 -10 58 78-14 1316 78 -12 34 1-116-12 3132 1-116 -14 78 1-316-12 1-764 1-316 -16 1 1-516-12 1-1564 1-516 -20 1-14 1-58-12 1-3564 1-58 -24 1-12 1-78-12 1-5164 1-78 -32 2 2-12-12 2-2764 2-12 7.5 Hose Assemblies Length Orientation Measurement Testing 7.6 Accessories and Equipment 7.7 Hydraulic Hose Cleanliness Considerations Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 45 Section 8 Fluoropolymer Hose Section Contents 8.1 General Information 8.2 STAMPED 8.3 Measurements for Fluoropolymer Hose Assemblies 8.4 Fluoropolymer Hose Fittings Attachments 8.5 Performance Characteristics 8.6 Hose Assembly Length Determination for Various Movements 8.7 Hose Routing 8.8 Assembly Methods 8.9 Testing Procedures for Fluoropolymer Hose 8.1 General The fluoropolymer hose assemblies specified are suitable for the major portion of commercial and industrial applications. This document is not intended to prohibit either supplier or customer from attaching additional requirements for fluoropolymer hose assemblies if necessary to satisfy the application. The following applications are excluded from the scope of this document Installations involving torque axial compression or extension Extreme working pressures above 3500 psi Extreme Temperature above 500 F Chlorine or Bromine applications High Purity Compressed Gas The purpose of this section is to identify the types of linersinner cores most frequently used in the fabrication of fluoropolymer hose. This information will guide you in the selection of the proper fluoropolymer hose required for a specific application. Fluoropolymer hoses are manufactured in several different configurations depending on the application. When selecting the hose consideration must be given to corrosion resistance service temperature pressure ratings end fittings and exterior environmental conditions. See S.T.A.M.P.E.D section NOTE The manufacturer should identify which fluoropolymer is used in any product being referenced. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD46 8.2 STAMPED 8.3 Measurements for Fluoropolymer Hose Assemblies 8.4 Coupling Terminal End Thread Identification Sample SAE 45 Flare A term usually applied to fittings having a 45 angle flare or seat. Soft copper tubing is generally used in such applications as it is easily flared to the 45 angle. These are for low pressure applications such as for fuel lines and refrigerant lines. The SAE 45 flare male will mate with an SAE 45 flare female only. The SAE male has straight threads and a 45 flare seat. The SAE female has straight threads and a 45 flare seat. The seal is made on the 45 flare seat. Some sizes have the same threads as the SAE 37 flare. Carefully measure the seat angle to differentiate. Note Some couplings may have dual machined seats both 37 and 45 seats. Dash Size Nominal Size in. Thread Size Female Thread I.D. in. Male Thread O.D. in. -2 18 516-24 1764 516 -3 316 38-24 2164 38 -4 14 716-20 2564 716 -5 516 12-20 2964 12 -6 38 58-18 916 58 -7 716 1116-6 58 1116 -8 12 34-16 1116 34 -10 58 78-14 1316 78 -12 34 1-116-14 6364 1-116 -14 78 1-14-12 1-1164 1-14 -16 1 1-38-12 1-1964 1-38 Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 47 8.5 Performance Characteristics Purpose The purpose of this section is to establish various performance characteristics of fluoropolymer hose assemblies. Maximum Allowable Working Pressure MAWP The typical MAWP for fluoropolymer hoses is 41 ratio of its burst pressure to working pressure. Some manufacturers state this as 31 ratio as well. End users must validate the appropriate MAWP to the application. Please note that the MAWP of the assembly is that of the lowest WP spec of either the fitting or the hose. Temperature Unless otherwise stated hose of fluoropolymer assemblies are suitable for applications up to 300F - 500F depending on style of hose and manufacturer. Most manufacturers rate maximum operating pressures at 70 F temperatures. If a hose is to be considered for use in an application that exceeds 70 F consult manufacturer for any pressure de-rating of the hose of fluoropolymer assembly. The type of chemical being conveyed through the hose will impact temperature considerations as well. Chemical Compatibility For the corrosion resistance of the non-fluoropolymer components of a hose assembly consult the component manufacturer or the following trusted handbooks National Association of Corrosion Engineers Handbook 1440 South Creek Drive Houston TX 77084 Compass Guide Compass Publications 7731 Lookout Drive La Jolla CA 92037 Phone 858 551-9240 Fax 858 551-9340 Internet httpwww.compasspublications.com Minimum Bend Radius A sphere with a diameter equal to 85 of the internal diameter of the hose must be able to roll freely from end to end in an unpressurized assembly bent 180 degrees at the hoses stated minimum bend radius. Vacuum Rating The maximum amount of vacuum that can be drawn on the inside of a hose assembly without causing the assembly to fail the minimum bend test as specified by the hose manufacturer. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD48 8.6 Hose Assembly Length Determination For Various Movements 8.7 Hose Routing Fluoropolymer Hose When planning the hose routing use the following practices for optimum performance and more consistent and predictable service life. Caution When determining the overall lengths for the final routed length of an assembly it must be noted that hose lengths in these assemblies can by design grow in length 2 or shrink in length -4 If this is not accounted for severe damage can occur to the hose assembly. Routing at less than minimum bend radius will reduce the service life of the hose andor cause premature hose failure. Use the static or dynamic minimum bend radius according to service conditions. Sharp bends at the hose to fitting juncture should be avoided Hose assemblies subject to movement while operating should be installed in such a way that flexing occurs in the same plane. Hose assemblies shall not be installed or operated in a twisted or torqued condition. Swivel fittings or a lay line may be used to aid in torque-free installation. Also flanged hose assemblies should ideally have one end secured with a floating flange. Flange to flange bolt hole alignment is critical for proper installation. Figure 8.11 8.8 Assembly Methods 8.9 Testing Procedures for Fluoropolymer Hose Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 49 Section 9 Testing Procedures 9.1 Purpose The purpose of this section is to define minimum test requirements which should be routinely carried out on all new hose assemblies before use. The following testing methods may or may not be required. Refer to the customer requirements andor the appropriate assembly data sheets for recommended testing and documentation needed. 9.2 Testing Procedures for Corrugated Metal Hose Pneumatic Test Unless otherwise specified the hose assembly shall be subjected to a pneumatic test at a value defined in Table 9.5.1. Using a gaseous media the assembly is immersed in a bath of water for a sufficient length of time to permit visual examination of all fabricated joints. Typical gas testing media are air nitrogen and helium. To guard against corrosion the chloride content of the water used for testing austenitic stainless steel should be controlled to less than 50 ppm parts per million. Minimum testing time should be twenty 20 seconds. Any evidence of leakage or permanent deformation is cause for rejection. Table 9.2.1 Minimum Pneumatic Test Pressures Unbraided Assemblies Nominal I.D. Pressure 14 through 6 15 psig Hydrostatic Test The hydrostatic test not only tests for leakage it confirms the assemblys structural integrity. The assembly shall be pressurized with water to the maximum test pressure of the assembly and maintained for a sufficient length of time to permit a visual examination. To guard against corrosion the chloride content of the water used for testing austenitic stainless steel should be controlled to less than 50 ppm parts per million. The minimum testing time should be one 1 minute. Any evidence of leakage or permanent deformation is cause for rejection. Helium Mass Spectrometer Test Helium mass spectrometer testing is the most accurate way of evaluating leakage but not strength. Assemblies designed for critical applications should be leak tested with this method. All tested assemblies shall have a leak rate less than 1 x 10 -3 stdccsec. Helium mass spectrometer testing to smaller leak rates may be available consult the assembly fabricator. Cleaning for Oxygen Oxygen can spontaneously ignite and explode in the presence of hydrocarbons or if solid particles Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD50 are caught in its flow. Methods and parameters for both oxygen cleaning and cleanliness testing can be referenced in the Compressed Gas Association publication Cleaning Equipment for Oxygen Service CGA G-4.1. Breathable oxygen applications require special consideration. Consult the customer for appropriate requirements. Additional Leakage Tests Consult the fabricator for other testing methods. These may include but are not limited to the following Pressure Decay Vacuum Decay Mass Flow and Dye Penetrant Leak Test. Test to Establish Maximum Allowable Working Pressure MAWP A straight hose assembly having a live length equal to ten 10 times its nominal diameter but not less than twenty 20 inches shall be subjected to gradually increasing hydrostatic pressure. During the test increases in volume and live length shall be recorded for each increase in pressure. The following criteria must be satisfied At one and a half 1.5 times the MAWP the increase in live length must be less than three percent 3 The pressure at which there is a marked permanent increase in internal volume without a corresponding increase in length deformation pressure must be greater than one and a half 1.5 times the MAWP and The pressure at which the assembly ruptures burst pressure must be greater than or equal to four 4 times the MAWP. 9.3 Testing Procedures for Industrial Hose 9.4 Testing Procedures for Composite Hose 9.5 Testing Procedures for Hydraulic Hose 9.6 Testing Procedures for Fluoropolymer Hose 9.7 Calibrations 9.8 Test Documentation 9.9 Other Documentation Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 51 Section 10 Quality Plan 10.1 Purpose The purpose of this section is to outline a quality plan for fabricating hose assemblies. The assurance of an acceptable hose assembly reaching the customer depends upon the quality of the components and the workmanship of the fabricator. An effective quality control plan is based on statistical sampling principles. Responsibility for supervising the quality plan must be designated. Corrective action procedures must be formalized to deal with nonconformance. 10.2 Sampling Plan An effective sampling plan is based on the statistical history of a design that demonstrates quality performance and sets confidence levels. Sampling is performed in an effort to statistically evaluate a product or process against tolerances that are considered acceptable as determined by national standards customer requirements etc. This monitoring of product or process with an adequate sampling plan is done in an effort to provide 100 acceptable product to the customer. In an ideal world if inspection capability is 100 effective then the only way to assure 100 acceptable product is to inspect everything 100. Due to practical considerations of time and resources both manpower and financial 100 inspection will probably not occur as a standard method of operation. Sampling vs. 100 Testing Sampling is more cost effective than 100 testing. 100 testing is more risk effective than sampling. The balance requires knowing the product process and application. What can go wrong How consistently can the assembly procedure be controlled How critical or hazardous is the application The Zero Acceptance Number Sampling Plans by Nicholas L. Squeglia is a current effective sampling system and is recommended should sampling rather than 100 testing be selected. There are many areas or processes that may be sampled. These may vary from operation to operation but there are some constants that should probably apply no matter what the operation. A. Inspection of incoming material You cannot guarantee the quality of the outgoing product if the quality of incoming materials has not been verified. B. In process inspection This may be as simple as inspection of the first assembly produced. Or it may be quite complicated such as doing a complete dimensional audit on so many pieces per production run and plotting these results on Statistical Process Control SPC charts in order to track trends and potential problems. C. Final Inspection This may be relatively simple such as verifying piece counts before shipping to the customer or as complicated as checking specific criteria to ensure compliance with the customers requirements. Regardless of what is being sampled inspection characteristics the corresponding documentation and the personnel responsible for carrying for inspecting these characteristics must be defined. Inspection characteristics the corresponding documentation and the personnel responsible must Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD52 be defined regardless of what is being sampled. When establishing the frequency of sampling there are many factors that need to be considered. These include but are not limited to 1. Cost 2. Complexity of process 3. Application 4. Liability 5. Stability of procedure If a process is very stable as indicated by past performance the frequency of sampling can be decreased. There is no specific sampling plan that can be considered best suited to all applications. 10.3 Material Receiving Inspection 10.4 Hose Assembly Dimensional Inspection if applicable 10.5 Storage Labeling Environment Time Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 53 Section 11 Assembly Identification Cleaning and Packaging 11.1 Purpose This section is intended to establish methods and content of applying hose assembly identification markings and identify minimum cleaning and packaging requirements. 11.2 Hose Assembly Markings Customers may require specific markings be applied to the hose assemblies for identification purposes labeling and marking requirements should be communicated by the end user. These may include but are not limited to 1. Fabrication date 2. Part numbers 3. Assembly description 4. Etc. For composite hose the following information should be included 1. The manufacturers name trademark or other identification 2. The hose serial number or manufacturers lotI.D. number. 3. The nominal bore size 4. The month and year of hose assembly 5. The maximum working pressure. Example MannameCH123Aug97150psi Note Excluded from this document are acceptable marking methods for chlorine hose. Refer to Pamphlet 6 from the Chlorine Institute Pamphlet 6 edition 15 Appendix A Section 9 Method of Marking The marking of hose assemblies may be achieved in two ways 1. Information pre-stamped in legible characters on metal tag or band affixed to the assembly by approved durable method. 2. Information in legible characters stamped directly onto the ferrule braid sleeve fitting or printed heat shrink. 3. Branding may be achieved with colored stripes on the hose embossed brands stenciling printing labels etc. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD54 11.3 Cleaning General Each assembly shall be supplied to the customer free of water debris metal shavings dirt or any foreign material that may cause problems to the application. Air may be blown through the assembly to remove some of the loose particles. Some customers have stringent cleanliness requirements that may require fluid flushing or projectile cleaning of the assembly. End connection openings should be sealed or capped to maintain cleanliness and protect external threads. Note when an assembly is being used for oxygen service special cleaning is typically required. Consult the provider for requirements. Contamination in hose assemblies starts with the storage methods. Hose in storage that is left uncapped will have dust dirt bugs and even small animals inside. In addition there is a certain amount of chaff bits of rubber wire etc from the cutting process. Cleaning hose and tube assemblies is vital to the life of the system and generally done by using compressed air. In most cases this is not adequate and special cleaning fluids projectiles and even pressure cleaning can be used. It is the responsibility of the system designer or ultimate customer to specify the ISO code cleanliness level requirements. All assemblies must be capped or plugged. Unless a specific cleanliness level has been specified either by the customer or by an agency standard the assembly shall be blown with clean dry compressed air and capped before delivery. Caution always wear eye protection when using compressed air. Hydraulic Hose Cleanliness Considerations Composite Hose Cleanliness Considerations Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 55 11.4 Packaging Hose assemblies shall be packaged in such a manner to insure that external abuse during shipping and handling does not damage the hose or fittings. Hose shall be packed in a clean and dry state. Containers boxes banding and pallets shall be of sufficient size and strength to withstand handling and transit without failure. When packaged hose assemblies should not be coiled tighter than the specified minimum bend radius. Check customer information for any specific labeling or packaging requirements. Packaging Options check with the manufacturer for recommendations Coiled o Protective wrap palletized o in crates o on reels o poly-bagged in bales Straight o Slat packing o Plastic tubes o Metal rack dedicated truck o Poly-bagged o Skids Slat Packing Packaging and Handling Considerations for Large Diameter Hose and Assemblies Handling in transit and during installation needs to be considered in order to reduce or eliminate potential damage. Care should be taken not to kink the hose damage the hose cover or stress it in ways it wasnt designed to handle. Any questions should be referred to the manufacturer. Some considerations include Do not drag the hose over docks or decks or sharp abrasive surfaces Never lift long length or large bore hose from the middle of its length with the ends hanging down Support the hose with wide slings or saddles to limit the curvature of the hose. In order to increase the service life of the hose NAHAD recommends that proper support be given to the hose during lifting the use of chains rope or cable should be avoided. Do not kink hose or run over it with equipment For additional information see the ARPM manuals for hose maintenance testing and inspection. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD56 This page intentionally left blank. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 57 Section 12 Installation and Handling 12.1 General The purpose of this section is to increase awareness on the proper installation and handling of hose assemblies and to alert fabricators installers and end-users to the safety hazards in the field. Hoses and hose assemblies are used interchangeably in this document. Hoses are used to convey fluids gases and other media. Hose constructions are available in a variety of materials and styles depending on the intended application. All hose has a finite life and there are a number of factors which will reduce its life. The design and use of systems which contain hoses require consideration of factors related to specific application requirements. 12.2 Safety Environmental Considerations Below are some potential conditions that can lead to personal injury and property damage. This list is not inclusive. Consider reasonable and feasible means including those described in this section to reduce the risk of injuries or property damage. Employers with hose assemblies in fluid systems are encouraged to provide training including the information in this document for maintenance personnel and other employees working with and around hoses under pressure. Media Permeation Hoses should always be used in well-ventilated areas. Certain media will permeate through hoses that can displace breathable air in confined spaces. Consult the manufacturer if in question. Fluid Injections Fine streams of pressurized fluid can penetrate skin and enter a human body. Fluid injection wounds may cause severe tissue damage and loss of limb. Consider the use of guards and shields to reduce the risk of fluid injections. If a fluid injection occurs contact a doctor or medical facility at once. Do not delay or treat as a simple cut. Fluid injections are serious injuries and prompt medical treatment is essential. Be sure the doctor knows how to treat this type of injury. Avoid all contact with escaping fluids. Treat all leaks as though they are pressurized and hot or caustic enough to burn skin. Whipping Hose If a pressurized hose or hose fitting comes apart the loose hose end can flail or whip with great force and fittings can be thrown off a high speed. This is particularly true in compressible gas or fluid systems. If the risk of hose whipping exists consider the use of guards and restraints. Fire and Explosions from Conveyed Fluids All hydraulic fluids including many designated as Fire Resistant are flammable will burn when exposed to the proper conditions. Fluids under pressure which escape from system containment may develop a mist or fine spray that Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD58 can explode upon contact with a source of ignition e.g. open flames sparks and hot manifolds. 12.3 Hose Routing 12.4 Hose Installation and Replacement The following practices shall be used when installing hose assemblies in new systems or replacing hose assemblies in existing systems. Pre-Installation Inspection Before installing hose assemblies the following shall be examined A. Hose length and routing should be compliant with original design. B. Correct style size length and visible non-conformity of assembly should be confirmed. C. Check fitting seats and threads for burrs nicks or other damage. D. Kinked crushed flattened abraided deformed or twisted hose should be discarded. E. Check for correct fitting alignment or orientation. F. Hose should be visually inspected for cleanliness and any contaminants removed. Handling During Installation Handle hose with care during installation bending beyond the minimum bend radius will reduce hose life. Sharp bends at the hose to fitting juncture should be avoided. Selecting the proper handling equipment slings cradles hose saddles and spreader bars is critical. Chains or wire ropes should never be used during installation to support the hose. Slings cradles spreader bars or other equipment can be used. Hoses of large enough girth may require cranes or other appropriate material handling equipment but forklift forks should never be inserted inside the hose. The hose should never be lifted moved or maneuvered from the inside. Please see the following page for additional handling Dos and Donts. Hoses must be correctly supported during use. These supports should be arranged so that the hoses are never bent beyond the minimum bend radius. Hoses should never be supported along their live length by a single rope. Slings saddles or some other means of proper support must be used. The support must be wide enough to spread the load sufficiently so that the hose is not deformed in the area of support. Incorrect installation can unduly stress hose assemblies leading to a shortened working life or premature failure. A. Flanged hose assemblies should ideally have one end secured with a floating flange. B. Hose assemblies must not be twisted either on installation or in use. C. Hose assemblies subject to movement while operating should be installed in such a way that flexing occurs in the same plane. D. When installing hose assemblies careful attention should be paid to minimum bend radii specifications. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 59 12.5 Maintenance Inspection Inspection Frequency Visual Inspections Failure Modes and Analysis Improper application Improper assembly and installation External damage Faulty equipment Faulty hose Physical Examination A physical examination of the failed hose can often offer a clue to the cause of the failure. Following are 22 symptoms to look for along with the conditions that could cause them 1. Symptom The hose tube is very hard and has cracked. Cause Heat has a tendency to leach the plasticizers out of the tube. This is a material that gives the hose its flexibility or plasticity. Aerated oil causes oxidation to occur in the tube. This reaction of oxygen on a rubber product will cause it to harden. Any combination of oxygen and heat will greatly accelerate the hardening of the hose tube. Cavitation occurring inside the tube would have the same effect. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD60 Section 13 Definitions The following Terms as utilized in the hose industry includes some definitions from The Hose Handbook published by the Rubber Manufacturers Association. abrasion external damage to a hose assembly caused by its being rubbed on a foreign object a wearing away by friction. abrasion resistance the ability of the hose to withstand abrasion. Internal the ability of the hose assembly to withstand failure caused by media passing through the hose. External the ability of the hose assembly to withstand abrasion caused by foreign objects rubbing against the cover. abrasion tester a machine for determining the quantity of material worn away by friction under specified conditions. ABS acrylonitrile butadiene styrene a common rigid plastic used for injection molding for components such as fittings absorption regarding hose the process of taking in fluid. Hose materials are often compared with regard to relative rates and total amounts of absorption as they pertain to specific fluids. accelerated life test a method designed to approximate in a short time the deteriorating effects obtained under normal service conditions. acid resistant having the ability to withstand the action of identified acids within specified limits of concentration and temperature. adapter adaptor 1 fittings of various sizes and materials used to change an end fitting from one type to another type or one size to another. i.e. a male JIC to male pipe adapter is often attached to a female JIC to create a male end union fitting 2 the grooved portion of a cam groove coupling. adhesion the strength of bond between two adjoining surfaces i.e. between cured rubber surfaces or between a cured rubber surface and a non-rubber surface. adhesion failure 1 the separation of two bonded surfaces at an interface by a force less than specified in a test method 2 the separation of two adjoining surfaces due to service conditions. adhesive a material which when applied will cause two surfaces to adhere. aerostatic testing see pneumatic testing. afterglow in fire resistance testing the red glow persisting after extinction of the flame. air flow the volume of air that can flow through a duct in a given time period see CFM air oven aging a means of accelerating a change in the physical properties of rubber compounds by exposing them to the action of air at an elevated temperature at atmospheric pressure. air under water testing see pneumatic testing. air velocity the speed at which air passes through a duct. Algaflon registered trademark of Ausimont USA. See PTFE. ambient temperature the temperature of the atmosphere or medium surrounding an object under consideration. ambientatmospheric conditions The surrounding conditions such as temperature pressure and corrosion to which a hose assembly is exposed. amplitude of vibrations andor lateral movement the distance of reciprocating motion of a hose assembly laterally. Half this deflection occurs on each side of the normal hose centerline. anchor a restraint applied to eliminate motion and resist forces. angular displacement displacement of two parts defined by an angle. annular refers to the convolutions on a hose that are a series of complete circles or rings located at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the hose sometimes referred to as bellows. anodize anodized an electrolytic process used to generate controlled oxidation for protective or cosmetic coatings in a variety of colors on metal primarily used with aluminum. ANSI American National Standards Institute. anti-static product designed to reduce the build-up of static electricity in the application not measurable with a standard ohm meter 10 8 or higher ohms see static conductive. API American Petroleum Institute application working pressure unique to customers application. See pressure working. application the service conditions that determine how a hose assembly will be used. Aramid fibers a class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers in which the chain molecules are highly oriented along the fiber axis so the strength of the chemical bond can be exploited. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 61 Section 14 Appendices Appendix A Pressure Conversion Chart psi Atms inches H2O inches Hg mm Hg Torr mbar Bar Pa Nm2 kPa MPa 1 0.0681 27.71 2.036 51.715 68.95 0.0689 6895 6.895 0.0069 14.7 1 407.2 29.92 760 1013 1.013 101325 101.3 0.1013 0.0361 0.00246 1 0.0735 1.866 2.488 0.00249 248.8 0.249 0.00025 0.4912 0.03342 13.61 1 25.4 33.86 0.0339 3386 3.386 0.00339 0.01934 0.001316 0.536 0.0394 1 1.333 0.001333 133.3 0.1333 0.000133 0.0145 0.000987 0.4012 0.0295 0.75 1 0.001 100 0.1 0.0001 14.504 0.987 401.9 29.53 750 1000 1 100000 100 0.1 0.000145 0.00001 0.00402 0.000295 0.0075 0.01 0.00001 1 0.001 0.000001 0.14504 0.00987 401.9 0.295 7.50 10 0.01 1000 1 0.001 145.04 9.869 401.9 295.3 7500 10000 10 1000000 1000 1 To use this chart 1. Locate the column with the units you want to convert from. 2. Move DOWN that column until you locate the 1. 3. Move HORIZONTALLY to the column with the units you want to convert to. 4. MULITIPLY the number in the box by the amount you are changing from to get the converted value. Length 1 cm 0.3937 in 10 mm 0.01 m 1 m 3.2808 ft 1000 m 100 cm 1 in 2.540 cm 25.40 mm 1 ft 30.48 cm 0.3048 m Volume 1 L 0.0353 ft3 1 L 0.2642 gal 1 L 61.025 in3 1 L 0.001 m3 1 ft3 28.3286 L 1 Gal 0.1336 ft3 Pressure 1 psi 0.0681 atm 1 psi 27.71 in H2O 1 psi 703.8 mm H2O 1 psi 2.036 in Hg 1 psi 51.715 mm Hg torr 1 psi 68.95 mbar 1 psi 0.0689 bar 1 psi 6895 Pa nm2 Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD62 1psi 6.895 kPa 1 psi 0.0069 MPa Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 63 Appendix B Additional Conversion Charts Length Conversion Constants Metric to U.S. Millimeters x .039370 inches Meters x 39.370 inches Meters x 3.2808 feet Meters x 1.09361 yards Kilometers x 3280.8 feet Kilometers x .62137 Statute Miles Kilometers x .53959 Nautical Miles Weight Conversion Constants Metric to U.S. Grams x 981 dynes Grams x 15.432 grains Grams x .03527 ounces Avd. Grams x .033818 fluid ounces water Kilograms x 35.27 ounces Avd. Kilograms x 2.20462 pounds Avd. Metric Tons 1000 Kg. x 1.10231 Net Ton 2000 lbs. Metric Tons 1000 Kg. x .98421 Gross Ton 2240 lbs. Area Conversion Constants Metric to U.S. Square Millimeters x .00155 square inches Square Centimeters x .155 square inches Square Meters x 10.76387 square feet Square Meters x 1.19599 square yards Hectares x 2.47104 acres Square Kilometers x 247.104 acres Square Kilometers x .3861 square miles U.S. to Metric Inches x 25.4001 millimeters Inches x .0254 meters Feet x .30480 meters Yards x .91440 meters Feet x .0003048 kilometers Statute Miles x 1.60935 kilometers Nautical Miles x 1.85325 kilometers U.S. to Metric Dynes x .0010193 grams Grains x .0648 grams Ounces Avd. x 28.35 grams Fluid Ounces Water x 29.57 grams Ounces Avd. x .02835 kilograms Pounds Avd. x .45359 kilograms Net Ton 2000 lbs. x .90719 Metric Tons 1000 Kg. Gross Ton 2240 Ibs. x 1.101605 Metric Tons 1000 Kg. U.S. to Metric Square Inches x 645.163 square millimeters Square Inches x 6.45163 square centimeters Square Feet x .0929 square meters Square Yards x .83613 square meters Acres x .40469 hectares Acres x .0040469 square kilometers Square Miles x 2.5899 square kilometers Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD64 Appendix C Hose Materials Rubber To provide a wide range of physical properties for specific service needs elastomers are mixed with various chemicals. There are many compounding ingredients and compounding methods available to the hose manufacturer and many types can be blended in almost unlimited combinations to obtain the most desirable properties for the application. The reader is cautioned that the General Properties described are just that properties which have been found to be generally applicable in the experience of persons familiar with rubber chemistry. However the reader should always follow the manufacturers recommendation as to the use of any particular rubber composition especially with respect to the resistance of the rubber composition to the materials it is intended to carry or protect against. Failure to do so may result in possible damage to property andor serious bodily injury. Rubbers Used In Hose ASTM Designation D1418 Common Name Composition General Properties ABR Acrylics Acrylate-butadiene Excellent for high temperature oil and air resistance. Poor cold flow and low temperature resistance. Not recommended for water service. AEM Ethylene acrylic Ethylene methyl acrylate copolymer Excellent high temperature ozone and oil resistance AU Urethane Polyester Excellent abrasion tear and solvent resistance good aging. Poor high temperature properties. BIIR Bromobutyl Brominated isobutylene-isoprene Same general properties as Butyl see IIR below BR Polybutadiene Butadiene Excellent low temperature and abrasion properties. High resilience. CIIR Chlorobutyl Chlorinated isobutylene-isoprene Same general properties as Butyl see IIR below CM Chlorinated polyethylene Chlorinated polyethylene Good long term resistance to UV and weathering. Good oil and chemical resistance. Excellent flame resistance. Good low temperature impact resistance. CO Epichlorohydrin Rubber Polychloromethyl oxirane Excellent oil and ozone resistance. Good flame resistance and low permeability to gases. Fair low temperature properties. CR Neoprene Polychloroprene Good weathering resistance flame retarding. Moderate resistance to petroleum based fluids. Good physical properties. CSM Hypalon Chlorosulfonyl- Polyethylene Excellent ozone weathering and acid resistance. Good abrasion and heat resistance. Good resistance to petroleum based fluids. Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 65 Plastics Used in Hose Fabrics Overview Textile fabrics used as reinforcement in hose construction provide the strength to achieve the desired resistance to internal pressure or to provide resistance to collapse or both. The properties of a fabric depend on the construction and the material from which the yarn is made and on the type of weave used. One common hose fabric is woven from warp yarns which run lengthwise and fill yarns which run cross-wise. Usually they are woven at right angles to each other. The most common weave is known as plain weave where the warp and fill yarns cross each other alternatively. Other weaves used though to a lesser degree are twill basket weave and leno. Leno weave is used mainly where the fabric must be distorted in the hose as in certain types of curved hose. Leno also provides a means for better adhesion than other patterns. Woven Cord is a special type of hose reinforcement. The warp cords are strong while the fill yarn is very fine and merely holds the cords in position. This is often called tire cord because this type of construction is commonly used in reinforcing tires. Woven cord provides strength in one direction only. When woven cord is used a minimum of two layers are applied in alternate directions. To adhere to the tube and cover of the hose the fabric must be rubberized. The fabric is either frictioned or coated with a thin layer of rubber. Before rubberizing some fabrics are treated with liquid adhesive. Fibers Used in Hose Yarns Wires Appendix D Nomographic Flow Chart Maximum pressure line velocity suggestions may vary. Please consult your hose manufacturer for specific recommendations. Chart not to scale Appendix E Coupling Thread Configurations Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD66 Appendix F Hydraulic Audit List Product Information Inspection and Audit Data PROCESS INSPECTION CHARACTERISTIC METHOD SPEC TOL ACTUAL MEASURED Incoming Couplings Packing List Labels Content Visual GoNo Go Corrosion Visual GoNo Go Appearance Visual GoNo Go Damaged Threads Visual GoNo Go Swivels Rotate Hands GoNo Go O-Ring Location Condition Visual GoNo Go Incoming Hose Packing List Labels Content Visual GoNo Go Cover Dirt or Damage Visual GoNo Go Internal Dirt or Damage Visual GoNo Go Uniform Wall Thickness Visual GoNo Go Hose ID Plug Gage - 0.030 Number of Braids Visual - 0 Hose Cut Length Tape - 1 Square Protractor - 5 Cut Appearance Visual Clean Cut Skive or Buff Wire Color Visual Not Blue Reinforcement Layer Visual Undisturbed SkiveBuff Length Tape - 0.030 SkiveBuff OD Caliper - 0.020 Crimp Stem Insertion Depth JigMark GoNo Go Correct Die Visual GoNo Go Crimp OD Caliper - 0.010 Orientation Protractor - 2 SleeveGuard Fastened Appearance Visual GoNo Go Final Inspection Length Tape - 0.13 Verify Assembly was Cleaned Visual GoNo Go Caps Visual GoNo Go Swivels Rotate Visual GoNo Go Labels and Marking Visual GoNo Go CUSTOMER PRODUCT NO QUANTITY PO NUMBER COUPLING A HOSE TYPE COUPLING B SLEEVEGUARD Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 67 Appendix G Relevant ARPM was RMA Publications To purchase copies of ARPM hose publications as listed below go to httpwww.arpminc.comPUBLICATIONS.html. Publication No. Specifications Provides complete information onthe construction application and testing of the respective hose type IP-7 Specifications for Rubber Welding Hose IP-8 Specifications for Rubber Hose for Oil Suction and Discharge IP-14 Specifications for Anhydrous Ammonia Hose IP-11 Hose Technical Bulletins Provides Summary requirements for the maintenance testing and inspection of the respective hose type IP-11-1 Steam Hose IP-11-2 Anhydrous Ammonia Hose IP-11-4 Oil Suction and Discharge Hose IP-11-5 Welding Hose IP-11-7 Chemical Hose IP-11-8 Petroleum Service Station Gasoline Dispensing Hose and Hose Assemblies Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD68 Appendix H References ANSI American National Standards Institute Attn Customer Service 25 West 43 rd Street New York NY 10036 Phone 212 642-4900 Fax 212 398-0023 E-mail infoansi.org Internet httpwww.ansi.org ARPM Association for Rubber Products Manufacturers 7321 Shadeland Station Way Suite 285 Indianapolis IN 46256 Phone 317-863-4072 Internet httpwww.aarminc.org ASME American Society for Mechanical Engineers 22 Law Drive Box 2900 Fairfield NJ 07007-2900 Phone 800 843-2763 973 882-1167 Fax 973 882-1717 973 882-5155 E-mail infocentralasme.org Internet httpwww.asme.org ASQ American Society for Quality 600 North Plankinton Avenue Milwaukee WI 53203 Phone 800 248-1946 Fax 414 272-1734 E-mail helpasq.org Internet httpwww.asq.org ASTM International 100 Barr Harbor Drive West Conshohocken PA 19428-2959 Phone 610 832-9585 Fax 610 832-9555 E-mail serviceastm.org Internet httpwww.astm.org CFIA Canadian Food Inspection Agency Phone 1-800-442-2342 Email cfiamasterinspection.gc.ca httpwww.inspection.gc.caenglishtoce.sht ml CSB Chemical Safety Board 2175 K Street NW Suite 400 Washington DC 20037 Phone 202 261-7600 Fax 202 261-7650 Internet httpwww.csb.gov Compass Publications Compass Publications 7731 Lookout Drive La Jolla CA 92037 Phone 858 551-9240 Fax 858 551-9340 Internet httpwww.compasspublications.com Document Center Inc. 111 Industrial Road Suite 9 Belmont CA 94002 Phone 650 591-7600 Fax 650 591-7617 E-mail mailtoinfodocument-center.com Internet httpwww.document-center.com Global Engineering Documents 15 Inverness Way East Englewood CO 80112 Phone 800 854-7179 303 397-7956 Fax 303 397-2740 Email globalihs.com Internet httpwww.ihs.com Government Printing Office 732 North Capitol St. NW Washington DC 20401 Phone 202 512-0000 Email webteamgpo.gov Internet httpwww.gpo.gov International Fluid Power Association IFPS P.O. Box 1420 Cherry Hill NJ 08034 Ph 856-489-8983 Fax 856-424-9248 Internet httpwww.ifps.org Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD 69 NAHAD The Association for Hose and Accessories Distribution 105 Eastern Ave. Suite 104 Annapolis MD 21403-3300 Toll Free 1-800-624-2227 Phone 410 940-6350 Fax 410 263-1659 E-mail nahadnahad.org Internet httpwww.nahad.org NFPA National Fire Protection Association 1 Batterymarch Park Quincy Massachusetts USA 02169-7471 Tel 1 617 770-3000 Internet www.nfpa.org RMA Rubber Manufacturers Association co The Mail Room P.O. Box 3147 Medina OH 44258-3147 Phone 800 325-5095 330 723-2978 Fax 330 725-0576 E-mail informa.org Internet httpwww.rma.org SAE Society of Automotive Engineers 400 Commonwealth Drive Warrendale PA 15096-0001 Phone 877 606-7323 Fax 724 776-0790 Email customerservicesae.org Internet httpwww.sae.org UL Underwriters Laboratory 2600 N.W. Lake Rd. Camas WA 98607-8542 Telephone 1.877.UL.HELPS 1.877.854.3577 Fax 1.360.817.6278 E-mail cec.usus.ul.com Internet httpwww.ul.com USP United States Pharmacopia 12601 Twinbrook Parkway Rockville Maryland 20852-1790 USA Tel 1-800-227-8772 1-301-881-0666 Internet httpwww.usp.org Copyright 2012 by the Association for Hose Accessories Distribution Inc. NAHAD70 Appendix I Industrial Hose Pressure Ratings Chart Notes 1. Values represent typical expected pressure ratings at 70F for a new hose assembly when properly assembled. Ratings apply to metallic fittings and attachments only. Values may be higher if using parts that have been tested by a Hose Safety Institute Manufacturer or Distributor to meet higher component pressure ratings. The pressure rating for the assembly should always be equal to the lowest pressure-rated component. It is suggested that the hose couplings and attachment methods used in the assembly meet or exceed the working pressure of the hose. In cases where this is not followed it is suggested that a tag be used identifying the actual working pressure of the hose assembly based on the lowest pressure rating of the various components. 2. Please note that assembly testing should always be used to verify expected pressure ratings. Variations in assembly component materials or fabrication techniques will impact the resultant pressure ratings for the finished assembly. 3. When using Preformed Clamps to reach the shown pressures in this chart use the correct type and number of bands or clamps as recommended by the manufacturer andor as many preformed clamps on the assembly as the design and length of the shank will allow. Working pressure may also depend on band width thickness and material. This rating is also dependent on the type of hose barb design used with the clamp or bands used. 4. The use of Band Buckle should typically offer a slightly higher assembly working pressure depending on band width thickness material and number of bands. 5. Pressure ratings may vary when crimping or swaging the same ferrule contact your HSI Distributor to determine actual performance. 6. The pressures listed here for ground joint couplings used with interlocking clamps were obtained by using couplings with pressure ratings published by the manufacturer.